China’s royal tombs were filled with treasures, most of which took the form of carved jade and worked bronze objects.
Standing figure, late Shang dynasty, ca. 1300-1100 B.C.E., from Pit 2 at Sanxingdui, Guanghan, Sichuan Province. Bronze, height 8 ft. 7 in.
Spirits, gods, and the natural order
Important emphasis on “balance”
The Book of Changes (China’s oldest known text )
Ancestor worship predominant
The most powerful personified spirits in the ancient Chinese world view were those of departed ancestors.
Mask, Shang dynasty ca. 1500 – 1600 b.c.e.Bronze, life size
Daoism or 道教 (dào jiào)
major religion indigenous to the country.
“ The Way” (Dao) which is the ultimate truth to the universe.
Daoists Priests in Xian, China perform a sacrificial ritual to the kitchen god.
Laozi is the famed Chinese philosopher and founder of Daoism. Daoist nuns look out a window of Beichan Temple in Qinghai Province, China. The temple was build in the Northern Wei period (386-534).
Shang diviners heated inscribed bones to produce cracks the priest might then read to forecast the future.
Inscribed Oracle bone,ca. 1500- 1000 b.c.e. Chinese characters were inscribed in columns from top to bottom .
Yin and the Yang
Yin/Yang, “the foundation of the entire universe,” interprets all nature as the dynamic product of two interacting cosmic forces, or modes of energy.
Giant Humming bird, Nasca Culture, south west Peru, ca. 200 b.c.e – 200 b.c., wingspan 900 ft. This geoglyph was created by scraping away the weathered surface of the desert and removing stones. The giant hummingbird is one of 18 bird images pictured on the Peruvian plain.
The largest of the Caral pyramids, a site of religious rituals, near Lima, Peru ca. 2627 b.c.e .
Colossal Heads, Mexico
1200 b.c.e., Meso-America was the site of one of the largest and most advanced cultures.
“ Olmecs” (“rubber people”) by the Aztecs
THE TWO MOST POPULAR GODS SHIVA VISHNU
Samsara is the wheel of rebirth which means the soul is reborn from one life form to another.
People may be reincarnated at a higher or lower level of existence depending on their karma from their present life.
People may be reborn as plants or animals or they may be elevated to a higher caste as a human.
Death is not final for Hindus as they expect to be reborn many times .
Karma & Dharma
Karma: “action” or “deeds”
Every action produces a Justified effect based on its moral worthiness.
Karma determines all the particular circumstances and Situations of one’s life.
Dharma: ethical duty based on the divine order of reality. The word is the closest equivalent to “religion.”
Goddesses Lakshmi Saraswati
Avatars of Vishnu Krishna Rama
Ceremonial vessel with a cover, late Shang dynasty, China, ca. 1000 B.C.E. Bronze, height 20-1/16 in