Mid term review


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  • Map of ancient africa
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  • Mid term review

    1. 1. Mid-term Review 600-1450
    2. 2. Definitions of Civilization <ul><li>Society with enough economic surplus to form divisions of labor and a social hierarchy involving significant inequalities </li></ul><ul><li>The emergence of formal political organizations, or states, as opposed to dependence on family or tribal ties </li></ul><ul><li>Society distinguished by reliance on sedentary agriculture, ability to produce food surpluses, and existence of non-farming elites, as well as merchant and manufacturing groups </li></ul>
    3. 3. Civilizations <ul><li>People in civilizations looked down on any society lacking in civilization. </li></ul><ul><li>The ancient Greeks coined the word “barbarian” to describe such cases. </li></ul><ul><li>As a result of labels like this, it is easy to think of much human history as divided between civilizations and primitive nomads. </li></ul>
    4. 4. Civilizations <ul><li>distinctions based on social class and wealth increased </li></ul><ul><li>class or caste divisions, including slavery, emerged </li></ul><ul><li>patriarchal structure emerged </li></ul><ul><li>women found themselves in subordinate roles </li></ul>
    5. 5. Consequences of the Development of Civilizations <ul><li>Civilizations increased human impact on environment. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The first center of copper production in Europe, along the Danube valley, led to such deforestation that the fuel supply was destroyed and the industry collapsed after about 3000 B.C.E. </li></ul></ul>
    6. 6. The Four Initial Civilization Centers <ul><li>Civilizations developed in its four initial centers—the Middle East, Egypt, northwestern India, and northern China. </li></ul>
    7. 7. The Four Initial Civilization Centers <ul><li>Civilizations developed in its four initial centers—the Middle East, Egypt, northwestern India, and northern China. </li></ul>
    9. 9. <ul><li>3000 – 5000 BCE “civilized” and settled agrarian settlements are found in Mesopotamia and the Nile River valley of Egypt. </li></ul><ul><li>Which truly developed first is under debate. </li></ul><ul><li>Mesopotamia probably was a bit before Egypt </li></ul><ul><li>3000 BCE </li></ul><ul><ul><li>First known written languages </li></ul></ul>The Birth of Civilization
    10. 10. Mesopotamian Civilization <ul><li>3000 BCE </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Settlement within the fertile crescent increases </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contact with other cultures in the area </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sumerian cities develop </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Concentrating in the southern regions of the alluvial plains of the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Why? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most fertile soil </li></ul></ul>
    11. 12. Mesopotamian Civilization <ul><li>2800 – 2370 BCE – Sumerian kingdom building </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dominant force in Mesopotamia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Created cuneiform </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Started as pictograms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Used to record daily life </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Creation of City-states </li></ul><ul><li>Establishment of set codes of laws </li></ul>
    12. 13. Mesopotamian Civilization <ul><li>Religion takes important role in life </li></ul><ul><li>Deities are in human forms and represent some natural phenomenon </li></ul><ul><li>No separation of Church and state </li></ul><ul><li>Ziggurats – religious centers </li></ul><ul><li>Humans were subservient to the Gods </li></ul><ul><li>Gods are hard to predict </li></ul><ul><li>Art of Divination </li></ul>
    13. 14. Epic of Gilgamesh <ul><li>The Epic of Gilgamesh recounts the adventures of Gilgamesh, king of the ancient Mesopotamian city of Uruk, in his quest for immortality. </li></ul><ul><li>Composed about 2000 bce on clay tablets. One of the oldest literary works. </li></ul><ul><li>The poem is probably Sumerian in origin but was absorbed and adapted by succeeding eastern Mediterranean civilizations. </li></ul><ul><li>In the first prose passage, the goddess Ishtar tries to entice Gilgamesh to marry her; Gilgamesh’s rejection enrages Ishtar and she seeks revenge. </li></ul><ul><li>In the second passage, the sage Utnapishtim reveals that the gods once attempted to exterminate humankind with a great flood. </li></ul>
    14. 15. Gilgamesh
    15. 16. Mesopotamian Civilization <ul><li>Akkadians rise to dominance </li></ul><ul><li>Semitic speaking people from “upstream” </li></ul><ul><li>Kingdom centered at Akkad </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Near the site of the later city of Babylon </li></ul></ul><ul><li>2,300 BCE – Sargon conquers the Sumerians </li></ul><ul><li>Establishes a 200 year empire </li></ul><ul><li>External attack and internal weakness end the dynasty </li></ul>
    16. 17. Mesopotamian Civilization <ul><li>Enter the Amorites – 1900 BCE </li></ul><ul><li>Established capital at Babylon </li></ul><ul><li>Dynasty lasted for appx. 300 yrs. </li></ul><ul><li>Slavery was common </li></ul><ul><li>Hammurabi (1792-1750 BCE) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Created most comprehensive and best preserved code of laws </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Possibly the first written fully codified laws </li></ul></ul>
    17. 18. Ancient Egypt <ul><li>Centered along the Nile River and its tributaries </li></ul><ul><li>Nile River is 4,000 miles long flowing from Khartoum to the Mediterranean </li></ul><ul><li>Flood cycle of the Nile helped shape ancient Egyptian life </li></ul><ul><li>Protected by location </li></ul><ul><li>Originally divided into two kingdoms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Upper Egypt – river valley </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lower Egypt – river delta </li></ul></ul>
    18. 20. Ancient Egypt <ul><li>Menes unified Upper and Lower Egypt in appx. 3000 BCE, establishing the first Egyptian Dynasty </li></ul><ul><li>Capital located at Memphis </li></ul><ul><li>King or Pharaoh was considered divine </li></ul><ul><li>Entire society was organized under the Pharaoh – trade, labor, religion… </li></ul>
    19. 21. Ancient Egypt <ul><li>Old Kingdom (2700-2200 BCE) </li></ul><ul><li>Adopted the pictograph from from the Mesopotamians </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hieroglyphics </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Had intricate religious and afterlife detail </li></ul><ul><li>Instituted magnificent burial practices to evidence the power of the Pharaoh </li></ul>
    20. 22. Indus Valley civilization
    21. 23. Indus Valley Civilization Dravidians (native people) <ul><li>2500-1500 BCE </li></ul><ul><li>Settled Indus River valley </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pakistan/Western India </li></ul></ul><ul><li>3-season climate gave plentiful food </li></ul><ul><li>Archeological digging complicated by ground water </li></ul><ul><li>Language can not be deciphered </li></ul><ul><li>Most writing on small “seals” (not animals) </li></ul>
    22. 24. Indus Valley Civilization Dravidians <ul><li>Cities were well planned </li></ul><ul><ul><li>City laid out in grid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>City probably housed over 100,000 people </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many smaller towns also in the area </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oven-baked bricks (versus sun-dried of Mesopotamia) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sewer systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Great baths </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unfortified </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Religion was polytheistic </li></ul>The Great Bath of Mohenjo-Daro
    23. 25. Street in Mohenjo-Daro Well Mohenjo-Daro Structures The Great Bath
    24. 26. ANCIENT CHINA <ul><li>Great Wall </li></ul><ul><li>Began 2000 B.C.E. </li></ul><ul><li>Mandate of Heaven </li></ul><ul><li>Dynasties </li></ul><ul><li>Silk </li></ul><ul><li>astronomy </li></ul>
    25. 27. Yellow River Civilization <ul><li>Ancient China was formed around the Yellow River. </li></ul>
    26. 28. Chinese accomplishments <ul><li>During the Zhou and Shang periods, the Chinese made remarkable achievements in astronomy and bronzework, learned to make silk and create books, and developed a complex system of writing </li></ul>
    27. 29. Chinese invented silk <ul><li>Silk was exotic and expensive, so it was good for trading with the rest of the world. </li></ul><ul><li>It is made from silk worms. </li></ul><ul><li>Silk also makes “paper” </li></ul>
    28. 30. Silk worm
    29. 31. Chinese astronomy <ul><ul><li>2137 BCE - Chinese book 书经 records the earliest known solar eclipse on October 22 . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ca. 2000 BCE - Chinese determine that Jupiter needs 12 years to complete one revolution of its orbit. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ca. 1400 BCE - Chinese record the regularity of solar and lunar eclipses and the earliest known solar variation 日珥 . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ca. 1200 BCE - Chinese divide the sky into twenty eight regions 二十八宿 for recognitions of the stars. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ca. 1100 BCE - Chinese first determine the spring equinox 黄赤交角 . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>776 BCE - Chinese make the earliest reliably record of solar eclipse . </li></ul></ul>
    30. 32. In the Middle Ages the Arabs made known throughout Muslim Spain a material which was to replace all its predecessors. This was paper, whose manufacture they imported from far distant and mysterious realm of China. The first paper appeared in China about 200 BC. Its name is derived from papyrus. Silk was transformed into paper by a process of pasting, but because silk was expensive, wool and cotton came to be used instead. This invention was attributed to Ts'ai Lun. In the picture above, the manufacturing process used by the Chinese. They steeped mulberry or bamboo bark in water, then kneaded it to produce a paste from which they obtained smooth thin sheets of paper.                                                                                                                                                                            
    31. 33. <ul><li>According to Chinese political theory, every dynasty goes through the so-called dynastic cycle : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A new ruler unites China and founds a new dynasty. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>China, under the new dynasty, achieves prosperity and a new golden age . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The royal family of the dynasty begins to decay, corruption becomes rampant in the imperial court, and the empire begins to enter decline and instability. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The dynasty loses the Mandate of Heaven , their legitimacy to rule, and is overthrown by a rebellion. The Mandate of Heaven is then passed to the next dynasty </li></ul></ul>
    32. 34. Geography of East Asia Himalaya Mtns. Gobi Desert Central Asia
    33. 35. Neolithic “China” <ul><li>“ Chinese” civilization developed around two main rivers: the Yellow (Huang He) and Yangtze. </li></ul><ul><li>Around 7000 B.C.E . </li></ul><ul><li>Cultivation of agriculture led to the development of urban areas. </li></ul><ul><li>Development of dynasties. </li></ul>
    34. 37. Early Dynasties <ul><li>Xia Dynasty (c. 2070 – c. 1600 B.C.E .) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not much known, mostly legend verified by some archaeological findings. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Records of the Grand Historian (109 – 91 B.C.E .) by Sima Qian. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Early writing found on bones and shells. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Shang Dynasty (1600 – 1046 B.C.E .) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chinese culture as we discussed earlier begins to develop during this period. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>History pieced together from oracle bones. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What is an oracle bone? </li></ul></ul>
    35. 38. Oracle bones from the Shang period.
    36. 39. Anyang .
    37. 40. Politics and Society of Shang <ul><li>Primarily agricultural society ruled by a king and aristocratic class. </li></ul><ul><li>King ( 王 ; wang ) was an intermediary between “heaven” and earth. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Religious system revolved around gods in early Shang period. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Human sacrifice evolves into ancestor veneration by end of Shang Dynasty. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emergence of idea of Mandate of Heaven ( 天命 ) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Differentiation of classes: aristocrats, peasants, and slaves. </li></ul><ul><li>Writing system disseminates throughout East Asia. </li></ul>
    38. 41. Last Shang King <ul><li>King Di Xin (aka Zhou Wang; 紂王 ). </li></ul><ul><li>Added territory to Shang empire. </li></ul><ul><li>According to Sima Qian, he was given to drinking, women, and “songs with crude lyrics.” </li></ul><ul><li>Ignored affairs of state. </li></ul><ul><li>Fall of Shang Dynasty, 1046 B.C.E. </li></ul>
    39. 42. Zhou Dynasty <ul><li>Zhou Dynasty (1045 – 256 B.C.E .), named after the Zhou province, emerged in western Yellow River as a principality of the Shang Dynasty. </li></ul><ul><li>Founded by Ji Chang, son Ji Fa (aka King Wu) first Zhou emperor; claimed Mandate of Heaven. </li></ul><ul><li>Battle of Muye (1046 B.C.E .), Zhou army attacks Shang capital; Di Xin sets his own palace on fire and is burned alive. </li></ul><ul><li>Dynasty divided into Western Zhou and Eastern Zhou dynasties. </li></ul>
    40. 45. Zhou Politics <ul><li>Zhou Dynasty becomes “feudal”: Fengjian system. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Decentralized rule, emperor appoints lords and vassals as territorial governors. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eventually results in instability. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mandate of Heaven elaborated on. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not only justifies rule, but also overthrow. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ He who wins is the king; he who loses is the rebel.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Permanent rule of statecraft. </li></ul></ul>
    41. 47. Zhou Economy <ul><li>Feudal economy and land divisions </li></ul><ul><li>Development of an artisan and merchant class in the walled towns and villages. </li></ul><ul><li>Improvements in agriculture = improved crop yields = rise in population. </li></ul><ul><li>Silk trade begins with ancient Mediterranean and Middle East cultures. </li></ul><ul><li>Barter system transitions into money system. </li></ul>
    42. 48. Cosmological Beliefs <ul><li>Yang and Yin ; harmony/balance. </li></ul><ul><li>The Dao (道, Way): ethical way of living, similar to Dharma . </li></ul><ul><li>Competing schools of philosophy: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Confucianism : more philosophy than religion. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Daoism : more religion than philosophy. </li></ul></ul>
    43. 49. Confucianism <ul><li>How did Confucius (Kung Fuci) explain Dao ? </li></ul><ul><li>First, duty to family and community. </li></ul><ul><li>Second, “human-heartedness” compassion or empathy for others. </li></ul><ul><li>Third, deemphasize gods, death, and the afterlife. </li></ul>
    44. 50. Daoism <ul><li>Founded by Laozi (4 th c. B.C.E .), contemporary of Confucius. </li></ul><ul><li>Similar to Confucianism, except: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inaction over action. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Let nature take its course. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stress on deities and spirits. </li></ul></ul>
    45. 51. Philosophical developments Legalism Daoism (Taoism) Confucianism Tolerance for other ideas Concept of government Concept of human nature
    46. 52. Formation of Classical Societies <ul><li>Approximately 1000 BCE early societies emerged and </li></ul><ul><li>Achieved high degrees of internal organization </li></ul><ul><li>Extended their authority over extremely large regions </li></ul><ul><li>Elaborated influential cultural traditions </li></ul>
    47. 53. Problems of Classical Societies <ul><li>Difficult to oversee vast territories without advanced technologies of transportation and communication. </li></ul><ul><li>Military challenges arose from within classical societies themselves in the form of rebellion, civil war, or conflict. </li></ul><ul><li>External threats came from nomadic and migratory people who sought to share in the wealth. </li></ul><ul><li>Maintenance of equitable distribution of land and wealth </li></ul>
    48. 54. Benefits of Classical Societies <ul><li>Increased trade encouraged economic integration within the societies. </li></ul><ul><li>Establishment of regular commerce between peoples of different societies and cultural regions. </li></ul><ul><li>Generated sophisticated cultural and religious traditions. </li></ul>
    49. 55. The most important and prosperous of the trade routes were the silk roads that linked Eurasia and northern Africa. <ul><li>From the eastern terminus at the Han capital of Chang ‘an, the trade routes ran to the Mediterranean ports of Antioch and Tyre. </li></ul>
    50. 56. Products Traded Along the Silk Road and the Indian Ocean Trade Routes
    51. 57. Religions on the Silk Road: Buddhism <ul><li>Buddhism was the most prominent religion of silk road merchants from 200 B.C.E. to 700 C.E. </li></ul><ul><li>Ashoka Maurya spread Buddhism to Bactria and Ceylon during his reign. (273 B.C.E. to 232 B.C.E.) </li></ul>
    52. 58. Religions on the Silk Road: Buddhism <ul><li>Indian merchants spread Buddhism to Ceylon, Bactria, Iran, southeast Asia, and China. </li></ul><ul><li>Buddhism remained a merchant faith and did not appeal to the native Chinese until Buddhist monks and missionaries capitalized on unrest in China during the fifth century C.E. to spread their faith. </li></ul><ul><li>After that, Buddhism spread quickly through China and into Japan and Korea. </li></ul>
    53. 59. Missionaries Spread Christianity <ul><li>During the 2 nd and 3 rd centuries C.E., missionaries followed Paul of Tarsus’s example and worked to attract converts. </li></ul><ul><li>Gregory the Wonderworker, who had a reputation for performing miracles, popularized Christianity in Anatolia during the 3 rd century C.E. </li></ul>
    54. 60. Christianity on the Silk Road <ul><li>Around 300 .C.E. Christianity flourished throughout the Gaul, Spain, Italy, Greece, Anatolia, Syria, Palestine, Egypt, north Africa, and into southwest Asia. </li></ul><ul><li>Christian communities flourished throughout Mesopotamia and Iran, and a few Christian church appeared in India. </li></ul><ul><li>Christians did not dominate eastern lands, but they attracted many converts in southwest Asia. </li></ul>
    55. 61. Disease on the Silk Road <ul><li>The Han and Roman empires suffered tremendous losses during the 2 nd and 3 rd centuries C.E. through the outbreak of epidemic diseases such as smallpox, measles, and bubonic plague. </li></ul>
    56. 62. The Bubonic Plague on the Silk Road <ul><li>The bacterium, Yersinia pestis, is the agent for the bubonic plague. </li></ul><ul><li>The bacteria in its disease form first appeared in the east India/China border. </li></ul><ul><li>Fleas carried the disease, and their mechanism of transmittance were probably rats, dogs, or the central Asian horses. </li></ul><ul><li>The fleas were carried westward along the silk roads on the caravans, horses, camels, and dogs of the central Asian nomadic traders, and the humans themselves. </li></ul><ul><li>Many of the people who survived the plague probably passed on the resistance to their offspring, who would get a cold but not die from the bacterium. </li></ul>
    57. 63. Disease on the Silk Road <ul><li>The population of the Roman empire dropped from 60 million during the time of Augustus (63 B.C.E. to 14 C.E.) down to around forty million by 400 C.E. </li></ul><ul><li>China’s population decreased from 60 million in 200 C.E. to 45 million in 600 C.E. </li></ul><ul><li>As a result, trade decreased dramatically and the economies in both empires contracted and moved toward regional self-sufficiency. </li></ul>
    58. 64. What was bedouin society? <ul><li>Bedouin society was made up of nomadic peoples who migrated through the deserts to find grass and water for their animals. </li></ul><ul><li>The Bedouin organized themselves in family and clan groups. </li></ul><ul><li>Individuals and their immediate families depended heavily on their larger kinship networks for support. </li></ul><ul><li>Because the Arabian desert was such a harsh environment to live, cooperation with kin often made the difference between death and survival. </li></ul><ul><li>Bedouin people developed a strong sense of loyalty to their clans. </li></ul><ul><li>Clan identities and loyalties survived for centuries after the appearance of Islam. </li></ul>
    59. 65. How did Muhammad and Islam address the fundamental problems in bedouin society? <ul><li>Muhammad’s followers recorded his revelations into written texts that became known as the Quran, or holy book of Islam. </li></ul><ul><li>Muhammad stressed the rejection of idolatry and promoted monotheistic faith. </li></ul><ul><li>In Medina, Muhammad organized his followers into a unified group called the umma, or community of the faithful. </li></ul><ul><li>He provided the community with a legal and social code. </li></ul><ul><li>Muhammad led the community in daily prayers to Allah. </li></ul><ul><li>He look after the economic welfare of the umma by organizing commercial ventures. </li></ul><ul><li>He made almsgiving a prime moral virtue. </li></ul><ul><li>Muhammad and his followers conquered Mecca and forced elites to adopt the faith. They destroyed pagan shrines and replaced them with mosques. </li></ul>
    60. 66. What are the basic beliefs of Islam? <ul><li>Five Pillars </li></ul><ul><li>Acknowledge Allah as the only god and Muhammad as the only prophet. </li></ul><ul><li>They must prayer to Allah daily while facing Mecca. </li></ul><ul><li>Observe a fast during the daylight hours of the month of Ramadan. </li></ul><ul><li>They must contribute alms for the relief of the weak and poor. </li></ul><ul><li>Make at least one pilgrimage to Mecca in life time. </li></ul>
    61. 67. What motivations led Islam to transform itself from a nomadic society to a global civilization? <ul><li>Islam offered detailed guidance on proper behavior in all aspects of life. </li></ul><ul><li>It drew its inspiration from the Quran and the early historical account of Muhammad’s life. </li></ul><ul><li>It offered guidance on marriage, family life, inheritance, slavery, business, and commercial relationship. </li></ul><ul><li>Islam became more than a religion; it became a way of life with social and ethical values based on Islamic religious principles. </li></ul><ul><li>Islamic society drew much of its prosperity from commerce, i.e. overland trade, development of banks, etc. </li></ul>
    62. 68. What were the major characteristics of the Abbasid Caliphate? (750-1258) <ul><li>Showed no special favor to Arab military aristocracy </li></ul><ul><li>No longer conquering, but the empire still grew </li></ul><ul><li>Abbasid administration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Relied heavily on Persian techniques of statecraft </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Central authority ruled from the court at Baghdad </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Appointed governors to rule provinces </li></ul></ul>
    63. 69. What were the major characteristics of the Abbasid Caiphate? (750-1258) <ul><li>The Abbasids built magnificent capital at Baghdad, which became one of the great cultural centers of the world. </li></ul><ul><li>The architectural style of the dynasty was unique and beautiful. It is best represented by the mosque built in Cordoba, Spain. </li></ul>
    64. 70. How did the position of women in Islamic society change from Muhammad to the Abbasid Empire? <ul><li>With the establishment of the Quran between 651 and 652, women were treated with more dignity and were considered equal before Allah. Also, infanticide was strictly forbidden. Women gained more influence within the home. </li></ul><ul><li>Under the Abbasid dynasty, however, women lost their influence in public life and, in a large part, in the home. This happened as a result of expansion into the Byzantine empire. </li></ul>
    65. 71. What was Islam’s attitude toward slavery? <ul><li>The Quran makes numerous references to slaves and slavery. </li></ul><ul><li>Like numerous passages in the Hebrew bible and the New Testament, the Qur’an assumes the permissibility of owning slaves, which was an established practice before its revelation. </li></ul><ul><li>The Qur’an does not explicitly condemn slavery or attempt to abolish it. It does, however, provide a number of regulations designed to improve the situation of slaves. </li></ul>
    66. 72. To what extent was Islam successful in converting India to Islam? <ul><ul><li>Between 600 C.E. and 1200 C.E., India was not unified. The Gupta Empire, the last state to provide any sort of unity, collapsed in 550 C.E. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Muslim invaders reached the Indus Valley and Afghanistan in the 700’s and converted it to Islam. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In 1022, Muslim armies began the conquest of northern India. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In 1206, the Muslims captured the city of Delhi and most of northern India fell into their hands. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Muslim generals established the Delhi Sultanate. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Islam did not displace earlier faiths like Hinduism and Buddhism but joined them as one of the country’s major religions. </li></ul></ul>
    67. 73. To what extent was Islam successful in converting Southeast Asia to Islam? <ul><ul><li>As the coastal trade and shipping of India came to be controlled (from the 8th century onward) increasingly by Muslims, elements of Islamic culture began to filter into Southeast Asia. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Almost everywhere in the islands of the region, trading contacts paved the way for conversion. Muslim merchants and sailors introduced local peoples to the ideas and rituals of the new faith and impressed on them how much of the known world had already been converted. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The first areas to be won to Islam in the last decades of the 13th century were several small port centers on the northern coast of Sumatra. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>There were large Muslim communities in the cities, but not in the rural areas due to the trade networks . </li></ul></ul>
    68. 74. What were the characteristics of the Swahili city-states? <ul><ul><li>Swahili dominated east African coast from Mogadishu to Sofala </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spoke Swahili, a Bantu language, supplemented with some Arabic words </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trade with Muslim merchants became important by the tenth century </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Swahili city-states chiefs gained power through taxing trade on ports </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ports developed into city-states governed by kings, eleventh and twelfth centuries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kilwa: good example of busy city-state on east coast; exported gold </li></ul></ul>
    69. 75. What were the characteristics of the Great Zimbabwe? <ul><ul><li>Zimbabwe was powerful kingdom of east Africa </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>By the ninth century, chiefs began to build stone residences ( Zimbabwe ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Magnificent stone complex known as Great Zimbabwe in the twelfth century </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eighteen thousand people lived in Great Zimbabwe in the late fifteenth century </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kings organized flow of gold, ivory, and slaves </li></ul></ul>
    70. 76. What were the characteristics of the Byzantine Empire? <ul><ul><li>The eastern Roman Empire, centered in Constantinople, became the highly centralized government known as the Byzantine Empire; whereas in the west, the empire collapsed. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Byzantine Empire was a lot more centralized and organized than the western empire. </li></ul></ul>
    71. 77. What were the characteristics of the Byzantine Empire? <ul><ul><li>The Byzantine Empire used the Greek language; its architecture had distinctive domes; its culture in general had more in common with Eastern cultures like those of Persia; and its brand of Christianity became an entirely separate branch known as Orthodox Christianity. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Throughout Byzantine history, the emperors treated the church as a department of state. </li></ul></ul>Under Justinian, who reigned from 527 to 565, the period is known for the flowering of the arts and sciences, evident in the construction of major buildings and churches, most notably Hagia Sophia, an enormous cathedral that still stands today.
    72. 78. What accounts for the decline of the Byzantine Empire? <ul><ul><li>In the 11 th century, vigorous economic development in western Europe supported a remarkable round of military and political expansion. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Normans (Scandinavian people who had seized Normandy in northern France) took control of southern Italy and expelled Byzantine authorities there. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>During the 12 th and 13 th centuries, the Normans and other western European peoples mounted a series of Crusades and took the opportunity to carve out states in the heart of the Byzantine Empire. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>As Europeans invaded into Byzantine territory from the west, nomadic Turkish peoples invaded from the east. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>By the 12 th century Islamic invaders had seized much of Anatolia. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The loss of Anatolia- the principal source of Byzantine grain, wealth, and military forces—sealed the fate of the Byzantine empire. </li></ul></ul>
    73. 79. Byzantine Empire
    74. 80. Byzantine Empire and Russia <ul><li>Mid-ninth century, Russians started to organize a large state: Kiev </li></ul><ul><li>The conversion of Prince Vladimir, 989 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Kiev served as a conduit for spread of Byzantine culture and religion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Writing and literature and Orthodox missions spread Byzantine culture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Byzantine art and architecture dominated Kiev: icons and onion domes </li></ul></ul>
    75. 81. Byzantine Empire and Russia <ul><li>Princes established caesaropapist control of Russian Orthodox church </li></ul><ul><li>Russian culture flourished from eleventh century </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Moscow claimed to be world's &quot;third Rome&quot; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sent out many missionaries from sixteenth century on </li></ul></ul>
    76. 82. What was Feudalism? <ul><li>Historians once used the term “feudalism” to refer to the political and social order of medieval Europe. It was based on a neat hierarchy of lords and vassals, who collectively took charge of political and military affairs. </li></ul><ul><li>Increasingly, scholars are abandoning this term because it distorts and oversimplifies the understanding of a complicated society. </li></ul><ul><li>Medieval Europe was a society in which local political and military elites worked out various ad hoc ways to organize their territories and maintain order in the absence of effective central authorities. </li></ul>
    77. 83. What was Manorialism? <ul><li>A manor was also a piece of land under the control of a single LORD. The lord was given this manor land from the king, usually for his devotion to the king. </li></ul><ul><li>Because the lord was away from his manor sometimes, he hired VASSALS to help him run the manor in his absence. </li></ul><ul><li>Everything was produced on the manor. Cattle were raised for milk and meat. Sheep were raised for wool. Several fields were used to grow a variety of foods like potatoes, corn and wheat. Blacksmith workshops, bakeries, a mill, markets, and even a church or chapel was present. </li></ul><ul><li>PEASANTS and SERFS lived in huts or very small homes around the edges of the manor. Most of the work on the manor was done by the peasants and serfs. </li></ul><ul><li>During the early Middle Ages, the institution of serfdom encouraged the development of manor as the principal form of agricultural organization in western Europe. </li></ul>
    78. 84. What was the role of women during the Middle Ages? <ul><li>Women were subservient to men. </li></ul><ul><li>Women of lower classes cared for the household, bore children, and raised them. </li></ul><ul><li>One of the few peasant women to leave an individual mark on medieval Europe was the French war leader Joan of Arc (1410-1431). </li></ul><ul><li>In most parts of medieval Europe, women had some property rights. They could own and inherit land and property. </li></ul><ul><li>Women had protection, although no always equality, before the law. </li></ul><ul><li>Women could enter religious life, but they could not become priests. </li></ul><ul><li>Aristocratic women could exert much information political and cultural influence. </li></ul>
    79. 85. What were the causes of the Crusades? <ul><li>Religious fervor on the part of Muslims and Christians. </li></ul><ul><li>Geopolitical conflict between Europe and the Middle East </li></ul><ul><li>The Europeans’ desire to become more involved in the international trade network stretching from the Mediterranean to China. </li></ul><ul><li>Personal ambitions of Europeans hoping to gain wealth and land in the Middle East. </li></ul><ul><li>Racial and religious prejudice. </li></ul>
    80. 86. What was the impact of the Crusades? <ul><li>Worsening of the relationship between the Muslim and Christian worlds. </li></ul><ul><li>Greater awareness of the wider world, especially the lands of the east, that the Crusades stimulated among the Europeans. </li></ul><ul><li>Increased knowledge of and desire for the economic wealth to be gained by greater interaction with the Middle and Far East. </li></ul><ul><li>The Crusading ideal—the notion that Christian warriors were fighting a holy war on behalf of a sacred cause </li></ul>
    81. 87. What were the basic characteristics of the Olmec? Large wave of humans traveled from Siberia to Alaska around 13,000 B.C.E. By 9500 B.C.E., humans reached the southernmost part of South America Early agriculture: beans, squashes, chilis; later, maize became the staple (5000 B.C.E.) Agricultural villages appeared after 3000 B.C.E. Olmecs, the &quot;rubber people,&quot;lived near the Gulf of Mexico (1200 B.C.E. ) Elaborate complexes built The colossal human heads--possibly likenesses of rulers Rulers' power shown in construction of huge pyramids Trade in jade and obsidian Influence of Olmec: maize, ceremonial centers, calendar, human sacrifice, ball game
    82. 88. What were the characteristics of the Tang and Song Dynasties? See Sarah and Linda’s documentary.
    83. 89. What was the role of women in the Tang and Sang Dynasties? Strengthened patriarchy authority explained the popularity of foot binding which spread among privileged classes during the Song era. Like the practice of veiling women in the Islamic world, foot binding placed women of privileged classes under tight supervision of their husbands or other male guardians, who managed the women’s affairs in the interests of the larger family.
    84. 90. What was Neo-Confucianism? How did it change the political and social nature of China? <ul><li>Buddhist influence on Confucianism </li></ul><ul><li>Early Confucianism focused on practical issues of politics and morality </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Confucians began to draw inspiration from Buddhism. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Buddhism offered a tradition of logical thought and argumentation but also dealt with issues, such as the nature of the soul and the individual’s relationship with the cosmos, not systemically explored by Confucian thinkers. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Zhu Xi (1130-1200 C.E.), the most prominent neo-Confucian scholar </li></ul>
    85. 91. Describe Japan during the Heian era. 794-1185 C.E. Japanese emperors served as ceremonial figureheads and symbols of authority. Effective power in the hands of the Fujiwara family. Emperor did not rule, which explains the longevity of the imperial house . Chinese learning dominated Japanese education and political thought. The Tale of Genji was written by a woman, Murasaki Shikibu .
    86. 92. How was Genghis Khan able to build one of history’s largest empires? He formed an alliance with a prominent Mongol clan leader in the late 12 th century. He mastered the art of steppe diplomacy which called for displays of personal courage in battle, combined with intense loyalty to allies, as well as a willingness to betray allies to improve one’s position. He mistrusted the tribes and broke up the tribal organization. He forced men of fighting age to join new military units with no tribal affiliations. He chose high military and political officials not on the basis of kinship or tribal status, but rather because of their talents or their loyalty to him. He establish a capital at Karakorum, present-day Har Horin and built a luxurious palace. The early Mongol armies were large. They were also talented cavalrymen and archers. They were also quick to adopt military technology.
    87. 93. What was the impact of Mongol conquest? By Genghis Khan’s death in 1227, the Mongols controlled a large state encompassing present-day Mongolia, much of Central Asia, and northern and Western China. From 1237-1240, the Mongols conquered most of Russia and Ukraine. The Mongols invaded the Middle East in the 1250’s, toppling the Abbasid Caiphate in 1258 and advancing until 1260. Mongols imposed a single political authority, encouraged economic exchange, made travel conditions safer, and imposed legal order. The Silk Road flourished, and cities like Samarkand became crucial economic centers, with merchants, missionaries, and travelers of all professions and ethnicities passing through. Many historians refer to this brief semi-unification of Eurasia as the Pax Mongolica, or Mongol Peace.