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Open for Business Open Archives, OpenURL, RSS and the Dublin Core


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Open for Business Open Archives, OpenURL, RSS and the Dublin Core

  1. 1. UKOLN is supported by: Open for Business Open Archives, OpenURL, RSS and the Dublin Core Andy Powell, UKOLN, University of Bath [email_address] Presentation to CABI staff a centre of expertise in digital information management
  2. 2. Contents <ul><li>context – metasearching and open ‘context sensitive’ linking </li></ul><ul><li>bluffer’s guides to… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dublin Core </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>OAI Protocol for Metadata Harvesting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>RSS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>OpenURL </li></ul></ul><ul><li>discussion about the benefits, problems and issues of using these standards in the publishing ‘business’ environment… </li></ul>
  3. 3. Things to note… <ul><li>this talk is about technologies… </li></ul><ul><li>…but it is not intended to be overly technical </li></ul><ul><li>you should leave with an understanding of what the key technologies are – but not necessarily be expert in them! </li></ul>
  4. 4. Things to note… <ul><li>… please feel free to ask questions as we go through! </li></ul>
  5. 5. Context: Metasearching and context sensitive linking
  6. 6. The ‘problem’… <ul><li>end-user often has access to large number of heterogeneous collections - full-text, A&I, images, video, data, etc. (e.g. thru JISC licening agreements) </li></ul><ul><li>however, experience of these collections is less than optimal: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>end-users not aware of available content </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>end-user has to interact with (search or browse) multiple different Web sites to work across range of content </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>content ‘discovery’ services not joined-up with ‘delivery’ services </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Or, to put it another way… <ul><li>from perspective of ‘data consumer’ </li></ul><ul><ul><li>need to interact with multiple collections of stuff - bibliographic, full-text, data, image, video, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>delivered thru multiple Web sites </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>few cross-collection discovery services (with exception of big search engines like Google and Google Scholar, but still some issues with use of Google – e.g. the ‘invisible Web’, the lack of metadata, keywords with multiple meanings, etc.) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>from perspective of ‘data provider’ </li></ul><ul><ul><li>few agreed mechanisms for disclosing availability of content </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. A solution… <ul><li>an ‘information environment’ </li></ul><ul><li>framework of machine-oriented services allowing the end-user to </li></ul><ul><ul><li>discover , access , use , publish resources across a range of content providers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>move away from lots of stand-alone Web sites... </li></ul></ul><ul><li>content providers expose metadata for </li></ul><ul><ul><li>searching, harvesting , alerting </li></ul></ul><ul><li>develop end-user services and tools that bring stuff together… </li></ul><ul><li>…based on open ‘standards’ </li></ul>
  9. 9. End-user services and tools <ul><li>tend to focus on library portal (metasearch) tools (e.g. Encompass, MetaLib or ZPortal) </li></ul><ul><li>but, there will be lots of user-focused services and tools… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>subject portals developed within academia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>reading list and other tools in VLE (e.g. externally hosted by Sentient Discover) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>commercial ‘portals’ (ISI Web of Knowledge, ingenta, Bb Resource Center, etc.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SFX service component (or other OpenURL resolver) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>personal desktop reference manager (e.g. Endnote) </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Link resolvers <ul><li>‘ discovery’ is only part of the problem… </li></ul><ul><li>in the case of books, journals, journal articles, end-user wants access to the most appropriate copy </li></ul><ul><li>need to join up discovery services with access/delivery services (local library OPAC, ingentaJournals, Amazon, etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>need localised view of available services </li></ul><ul><li>linking services that provide access to the most appropriate copy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>user and institutional preferences, cost, access rights, location, etc. </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. A shared problem space <ul><li>the problems outlined here are shared across sectors and communities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>student or researcher looking for information from variety of bibliographic sources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>lecturer searching for e-learning resources from multiple learning object repositories </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>researcher working across multiple data-sets and compute servers on the Grid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>a GP searching the National electronic Library for Health </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>school child searching BBC, museum and library Web sites for homework project </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>someone searching across multiple e-government Sites </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>even someone looking to buy or sell a second-hand car… </li></ul></ul>… the Common Information Environment
  12. 12. Technologies <ul><li>require global, standards-based, cross-domain solutions… </li></ul><ul><li>cross-searching </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Z39.50 – Bath Profile, a profile of Z39.50 SRW (Search and Retrieve Web-service) (Web services implementation of Z39.50) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>harvesting </li></ul><ul><ul><li>OAI-PMH - Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting </li></ul></ul><ul><li>alerting </li></ul><ul><ul><li>RSS - RDF/Rich Site Summary </li></ul></ul><ul><li>linking </li></ul><ul><ul><li>OpenURL </li></ul></ul>… and cross-domain metadata
  13. 13. Bluffer’s Guide to… Dublin Core
  14. 14. Bluffer’s guide to DC <ul><li>DC short for Dublin Core </li></ul><ul><li>simple metadata standard, supporting ‘cross-domain’ resource discovery </li></ul><ul><li>original focus on Web resources but that is no longer the case – e.g. usage to describe physical artefacts in museums </li></ul><ul><li>current usage across wide range of sectors – academic, e-government, museums, libraries, business, semantic Web </li></ul>
  15. 15. Bluffer’s Guide to DC <ul><li>‘simple DC’ provides 15 elements (metadata properties) </li></ul><ul><li>multiple encoding syntaxes including HTML <meta> tags, XML and RDF/XML (XML schema are available) </li></ul>dc:rights dc:identifier dc:publisher dc:coverage dc:format dc:description dc:relation dc:type dc:subject dc:language dc:date dc:creator dc:source dc:contributor dc:title
  16. 16. Bluffer’s Guide to DC <ul><li>relatively slow process of adding new terms to ‘qualified DC’ </li></ul><ul><ul><li>new elements (e.g. dcterms:audience) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>element refinements (e.g. dcterms:dateCopyrighted) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>encoding schemes (e.g. dcterms:LCSH and dcterms:W3CDTF </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>48 elements and 17 encoding schemes </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Bluffer’s Guide to DC <ul><li>DC can be embedded into HTML pages but almost none of the big search engines will use it! Why? Lack of trust… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>meta-spam </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>meta-crap </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>but, embedding DC in HTML may be worthwhile if your own site search engine uses it </li></ul></ul><ul><li>however, simple DC forms baseline metadata format for the OAI protocol… </li></ul>
  18. 18. Bluffer’s Guide to OAI Protocol for Metadata Harvesting
  19. 19. OAI roots <ul><li>the roots of OAI lie in the development of eprint archives… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>arXiv, CogPrints, NACA (NASA), RePEc, NDLTD, NCSTRL </li></ul></ul><ul><li>each offered Web interface for deposit of articles and for end-user searches </li></ul><ul><li>difficult for end-users to work across archives without having to learn multiple different interfaces </li></ul><ul><li>recognised need for single search interface to all archives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Universal Pre-print Service (UPS) </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Searching vs. harvesting <ul><li>two possible approaches to building a single search interface to multiple eprint archives… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>cross-searching multiple archives based on protocol like Z39.50 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>harvesting metadata into one or more ‘central’ services – bulk move data to the user-interface </li></ul></ul><ul><li>US digital library experience in this area indicated that cross-searching not preferred approach </li></ul><ul><ul><li>distributed searching of N nodes viable, but only for small values of N </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Harvesting requirements <ul><li>in order that harvesting approach can work there need to be agreements about… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>transport protocols – HTTP vs. FTP vs. … </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>metadata formats – DC vs. MARC vs. … </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>quality assurance – mandatory elements, mechanisms for naming of people, subjects, etc., handling duplicated records, best-practice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>intellectual property and usage rights – who can do what with the records </li></ul></ul><ul><li>work in this area resulted in the “Santa Fe Convention” </li></ul>
  22. 22. Development of OAI-PMH <ul><li>2 year metamorphosis thru various names </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Santa Fe Convention, OAI-PMH versions 1.0, 1.1… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>OAI Protocol for Metadata Harvesting 2.0 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>development steered by international technical committee </li></ul><ul><li>inter-version stability helped developer confidence </li></ul><ul><li>move from focus on eprints to more generic protocol </li></ul><ul><ul><li>move from OAI-specific metadata schema to mandatory support for DC </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Bluffer’s guide to OAI <ul><li>OAI-PMH short for Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting </li></ul><ul><li>a low-cost mechanism for harvesting metadata records </li></ul><ul><ul><li>from ‘data providers’ to ‘service providers’ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>allows ‘service provider’ to say ‘give me some or all of your metadata records’ </li></ul><ul><ul><li>where ‘some’ is based on date-stamps, sets, metadata formats </li></ul></ul><ul><li>eprint heritage but widely deployed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>images, museum artefacts, learning objects, … </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Bluffer’s guide to OAI <ul><li>based on HTTP and XML </li></ul><ul><ul><li>simple, Web-friendly, fast deployment </li></ul></ul><ul><li>OAI-PMH is not a search protocol </li></ul><ul><ul><li>but use can underpin search-based services based on Z39.50 or SRW or SOAP or… </li></ul></ul><ul><li>OAI-PMH carries only metadata </li></ul><ul><ul><li>content (e.g. full-text or image) made available separately – typically at URL in metadata </li></ul></ul><ul><li>mandates simple DC as record format </li></ul><ul><ul><li>but extensible to any XML format – IMS metadata, IEEE LOM, ONIX, MARC, METS, MPEG-21, etc. </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Bluffer’s guide to OAI <ul><li>metadata and ‘content’ often made freely available – but not a requirement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>OAI-PMH can be used between closed groups </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>or, can make metadata available but restrict access to content in some way </li></ul></ul><ul><li>underlying HTTP protocol provides </li></ul><ul><ul><li>access control – e.g. HTTP BASIC </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>compression mechanisms (for improving performance of harvesters) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>could, in theory, also provide encryption if required </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Bluffer’s Guide to… RSS
  27. 27. Bluffer’s guide to RSS <ul><li>simple XML application for sharing (syndicating) ‘news’ feeds on the Web </li></ul><ul><li>RDF Site Summary or Rich Site Summary (depending on who you ask) </li></ul><ul><li>‘news’ can be interpreted quite loosely, e.g. new items added to database </li></ul><ul><li>uses ‘channel’ and ‘item’ terminology </li></ul><ul><li>a ‘channel’ is an XML document that is made available on a Web-site – to update the channel, simply update the XML </li></ul>
  28. 28. Bluffer’s guide to RSS <ul><li>each ‘item’ has simple metadata (title, description) and URL link to resource (news story or whatever) </li></ul><ul><li>RSS also provides channel branding (logo, etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>three versions currently 0.9, 1.0 and 2.0 - 1.0 is based on RDF and is more flexible (but slightly more complex) (Also worth noting Atom – an attempt to resolve some of the tensions in RSS) </li></ul><ul><li>no single registry of all channels yet </li></ul>
  29. 29. Bluffer’s guide to RSS <ul><li>fairly widespread usage, e.g. channels available from the BBC, Microsoft, Apple, … as well as from several academic sites and services (RDN, LTSN, …) </li></ul><ul><li>easy to use within ‘portals’ (e.g. uPortal) </li></ul><ul><li>lots of software and toolkits available – open source and commercial </li></ul>
  30. 37. Bluffer’s Guide to… OpenURLs
  31. 38. OpenURL roots <ul><li>the context </li></ul><ul><ul><li>distributed information environment (e.g. the JISC IE) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>multiple A&I and other discovery services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>rapidly growing e-journal collection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>need to interlink available resources </li></ul></ul><ul><li>the problem </li></ul><ul><ul><li>links controlled by external info services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>links not sensitive to user’s context (appropriate copy problem) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>links dependent on vendor agreements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>links don’t cover complete collection </li></ul></ul>a library perspective?
  32. 39. The problem <ul><li>the context </li></ul><ul><ul><li>distributed information environment (e.g. the JISC IE) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>multiple A&I and other discovery services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>rapidly growing e-journal collection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>need to interlink available resources </li></ul></ul><ul><li>the REAL problem </li></ul><ul><ul><li>libraries have no say in linking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>libraries losing core part of ‘organising information’ task </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>expensive collection not used optimally </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>users not well served </li></ul></ul>a library perspective?
  33. 40. The solution… <ul><li>do NOT hardwire a link to a single service on the referenced item (e.g. a link from an A&I service to the corresponding full-text) </li></ul><ul><li>BUT rather </li></ul><ul><ul><li>provide a link that transports metadata about the referenced item </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>to another service that is better placed to provide service links </li></ul></ul>OpenURL OpenURL resolver (link server)
  34. 41. Non-OpenURL linking resolution of metadata into a link (typically a URL) A&I service document delivery service link to referenced work . reference link destination link source
  35. 42. OpenURL linking . user-specific resolution of metadata & identifiers into services reference provision of OpenURL transportation of metadata & identifiers context-sensitive A&I service document delivery service link source OpenURL OpenURL resolver link link destination link link destination link link destination link link destination
  36. 43. Example 1 <ul><li>journal article </li></ul><ul><li>from Web of Science to ingenta Journals </li></ul>
  37. 44. button indicating OpenURL ‘link’ is available
  38. 45. OpenURL resolver offering context-sensitive links, including link to ingenta
  39. 47. also links to other services such as Google search for related information
  40. 49. Example 2 <ul><li>book </li></ul><ul><li>from University of Bath OPAC to Amazon </li></ul>
  41. 50. button indicating OpenURL ‘link’ is available
  42. 51. OpenURL resolver offering context-sensitive links, including link to Amazon
  43. 53. also links to other services such as Google search for related information
  44. 55. Summary… ISI Web of Science University of Bath OPAC OpenURL resolver ingenta Google Amazon OpenURL Source OpenURL Resolver OpenURL Target
  45. 56. Summary (2) <ul><li>OpenURL source </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a service that embeds OpenURLs into its user-interface in order to enable linking to most appropriate copy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>OpenURL resolver </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a service that links to appropriate copy(ies) and other value added services based on metadata in OpenURL </li></ul></ul><ul><li>OpenURL target </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a service that can be linked to from an OpenURL resolver using metadata in OpenURL </li></ul></ul>
  46. 57. Bluffer’s guide to OpenURLs <ul><li>standard for linking ‘discovery’ services to ‘delivery’ services </li></ul><ul><li>supports linking from OpenURL ‘source’ to OpenURL ‘target’ via OpenURL ‘resolver’ </li></ul>End-user source resolver target e.g. Web of Science e.g. ingenta <ul><ul><li> ?genre=article& </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>atitle=Information%20gateways:%20collaboration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>%20on%20content &title=Online%20Information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>%20Review &issn=1468-4527&volume=24& </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>spage=40&epage=45 &artnum=1&aulast=Heery& </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>aufirst=Rachel </li></ul></ul>BASEURL
  47. 58. Bluffer’s guide to OpenURLs <ul><li>the OpenURL is a URL that carries metadata from the ‘source’ service to the user’s preferred resolver </li></ul><ul><li>resolver typically offered by institution </li></ul><ul><li>currently deployed OpenURLs are often version 0.1 - focus on bibliographic resources (books and journal articles) </li></ul><ul><li>version 1.0 (the standard) – more generic and extensible, e.g. could carry metadata about learning objects or research data </li></ul>
  48. 59. Bluffer’s guide to OpenURLs <ul><li>‘ sources’ need to maintain knowledge about end-user’s preferred resolver </li></ul><ul><li>resolvers and targets need to share knowledge about ‘link-to’ syntaxes </li></ul><ul><li>most library automation vendors will either have (or be developing) an OpenURL resolver solution for their customers </li></ul><ul><li>some open-source solutions also available – but expect to work quite hard with these </li></ul>
  49. 60. Discussion…
  50. 61. Summary
  51. 62. Summary <ul><li>protocols presented here fill space between ‘information providers’ and other services (‘portals’, VLEs, etc.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>allow integration of remote information resources more seamlessly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>allow separation of ‘discovery’ and ‘content delivery’ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>enable user-focused, context-sensitive linking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>can be viewed as ways of getting users to your site </li></ul></ul><ul><li>but… there are some issues to beware of </li></ul>
  52. 63. What can you do? <ul><li>consider exposing metadata about your content for harvesting (or searching) </li></ul><ul><li>consider making ‘alerting’ channels available </li></ul><ul><li>consider supporting use of OpenURLs for linking to appropriate-copy </li></ul><ul><li>consider how your content will be used in e-learning context </li></ul><ul><li>consider how external services ‘link to’ your resources (i.e. support persistent deep linking to your content) </li></ul>