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Library Consortia 
Dheeraj Singh Negi 
8/30/2014 1
“Consortium is cooperative arrangement of groups with a 
policy of sharing resources among members.” It is a 
strategic alliance of institutions having common 
interest. 
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, ‘Consortia’ 
means a “temporary cooperation of a number of 
powers, companies, etc., for a common purpose. It is 
an association of similar types of organizations/ 
institutions who are engaged for producing and 
servicing common things for providing services for a 
specific purpose of its users.” 
8/30/2014 2
Salient features of Library Consortia 
To eliminate problems faced by libraries to provide 
various services to users; 
To meet the thrust of information of people due to 
rapid growth of population all over the world; 
To cope up with newly generated knowledge published 
in different forms, such as printed and non-printed 
documents, electronics media on various disciplines, 
multi-disciplinary and new generated subject areas; 
To collect all documents published at the national and 
international level, because of the library financial 
crunch; and 
To overcome language barriers. 
8/30/2014 3
Need for Library Consortia 
 The pressure of competition in the information market is 
enhancing and compelling information providers. 
 Reduce the cost of collection development. 
 Provides more, better, faster and cheaper services for less money. 
 Indian universities are finding it hard to maintain subscriptions to 
even core journals due to ever increasing cost of the journal 
subscriptions and also shrinking budgets. 
 Shrinking fiscal resources, price hike in scientific and technical 
journals and also social science titles. 
 Recent trends and developments in the area of communication, 
computer and information technology. 
 Improving the quality and standard of research in Indian 
universities by improving the access base of literature to them is 
essential. 
8/30/2014 4
Purpose 
 Library Perspectives: The general perception among libraries is 
that a consortium should enable libraries to purchase and provide 
access to more resources than they currently have, with lesser 
spending than what they currently spend and gain net savings in 
current spending. 
 Publisher Perspectives: Publishers look at consortia as an instant 
mass-market opportunity to expand their market base in many 
times both in terms of client base and revenues. 
 True Perspectives: Consortia models are still in an evolving phase, 
constantly affected by technological changes. Hence, consortia 
development requires an open dialogue between the two parties-libraries 
and publishers/vendors, in a spirit of partnership to help 
their common beneficiary, the end user, whose needs and usage 
alone can justify the sustenance of whatever new consortia 
models that publishers can offer and libraries can adopt. 
8/30/2014 5
Why Library Consortia? A general view 
• It was in the state of subscription spiral where library 
funding goes down and, consequently, prices go up, so 
subscriptions drop even further. 
• Budget cuts and price increase brought libraries into 
each others’ arms, and formed consortium . 
• Consortia based purchased was widely seen as a 
solution to the so-called serials crisis, and both 
publishers and librarians embraced it enthusiastically. 
• It is believed that consortium offers flexible pricing that 
offers researcher access to : 
• Multi Journal, multiyear license access to electronic 
journals on cheaper price. 
8/30/2014 6
Trends in scholarly communication 
Trends in Serial Publication and annual journal pricing: 
Over 23,700 journal titles are being published , and 
estimate of the global annual systemic cost is £174.6bn 
Elsevier, Springer and Wiley, publish 42% of journal articles 
It is estimated that some 1.59 million articles are currently 
produced globally each year, by roughly 1.92 million 
researchers 
Serial prices is increasing at about 10% per annum 
8/30/2014 7
Objectives 
Rational utilization of funds - A little more pays a lot. 
Increase the access base - More e-journals. 
Ensure continuous subscription. 
Maximize the cost benefit per subscription. 
Examine and review national and international issues such as pricing policies and copyright law. 
Bring pressure on commercial publishers to reduce the ‘growth rate’ in the cost of information 
and to bring down the unit cost of information. 
To provide more coverage of collections and facilities to provide wider access to users. 
To avoid duplication of resources among libraries of interest. 
Encourage access and sharing of unique and special collections which are available in member 
libraries. 
Recognize few libraries, so that they can take the responsibility of developing and maintaining 
collections which are of archival value. 
Develop technical capabilities of the staff in operating and using electronic publication databases. 
Reduced information cost. 
8/30/2014 8
Functions 
 Agreement for establishment of a consortium – A concrete agreement is 
needed to be established for participating libraries in consortia to achieve 
a common target. 
 Administrative of library consortium – To run the total functions of a 
consortium smoothly a statutory body is very much essential to be formed 
taking chief librarian/chief information manager from every 
library/information centre. 
 Financial control – Whether a consortium fund be created to subscribe to 
the core journals in different subjects in multiple copies at a discount rate. 
 JointWork – Prepare list of titles 
Subscribe to Core titles 
Prepare the union list of titles 
TOC services 
 Evaluation – After a certain period, the whole activities of a consortium, 
(i.e., individual as well as cooperative) must be evaluated on the basis of 
pre-determined objectives. 
8/30/2014 9
Major issues of Consortia approach 
Resource Identification 
Technology Infrastructure 
Pricing Issues 
Access Related Issues 
Licensing and Copyright Issues 
Archival Issues 
Sustainability Issues 
Usage and Usability Issues 
8/30/2014 10
Consortium Initiatives in India 
J-Gate / JCCC Consortium 
INDEST AICTE Consortium (Indian National Digital Library in Engineering Science and Technology) MHRD 
UGC INFONET Consortium 
CSIR-DST Consortium (NKRC) 
IIMs’ Consortium 
FORSA Consortium 
HELINET Consortium 
UGC-DAE Consortia 
ISRO LIBRARY Consortia 
ICICI KNOWLEDGE PARK 
TIFR Libraries Consortium 
ISI Library Consortia Deals 
STI NETWORK FOR RESOURCE SHARING AMONGST S&T LIBRARIES 
8/30/2014 11
Types and model of Consortia 
• Central Funded Consortium 
 INDEST-AICTE Consortium 
 CSIR E-Journals Consortium 
 UGC Infonet Digital Library Consortium 
 MCIT Consortium 
• Open Consortia and shared Budget 
 FORSA 
 IIM Libraries Consortium 
 HELINET 
 BJ Medical Library Consortium 
• Closed group 
 CSIR/ DST , DRDO, DAE etc 
• National Consortium 
8/30/2014 12
• Indian consortium ranges from closed to open ended . Most of the 
consortia are central funded where member libraries don’t contribute. 
• UGC INFONET Digital Library Consortia: 
• ILL through JCCC 
• Print independent + print retention 
8/30/2014 13
Chronology of Indian Consortium 
• Department of Automatic Energy (DAE) formed a 
consortium and signed up with Science Direct in 2002 
• Indian National Digital Library in Engineering Sciences 
and Technology (INDEST) 2003 
• HELINET (2003) 
• UGC-INFONET Digital Library Consortium 2004 
• Recent developments : ICAR, NML, DST, MCIT, DRDO 
etc 
8/30/2014 14
Sr 
no 
Name of Consortium Funding agency Members 
1 UGC-INFONET Digital Library 
Consortium 
INFLIBNET Centre Universities 
2 INDEST-AICTE Consortium MHRD/IIT, Delhi/ (48) institutions 
including IISc, IITs, 
NITs, IIMs ,1096 
associate members 
3 NKRC E-journal Consortium. (CSIR/ 
DST ) 
NISCAIR 40 CSIR and 26 DST 
institutes 
4 DAE Consortium Department of 
Atomic Energy 
36 institutions 
including BARC, TIFR 
and SAMEER 
5 MCIT Library Consortium Ministry of 
Communications 
and Information 
Technology 
DIT, DOT, DOP and 
their related 
organizations and 
PSUs 
6 IIM Consortium IIMs All IIMs
Sr no Name of Consortium Funding agency Members 
7 DRDO Consortium DESIDOC DRDO Labs 
8 FORSA Consortium Indian Institute of 
Astrophysics 
11 institutions 
including TIFR, PRL, 
IUCAA, etc 
9 RGUHS-HELINET Consortium Rajiv Gandhi University of 
Health Science 
All the affiliated 
colleges of RGUHS 
10 DeLCON Consortium Department of 
Biotechnology (DBT), 
14 DBT Institutions 
including ICGEB, New 
Delhi and 18 North 
Eastern Region (NER) 
Institutions 
11 ERMED Consortium National Medical Library 72 Government 
Medical 
Colleges/Institutes 
including ICMR 
affiliated research 
institutes
Sr no Name of Consortium Funding agency Members 
12 Consortium for E-resources in 
Agriculture (CeRA) 
Indian Council of 
Agriculture (ICAR) 
123 agricultural / 
animal science 
Universities / 
Deemed Universities 
/ Research Institutes 
of the Indian Council 
of Agriculture (ICAR) 
13 N-LIST Consortium INFLIBNET Centre Govt aided / non 
aided Colleges
CSIR-DST Consortium 
8/30/2014 18
INDEST 
8/30/2014 19
J Gate 
8/30/2014 20
JCCC 
8/30/2014 21

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Library consortia

  • 1. Library Consortia Dheeraj Singh Negi 8/30/2014 1
  • 2. “Consortium is cooperative arrangement of groups with a policy of sharing resources among members.” It is a strategic alliance of institutions having common interest. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, ‘Consortia’ means a “temporary cooperation of a number of powers, companies, etc., for a common purpose. It is an association of similar types of organizations/ institutions who are engaged for producing and servicing common things for providing services for a specific purpose of its users.” 8/30/2014 2
  • 3. Salient features of Library Consortia To eliminate problems faced by libraries to provide various services to users; To meet the thrust of information of people due to rapid growth of population all over the world; To cope up with newly generated knowledge published in different forms, such as printed and non-printed documents, electronics media on various disciplines, multi-disciplinary and new generated subject areas; To collect all documents published at the national and international level, because of the library financial crunch; and To overcome language barriers. 8/30/2014 3
  • 4. Need for Library Consortia  The pressure of competition in the information market is enhancing and compelling information providers.  Reduce the cost of collection development.  Provides more, better, faster and cheaper services for less money.  Indian universities are finding it hard to maintain subscriptions to even core journals due to ever increasing cost of the journal subscriptions and also shrinking budgets.  Shrinking fiscal resources, price hike in scientific and technical journals and also social science titles.  Recent trends and developments in the area of communication, computer and information technology.  Improving the quality and standard of research in Indian universities by improving the access base of literature to them is essential. 8/30/2014 4
  • 5. Purpose  Library Perspectives: The general perception among libraries is that a consortium should enable libraries to purchase and provide access to more resources than they currently have, with lesser spending than what they currently spend and gain net savings in current spending.  Publisher Perspectives: Publishers look at consortia as an instant mass-market opportunity to expand their market base in many times both in terms of client base and revenues.  True Perspectives: Consortia models are still in an evolving phase, constantly affected by technological changes. Hence, consortia development requires an open dialogue between the two parties-libraries and publishers/vendors, in a spirit of partnership to help their common beneficiary, the end user, whose needs and usage alone can justify the sustenance of whatever new consortia models that publishers can offer and libraries can adopt. 8/30/2014 5
  • 6. Why Library Consortia? A general view • It was in the state of subscription spiral where library funding goes down and, consequently, prices go up, so subscriptions drop even further. • Budget cuts and price increase brought libraries into each others’ arms, and formed consortium . • Consortia based purchased was widely seen as a solution to the so-called serials crisis, and both publishers and librarians embraced it enthusiastically. • It is believed that consortium offers flexible pricing that offers researcher access to : • Multi Journal, multiyear license access to electronic journals on cheaper price. 8/30/2014 6
  • 7. Trends in scholarly communication Trends in Serial Publication and annual journal pricing: Over 23,700 journal titles are being published , and estimate of the global annual systemic cost is £174.6bn Elsevier, Springer and Wiley, publish 42% of journal articles It is estimated that some 1.59 million articles are currently produced globally each year, by roughly 1.92 million researchers Serial prices is increasing at about 10% per annum 8/30/2014 7
  • 8. Objectives Rational utilization of funds - A little more pays a lot. Increase the access base - More e-journals. Ensure continuous subscription. Maximize the cost benefit per subscription. Examine and review national and international issues such as pricing policies and copyright law. Bring pressure on commercial publishers to reduce the ‘growth rate’ in the cost of information and to bring down the unit cost of information. To provide more coverage of collections and facilities to provide wider access to users. To avoid duplication of resources among libraries of interest. Encourage access and sharing of unique and special collections which are available in member libraries. Recognize few libraries, so that they can take the responsibility of developing and maintaining collections which are of archival value. Develop technical capabilities of the staff in operating and using electronic publication databases. Reduced information cost. 8/30/2014 8
  • 9. Functions  Agreement for establishment of a consortium – A concrete agreement is needed to be established for participating libraries in consortia to achieve a common target.  Administrative of library consortium – To run the total functions of a consortium smoothly a statutory body is very much essential to be formed taking chief librarian/chief information manager from every library/information centre.  Financial control – Whether a consortium fund be created to subscribe to the core journals in different subjects in multiple copies at a discount rate.  JointWork – Prepare list of titles Subscribe to Core titles Prepare the union list of titles TOC services  Evaluation – After a certain period, the whole activities of a consortium, (i.e., individual as well as cooperative) must be evaluated on the basis of pre-determined objectives. 8/30/2014 9
  • 10. Major issues of Consortia approach Resource Identification Technology Infrastructure Pricing Issues Access Related Issues Licensing and Copyright Issues Archival Issues Sustainability Issues Usage and Usability Issues 8/30/2014 10
  • 11. Consortium Initiatives in India J-Gate / JCCC Consortium INDEST AICTE Consortium (Indian National Digital Library in Engineering Science and Technology) MHRD UGC INFONET Consortium CSIR-DST Consortium (NKRC) IIMs’ Consortium FORSA Consortium HELINET Consortium UGC-DAE Consortia ISRO LIBRARY Consortia ICICI KNOWLEDGE PARK TIFR Libraries Consortium ISI Library Consortia Deals STI NETWORK FOR RESOURCE SHARING AMONGST S&T LIBRARIES 8/30/2014 11
  • 12. Types and model of Consortia • Central Funded Consortium  INDEST-AICTE Consortium  CSIR E-Journals Consortium  UGC Infonet Digital Library Consortium  MCIT Consortium • Open Consortia and shared Budget  FORSA  IIM Libraries Consortium  HELINET  BJ Medical Library Consortium • Closed group  CSIR/ DST , DRDO, DAE etc • National Consortium 8/30/2014 12
  • 13. • Indian consortium ranges from closed to open ended . Most of the consortia are central funded where member libraries don’t contribute. • UGC INFONET Digital Library Consortia: • ILL through JCCC • Print independent + print retention 8/30/2014 13
  • 14. Chronology of Indian Consortium • Department of Automatic Energy (DAE) formed a consortium and signed up with Science Direct in 2002 • Indian National Digital Library in Engineering Sciences and Technology (INDEST) 2003 • HELINET (2003) • UGC-INFONET Digital Library Consortium 2004 • Recent developments : ICAR, NML, DST, MCIT, DRDO etc 8/30/2014 14
  • 15. Sr no Name of Consortium Funding agency Members 1 UGC-INFONET Digital Library Consortium INFLIBNET Centre Universities 2 INDEST-AICTE Consortium MHRD/IIT, Delhi/ (48) institutions including IISc, IITs, NITs, IIMs ,1096 associate members 3 NKRC E-journal Consortium. (CSIR/ DST ) NISCAIR 40 CSIR and 26 DST institutes 4 DAE Consortium Department of Atomic Energy 36 institutions including BARC, TIFR and SAMEER 5 MCIT Library Consortium Ministry of Communications and Information Technology DIT, DOT, DOP and their related organizations and PSUs 6 IIM Consortium IIMs All IIMs
  • 16. Sr no Name of Consortium Funding agency Members 7 DRDO Consortium DESIDOC DRDO Labs 8 FORSA Consortium Indian Institute of Astrophysics 11 institutions including TIFR, PRL, IUCAA, etc 9 RGUHS-HELINET Consortium Rajiv Gandhi University of Health Science All the affiliated colleges of RGUHS 10 DeLCON Consortium Department of Biotechnology (DBT), 14 DBT Institutions including ICGEB, New Delhi and 18 North Eastern Region (NER) Institutions 11 ERMED Consortium National Medical Library 72 Government Medical Colleges/Institutes including ICMR affiliated research institutes
  • 17. Sr no Name of Consortium Funding agency Members 12 Consortium for E-resources in Agriculture (CeRA) Indian Council of Agriculture (ICAR) 123 agricultural / animal science Universities / Deemed Universities / Research Institutes of the Indian Council of Agriculture (ICAR) 13 N-LIST Consortium INFLIBNET Centre Govt aided / non aided Colleges