Ncc art100 ch.8

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  • THE GREEK GODS
    The ancient Greeks believed that the beginning of all life on earth was Gaia, the Earth Goddess. Her descendants, the Greek gods on Mount Olympus, had distinct personalities, and formed alliances and enmities among themselves and with humans. They were responsible for many aspects of the natural world and human life, such as love, warfare, and the seasons. The Greek gods appear in human form, as the Greeks considered themselves superior to other religions that worshipped animals or mountains. The earliest images were stiff and frontal, without fluid movement, similar to Egyptian sculpture. Later Classic depictions had convincing anatomy and movement, but were entirely idealized and flawless, conforming to Greek standards of beauty. Our example, Zeus, or possibly Poseidon, 460–450 BCE (Fig. 9.3), is from the Classic period. Zeus, chief among the Greek gods, is usually shown as a mature bearded male with an ideal, godlike physique. His right hand probably once held a thunderbolt, an attribute of Zeus, the god of sky and storms. However, he may have held a trident, which is an attribute of Poseidon, the god of the sea. The over-life-size figure appears monumental, muscular, and ideally proportioned. It conveys a sense of action and energy and, at the same time, poise and dignity. Fully extended, the figure’s mighty body is balanced between the backward movement of his arm and its anticipated forward movement as he hurls a thunderbolt or trident.
  • HINDUISM
    In the Hindu religion, there are apparently numerous gods, but this is not polytheism because they are all manifestations, or “avatars,” of the Unbounded, or Brahman. The Unbounded is one, pure being, pure intelligence, and pure delight, and is therefore unknowable. Although never pictured, Brahman can be partially known through the human senses because all natural things, humans, and spiritual beings reflect Brahman.
    The God Shiva, one of the primary avatars, is the source of good and evil, male and female. He is the unity in which all opposites meet. He is the destroyer of life, but also re-creates it. Since the tenth century, Shiva has been often depicted in Hindu art as Nataraja, or Lord of the Dance, seen here in a sculpture from
    c. 1000 (Fig. 9.4). Shiva’s body is shown as supple, sleek, and graceful. Cobra heads form the ends of his hair, and he stands in perfect balance. As the Lord of the unending dance, he is the embodiment of cosmic energy, yet the balanced pose also contains the concept of eternal stillness. The multiple arms tell of his power, and his divine wisdom is shown by the third eye in the middle of his forehead. His far right hand holds a small, hourglass-shaped drum, the beating of which stands for creation and the passing of time. The second right arm is ringed by a coiled snake that symbolizes regeneration, while the hand itself forms a mudra, a symbolic gesture that is a sign of protection. The far left hand balances a flame that symbolizes destruction, while the other left hand points to his feet. The left foot is elevated in the dance, indicating release from this earth, and the right foot crushes the personification of ignorance. The circle of fire that radiates around Shiva shows the unfolding and transformation of the universe, and its destruction.
  • The Buddhist religion follows the teachings of Siddhartha Gautama, a prince born in India near Nepal around 563 BCE. He fled from court life to become a homeless holy man and later achieved enlightenment, or Buddhahood. The Buddha, also known as Sakyamuni (meaning “the sage of the Sakya clan”), continued to teach for the next forty-five years until his death. Buddhists, like Hindus, hold that humans are perpetually reincarnated, most often into lives of suffering, based on the deeds of their past lives. By following the teachings of Sakyamuni, humans can overcome desires and the cycle of rebirth. Then they can attain nirvana, a transformation of their consciousness from the material world to the eternal realm.
    For several hundred years after his death, Sakyamuni was represented by a set of symbols, but never as a human because he had achieved enlightenment (nirvana). In the Hinayana form of Buddhism, one symbol for Sakyamuni was the stupa which was a mound tomb. It eventually was transformed into a monument that contained the ashes or relics of a Buddha. An example of an early Buddhist stupa is the Great Stupa at Sanchi, third century BCE to first century CE (Fig. 9.5), a solid, dome-shaped mound of earth enclosed in brick and stone. The form of the mound represented the cosmos as the world mountain, the dwelling place of the ancient gods and a sacred womb of the universe. The structure is encircled with a low balustrade wall containing four heraldic gates, all highly adorned with rich carvings. The gates, called toranas, are located at the four cardinal points in the circular wall. The balustrades are also densely carved. Pilgrims would come to walk around the stupa clockwise and chant, meditate, and pray as they observed the special meanings of the carvings. The square enclosure on top of the dome symbolized the heavens, surmounted by the mast with umbrellas, called chatras, that united the world with the paradises above. The chatras signified the levels of human consciousness through which the human soul ascends to enlightenment.
  • Conceptual rather than realistic representation.
    Lamb—holds cross and chalice (symbols of sacrifices conducted by Jews in the past and current offering of bread and wine
  • Created by people of the so-called megalithic culture of Europe and it is the mightiest of the great stone circle, or henges.
    The outer circle, called the Sarsen Circle, originally had thirty standing stones. Sixteen remain standing today.
    Although bronze had already been invented and introduced in Europe at the time of construction, NO wheels, NO beasts of burden and NO ROPES other than rawhide was used to construct Stonehenge!.
    Yet these stones weigh 45-50 tons! They transported quarried stones from the Prescilly Hills over 140 miles away by means of sledges and hardwood roller, partly by water routes using dug-out canoes or skin boats, to the construction site.
    The largest blocks were moved about 20 miles down from the north.
  • it remains one of the best known landmarks of Jerusalem. It was built between 687 and 691 by the 9th Caliph, Abd al-Malik. It has been called by European travelers for centuries as the Mosque of Umar[1].
    The rock in the center of the dome it is believed by Muslims to be the spot from which Muhammad ascended through the heavens to God accompanied by the angel Gabriel, where he consulted with Moses and was given the (now obligatory) Islamic prayers before returning to earth (see Isra and Mi'raj.) A Qur'anic verse says that Muhammad took a night journey on Buraq from the "sacred mosque" (al-Masjid al-Haram) (Mecca) to the "farthest mosque" (al-Masjid al-Aqsa) (interpreted in Islam to be in Jerusalem[2]) instantaneously.
    Since Jerusalem is not mentioned by name in the Koran, many non-Muslim historians point to the concept that Umar reinterpreted the Koran to exalt his mosque in Jerusalem — which started out as a tiny wooden shrine — to show what he perceived to be Islam's superiority over Judaism. Most Muslims argue[citation needed] that since Islam is a continuation of the God's revelations to the Jews (and Christianity as well, see Jesus in Islam), therefore it is not a sign of superiority, but of the evolution of revealed doctrine. Such claims are often challenged in the light of restrictions imposed on non-Muslims.[3] [4]
    In Judaism, the stone is the site where Abraham fulfilled God's test to see if he would be willing to sacrifice his son Isaac. Muslims believe that this event occurred in the desert of Mina where millions of Muslims offer pilgrimage every year and that it was Abraham's elder son Ishmael and not Isaac who was offered for sacrifice. There is some controversy among secular scholars about equating Mount Moriah (where Isaac's binding occurred according to the Biblical narrative), the Temple Mount and the location where Jacob saw the ladder to heaven; but for orthodox Jews at least, there is no doubt that all these events occurred on this spot. It is also identified as the rock upon which Jacob dreamt about angels ascending and descending on a ladder and consequently offing a sacrifice upon. Situated inside the Holy of Holies, this was the rock upon which the Ark of the Covenant was placed in the First Temple[5]. During the Second Temple, the stone was used by High Priest who offered up the incense and sprinkled the blood of the sacrifices on it during the Yom Kippur Service.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Temple Design
    The Parthenon (Fig. 9.29) is a good example of a standard Classical Greek temple. Following a threehundred-year precedent, it is a two-room structure with pediments above the short sides and a colonnaded porch all around. It is more graceful and refined than older temples, but, like them, was covered using the post-and-lintel system. This particular style (or “order”) of temple was called Doric and could be easily identified by its column. The Doric column had no base, a simple cushion capital, and a shaft that was fluted, or carved from top to bottom with thin, vertical channels. High-quality marble blocks were carefully stacked and finished so that the columns originally appeared seamless.
    In designing the Parthenon, the architects Iktinos and Kallikrates often treated it more like a piece of sculpture than architecture. Like a pedestal, the steps form the base for the structure. They are higher at the middle of each side and lower at the corners, to counteract the illusion of sagging in the middle. Thus, the Parthenon contains optical illusions. The corner columns are thicker and placed closer to neighboring columns to compensate for the glaring bright sky behind them that would make them seem thinner. Outer columns lean slightly toward the middle of the building to make the Parthenon more visually cohesive. The shaft of the Doric column swells slightly at the middle, called entasis, to give the column a feeling of organic flexing.
  • The Parthenon was the first and the largest and built as a tribute to all gods. It was built under the direction of Pericles.
    The columns contoured slightly on the bias with a slight swelling in the middle of the column, called entasis.
    Inside the Parthenon was a 40-foot tall statue of Athena designed by Phadias. It was ivory and gold over a wooden frame.
  • The Parthenon was the first and the largest and built as a tribute to all gods. It was built under the direction of Pericles.
    The columns contoured slightly on the bias with a slight swelling in the middle of the column, called entasis.
    Inside the Parthenon was a 40-foot tall statue of Athena designed by Phadias. It was ivory and gold over a wooden frame.
  • In Christian times, the Virgin Mary replaced the cult deity statue of Athena in the cella. The Parthenon then became a Byzantine Church, then a Catholic cathedral, and then under the Turks, the Parthenon became a mosque. It was in perfect condition until 1687 CE, when the Turks kept gunpowder in the cella and it exploded.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Ncc art100 ch.8

    1. 1. Exploring Art:A Global,Thematic Approach Chapter 8 Deities and Places of Worship
    2. 2. • The supernatural realm lies beyond our senses, yet people have attempted to create symbols and pictures that express their understanding of divinity. • Art is one of many ways humans try to connect to the transcendent.
    3. 3. Animism Belief in innumerable spiritual beings concerned with human affairs and capable of helping or harming human interests. While none of the major world religions are animistic, most other religions—e.g. those of tribal peoples—are.
    4. 4. Venus of Willendorf. Stone, 43/8" high. Austria, c. 25,000–20,000 Prehistoric peoples may have believed that this small egg- shaped stone contained the spiritual force of procreation…aid to ancient fertility rituals.
    5. 5. Polytheism • Belief in many gods with distinct and sometimes several functions. Likely the first polytheistic gods, the Earth Mother is the original deity in almost all areas of the globe—the giver of life and fertility and carrier of death.
    6. 6. Snake Goddess, from Knossos. c 1700-1550 BCE. Faience, 11” Open bodice and prominent breasts tie this figure to early fertility goddesses. Snakes may represent male sexuality and/or regenerative powers connected to the snake’s shedding of its skin.
    7. 7. Zeus, Greece, 460-450 BCE, Bronze, 6’10” Zeus, chief among the Greek gods, is usually shown as a mature bearded male with an ideal, godlike physique. His right hand probably once held a thunderbolt, an attribute of Zeus, the god of sky and storms. However, he may have held a trident, which is an attribute of Poseidon, the god of the sea. The over-life-size figure appears monumental, muscular, and ideally proportioned. It conveys a sense of action and energy and, at the same time, poise and dignity. Fully extended, the figure’s mighty body is balanced between the backward movement of his arm and its anticipated forward movement as he hurls a thunderbolt or trident.
    8. 8. Greek civilizations est. city-states • Greek gods appear in human form—entirely idealized and flawless—conforming to Greek standard of beauty • Greeks considered themselves superior to other religions that worshipped animals or mountains
    9. 9. Ancient Egyptian deities • Mostly personifications of natural forces, such as the rising sun, ripening crops, Nile river. These divine beings required worship and sacrifice from humans. Most were represented as animals or animal-human combinations.
    10. 10. The Goddess Hathor and the Overseer of Sealers, Psamtik. Saqqara, Egypt, 6th c. BCE 33 11x43” • This statue places Psammetik under the protection of Hathor the cow goddess of joy and life. • He wears a big wig falling behind his ears. The seal hanging from his breast is the insignia of his profession. His kilt with a starched frontal section, is inscribed with his names and titles. • On the top of Hathor's head is the characteristic crown composed of the sun disk and two feathers (divinty) and a uraeus (sacred cobra representation of supreme power) between her two horns.
    11. 11. A hawk representing Horus, the Sky God, is on the coffin case of Tutankhamen
    12. 12. Pantheism • Belief that a divine spirit pervades all things in the universe. • Although, the Hindu religion appears to have many gods, it is pantheism, rather than polytheism. Because, their “gods” are all manifestations, or “avatars” of a divine universal spirit…Brahman the Unbounded. • Brahman is one, pure being, pure intelligence, and pure delight…therefore unknowable.
    13. 13. Hinduism • All gods are manifestations (avatars) of Brahman • All natural things, human and spiritual beings reflect Brahman (The Unbounded—one, pure being, pure intelligence, pure delight and therefore unknowable) • Shiva is the primary avatar—source of: • good and evil, • male and female • Unity in which all opposites meet • Destroyer of life • Recreatore of life • Lord of the Dance
    14. 14. Shiva (an avatar) as Nataraja, Lord of the Dance, c.1000 bronze • Cobra heads form end of his hair • Stands in perfect balance • Embodiment of cosmic energy, yet balanced pose contains the concept of eternal stillness • Multiple arms—power • Third eye—divine wisdom • Far right hand—hourglass-shaped drum— creation and passing of time • Second right hand—coiled snake— regeneration • Second right hand—mudra—symbol of protection • Far left hand—flame—destruction • Other left hand—points to raised foot— release from earth • Right foot—crushes personification of ignorance • Circle of fire—transformation of the universe, and its destruction
    15. 15. Buddhism • Rooted from Hinduism • Prince Siddhartha Gautama fled court life to become a homeless holy man. • Buddhists, like Hindus, believe in reincarnation, most often into lives of suffering, based on the deeds of their past lives
    16. 16. Stupa (one symbol of Sakyamuni) a sign of his death and attainment of nirvana. • Reincarnation • Nirvana— transformation of their consciousness from the material world to the eternal realm • Stupa—mound tomb— symbol of Sakyamuni • Mound form— represents the cosmos, swelling place of the ancient gods, sacred womb of the universe Great Stupa, Sanchi, India, 3rd c. BCE
    17. 17. Seated Buddha, Sarnath, Uttar Pradesh, India, late 5th c. sandstone, 63” Emphasis on serenity Lotus position Wheel of the Law overhead Tree of Enlightenment—foliage Preaching gesture--hands Buddha…later sects emphasized a more personal Buddha
    18. 18. The Water and Moon Guanyin Bodhisattva. Painted wood, 7'11“ high. China, Song Dynasty, c. 1100. The Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art, Kansas City. Purchase: Nelson Trust. Bodhisattva…living beings who have attained Buddhahood but have chosen to remain on earth to help others.
    19. 19. Seated Buddha Akshobhya (?), the Imperturbable Buddha of the East, 9th–10th century Tibet • The earth-touching gesture is most frequently associated with Shakyamuni, the Historic Buddha. It alludes to his victory over the evil demon Mara, who sought to disturb his meditation, and therefore his enlightenment. The position of the Buddha's other hand, with his thumb and middle finger pressed together is not associated with the Historic Buddha.
    20. 20. Seated Buddha, Tang dynasty (618–907), early 8th century China • This seated figure performs a graceful variation of the dharmachakra mudra or hand gesture indicating teaching (literally, turning or setting in motion the Wheel [of Buddhist law]). Because Shakyamuni spent more than forty years traveling and lecturing after his enlightenment, this figure could be a representation of the Historical Buddha.
    21. 21. Standing Buddha Offering Protection, late 5th century India (Uttar Pradesh, Mathura) Red sandstone; H. 33 11/16 in. • Buddha embodies the qualities of inner calm and stillness, the products of supreme wisdom. • The figure would have made the mudra gesture with his raised right hand (now missing), dispensing fear and imparting reassurance to his followers.
    22. 22. MONOTHEISM…Belief in one god and that there is no other. • Judaism—image making forbidden • Christianity—many kinds of images of God • Islam—Allah the same deity of Jewish and Christian faiths
    23. 23. Judaism…Synagogue at Dura-Europos c.245 • Chosen people • Special covenant with God, Yahweh • Second Commandment forbade images
    24. 24. Christianity • High Renaissance • Solemn composure and cross portend their roles • Human figures—dignity and serenity divine • Implied triangle, stable, symmetrical, sacred shape recalls Trinity Raphael, Madonna of the Meadow, 1505
    25. 25. Grunewald. Isenheim Altarpiece, Germany, c.1510 Conceptual rather than realistic representation. Lamb—holds cross and chalice—symbols of sacrifices conducted by Jews in the past and current offering of bread and wine
    26. 26. ISLAM Images of Allah are forbidden, the prophet Mohammed is sometimes shown in religious manuscript art. Mohammed’s Ascent into Heaven, from Nizami’s Five Poems, Tabriz, Iran, c.1539 His face is veiled out of respect
    27. 27. Humans Respond to God – Offerings – Ceremonies – Rituals
    28. 28. Offering with Cili- Shaped Crown. Flowers, fruit, and palm leaves, approximately 24" tall. Bali, c. 1985. Ancient symbol of wealth, fertility, and luck, the cili is a simplified woman’s head with a large, fanlike headdress radiating form it.
    29. 29. Retablo of Maria de la Luz Casillas and Children. Oil on metal, 7" 10". Central Mexico, 1961. A thank you note to God for successful operation.
    30. 30. Sacrifices • The bloodletting rite of Lady Xoc, of Yaxchilan, Chiapas, Mexico. While her husband, the king Shield Jaguar, holds a large torch above her, she pulls a thorn-lined rope through her tongue. Her blood drips into a woven basket containing blood stained paper, the stringray spine that pierced her tongue, and the end of the rope. The bloody paper will be burnt as offering to the gods to prove her royal lineage.
    31. 31. Ghiberti, Sacrifice of Isaac, Florence, 1401, gilded bronze • Ram is sacrificed Judeo-Christian religions recognized the offering of foodstaffs and have a history of blood sacrifice.
    32. 32. Jewish circumcision ritual RITUAL
    33. 33. THE COSMOS – Artists have attempted to create images and diagrams that account for the relationships between the elements and events of the universe. – Maps the relationship between humans and gods or delineates the origin of the world.
    34. 34. The mandala begins with a cirlce—symbol of the void before creation. In this mandala the deity Samvara erotically embraced his female Buddha consort. MANDALA OF SAMVARA (Kharamukha Cakrasamvara Mandala). Water-based pigments on cotton cloth. 23" high, 18" wide. Tibet, c. sixteenth century
    35. 35. Samvara (who rules and sets the universe into motion) erotically embraces his female Buddha consort, Vajravarahi. Samvara—blue skin, many arms— symbol of power and divinity—donkey face (because those meditating on this image learn the illusory nature of the physical body)
    36. 36. God separating the light from darkness.
    37. 37. Michelangelo’s Creation of Adam shows that human bodies are a reflection of God.
    38. 38. Places of Worship • Since prehistory, people have set aside special places for religious worship. All these places, from simple to grand, are designed to reveal something of the spiritual realm and to provide an experience beyond the normal and mundane. Across cultures and religions, places of worship may • shelter a congregation • house sacred objects • incorporate elements of nature • provide sites for repeated religious celebrations • incorporate symbolic geometry in their dimensions or the determination of their location • incorporate the concept of journey or provide a destination for pilgrims –
    39. 39. Because the Jewish peoples seldom had a permanent homeland in the early years of their history, a tent was likely their early place of worship as well as a temporary temple. In the Jewish religion, the Temple of Solomon contained the sacred scriptures called the Torah and other sacred objects. The most holy structure, called the Ark of the Covenant, was a special tabernacle—housed the Torah
    40. 40. INCORPORATING ELEMENTS OF NATURE Places of worship can be natural sites: mountains, springs, and sacred trees or groves. Mountains have been meeting places between heaven and earth or dwelling places of divine beings. Rocks can be seen as containers or symbols for spirits and deities. The earth and water are the sources or sustainers of life. Trees may be seen as sources of truth and symbols of the cosmos, existing simultaneously in the underworld, the earth, and the heavens. Fire, light, and the sun are divine symbols or sometimes spirits themselves. The Ziggurat at Ur, dated c. 2150–2050 BCE, is a sacred artificial mountain erected by the Sumerians of the city of Ur to honor their special deity from among the Sumerian pantheon of gods. Its corners point toward the four points of the compass, reflecting the movement of the sun. The word ziggurat itself means “mountain” or “pinnacle.” Surrounded by flat land, this terraced tower of rubble and brick seemed to reach into the heavens. The Ziggurat at Ur has three broad staircases, each with one hundred steps, leading to a temple-shrine forty feet above the ground, dedicated to protective gods and goddesses and attended to by special orders of priests and priestesses.
    41. 41. Nanna Ziggurat, c. 2100-2050 BCE ziggura t
    42. 42. Ziggurat of Ur c.2150 BCE
    43. 43. PROVIDING SITES FOR SACRED CEREMONIES Places of worship are sites where sacred ceremonies are performed. Sometimes there is no special architecture, only the use of the arts— music, dance, singing, literature, or the visual arts. In the southwestern United States, the making of sand paintings has constituted an essential part of Navajo religious ceremonies for centuries. These impermanent paintings are made directly on clean-swept floors of houses and are destroyed in the course of the ceremony. Very few have ever been photographed or documented; however, the rituals are fixed, and certain symbols must be repeated each time. To cure illness, ensure success in hunting, or promote fertility, the artist-priest chants and prays while making the painting using the natural elements of colored sand, crushed stones, charcoal, and pollen. The person in need sits in the center of the painting to receive the supernatural power. Sometimes ceremonies are performed for the earth itself.
    44. 44. USING GEOMETRY SYMBOLICALLY Many cultures use geometry and symmetry to symbolize divinity, all-encompassing totality, perfection, and timelessness. Such geometry may determine the placement or orientation of religious sites, or a building’s plan, layout, or elevation. Stonehenge, dated c. 2000 BCE, in Wilt- shire, England, was built at a time when religion and science were not separate but were a single, unified means of understanding natural forces. Thus, Stonehenge is likely an altar for religious rituals as well as an astronomical device that maps solar and planetary movement upon the earth. The stone arrangement marks the midsummer solstice, essential to an agrarian civilization dependent on successful crop planting. Other Neolithic stone arrangements in the area align with Stonehenge, creating a larger network that may have mapped force fields within the earth.
    45. 45. Possibly used for astronomical observations or rituals. It is the earliest example of public art in N. Europe.
    46. 46. The heel stone or Sunstone stands 256 feet from the center of Stonehenge. It's top is nearly level with the horizon on the longest day or Summer Solstice. It is an undresses stone, naturally pointed at the top.
    47. 47. STONEHENGE, Salisbury Plain, England. c. 2750-1500 BCE
    48. 48. Aerial view of the Pantheon, Rome, Italy, 118–125 CE. 50
    49. 49. Longitudinal and lateral sections of the Pantheon, Rome, Italy, 118–125 CE. 51
    50. 50. Interior of the Pantheon, Rome, Italy, 118–125 CE. 52
    51. 51. • PROVIDING DESTINATIONS FOR PILGRIMAGES • A pilgrimage is a journey to a shrine or sacred place for believers hoping to receive special blessings or deepening of faith. The concept of journey is both metaphoric and actual, as the soul’s spiritual search for understanding has been likened to a physical journey. Almost all major religions incorporate the concept of pilgrimage into their belief systems; for example, Hindus and Buddhists journey to shrines; Jews, to Jerusalem; Christians, to various sites such as Lourdes; and Muslims, to Mecca. Our first example is from the Longmen caves in China, a huge complex of cave-shrines housing thousands of sacred statues, which is a Buddhist pilgrimage destination. At Longmen, 1,352 caves have been carved into the limestone mountains, with over 97,000 statues and 3,600 inscriptions dedicated to Buddha.
    52. 52. The largest of these is the monumental Shrine to Vairocana Buddha, dated c. 600–650, who is the universal principle dominating all life and all phenomena. He is attended by demons and lesser Buddhas who govern their own worlds, a model used by tyrant emperors in China to justify their rule. In fact, the carvings at the Longmen caves were supported by imperial patronage. The Buddha at the center is serene, massive, and volumetric, with drapery defined with a few simple curves, to enhance the colossal scale of the
    53. 53. Le Corbusier, Notre Dame du Haut, a Catholic chapel in the Vosges Mountains of France, built between 1950 and 1955, is a pilgrimage destination. The design recalls praying hands, the wings of a dove, and the shape of a boat, all Christian symbols of divine generosity to humans. The shape of the structure resembles sculpture.
    54. 54. Dome of the Rock Jerusalem 687-692 PILGRIMAGE SITE…NOT A MOSQUE
    55. 55. Dome of the Rock, Jerusalem, 687-692 Sacred pilgrimage for Jews, Christians and Muslims. Oldest example of great Islamic architecture…monument to the triumph of Islam over the land of the Jews and Christians in 638. Built on rock platform the site of: Burial place of Adam Altar— Abraham/Isaac Hebrew Temple at Jerusalem destroyed by the Roman Emperor Titus in 70 Stone from which Mohammed ascended to heaven
    56. 56. • The rock in the center of the dome it is believed by Muslims to be the spot from which Muhammad ascended through the heavens to God accompanied by the angel Gabriel, where he consulted with Moses and was given the (now obligatory) Islamic prayers before returning to earth. • In Judaism, the stone is the site where Abraham fulfilled God's test to see if he would be willing to sacrifice his son Isaac. • It is also identified as the rock upon which Jacob dreamt about angels ascending and descending on a ladder.
    57. 57. Dome of the Rock Jerusalem 687-692
    58. 58. Dome of the Rock (interior) Jerusalem 687-692
    59. 59. TEMPLE COMPLEXES SACRED ARCHITECTURE Grand places of worship are expressions of temporal power, religious power, and broad cultural values. With imposing size and lavish detail, these structures are spectacles. In ceremonies, the individual is reduced to spectator, part of the throng that adds to the religious importance of the site.
    60. 60. Temple Complexes • Temple Complexes and Large-Scale Sacred Architecture: examine the history, the settings, the plans and designs of the following examples – The Greek temple – The Mesoamerican temple – The Hindu temple – The Gothic cathedral – The Buddhist temple – The Islamic mosque
    61. 61. EGYPTIAN TEMPLE
    62. 62. GREEK TEMPLE
    63. 63. FRENCH GOTHIC CATHEDRAL
    64. 64. The plans reveal how important geometry is in these designs to suggest perfection, completion, balance, and formality. Symmetry is an excellent visual metaphor for political power and divinity.
    65. 65. The plans reveal how important geometry is in these designs to suggest perfection, completion, balance, and formality. Symmetry is an excellent visual metaphor for political power and divinity. The Pyramid of the Sun is the largest building in Teotihuacan and one of the largest in Mesoamerica.
    66. 66. ISLAMIC
    67. 67. Golden Age of Greece, Parthenon built as a tribute to all gods and dedicated to Athena.
    68. 68. The columns contoured slightly on the bias with a slight swelling in the middle of the column, called entasis.
    69. 69. In Christian times, the Virgin Mary replaced the cult deity statue of Athena in the cella. The Parthenon then became a Byzantine Church, then a Catholic cathedral, and then under the Turks, the Parthenon became a mosque. It was in perfect condition until 1687 CE, when the Turks kept gunpowder in the cella and it exploded.
    70. 70. The Parthenon had two interior rooms for housing sacred objects and the treasury, rooms that only a few priests entered. Religious ceremonies took place outside, so originally the exterior was richly adorned with sculpture and brightly painted.
    71. 71. Large sculptures of the gods stood in the pediment and near the roof and a long band of sculpture (three feet six inches high, 524 feet long), called a frieze, girded the top outside walls of the Parthenon’s two inner chambers. Carved c. 440 BCE, the frieze shows a long procession of Greek worshippers climbing up to the Parthenon, with marshals, youths, maidens, musicians, jar carriers, horsemen, and charioteers, some bringing animals for sacrifice. At the beginning of the procession, the worshippers are raucous and unorganized, like our Horsemen. Gradually, the worshippers become solemn and orderly as they approach the gods. This is probably a depiction of the special Panathenaic Festival procession, which occurred every four years to bring a new ceremonial tunic to robe an ancient wooden statue of Athena.
    72. 72. • Mathematical Proportions and Greek Philosophy • In their science, geometry, art, religion, and philosophy, the Greeks were engaged in a search for perfection. For example, they believed that certain geometric ratios and certain musical intervals resonated with the cosmic order and were in tune with the heavens. Thus, builders used a consistent set of proportions to determine the length and width of parts within the Parthenon, and they balanced horizontal and vertical elements to give the structure a quality of self- containment. By not being overwhelming in size, the Parthenon also reflects
    73. 73. • THE EGYPTIAN TEMPLE • Egyptian temple design remained relatively constant for 3,000 years, and so the study of one will illustrate the qualities of many. • Setting and History • Protected by the desert, life in ancient Egypt was unusually stable. Natural cycles, such as night and day and the annual flooding of the Nile River, provided powerful symbols for the Egyptian religion. The Egyptians used symbolic geometry to demarcate sacred alignments in the landscape. East-west marked the path of the sun god, Re, symbolizing life, death, and resurrection. The north-south axis paralleled the Nile River. Generally, cult temples, which were used to worship gods, were located on the east bank of the Nile, like the rising sun, while funerary temples were on the west. Cult temples were often parts of large sacred cities. Successive pharaohs would add new temples to the complex or expand existing ones.
    74. 74. Great Pylon of the Horus Temple at Edfu…sacred cult image of the sun falcon Pylon (pie-lan) truncated pyramid form usu. seen in Egyptian monumental gates.
    75. 75. The first of many Hypostyle Halls in the Horus Temple at Edfu, Egypt, c.237 bce The central columns are 66’ high and the capitals are 22’ in diameter…large enough to hold 100 people.
    76. 76. • Hypostyle Hall Model, Karnak 1890 Location: Metrapolitan Museum of Art
    77. 77. Kandarya Mahadeva Temple. Khajuraho, India, tenth–eleventh centuries. This is one of thirty temples at this site, dedicated to Shiva, Vishnu, or Mahavira. Main tower is 130' high. An artificial mountain that surmounts the small, dark womb-chamber. The basic shapes are symbols of male and female sexuality, representing sexual energy and the procreative urge. Then they proliferate…
    78. 78. Reconstruction drawing of the Basilica Nova (Basilica of Constantine), Rome, Italy, ca. 306–312 CE. 80
    79. 79. Gothic nave elevations Laon Paris Chartres Amiens Arcade Gallery Triforium Clerestory
    80. 80. West facade of Chartres Cathedral Chartres, France begun 1134, rebuilt beginning 1194
    81. 81. Plan of Chartres Cathedral Chartres, France as rebuilt after 1194
    82. 82. Virgin and Child and Angels (Notre Dame de la Belle Verrière) choir of Chartres Cathedral Chartres, France ca. 1170 stained glass 16 ft. x 7 ft. 8 in.
    83. 83. Triforium wall of the nave Chartres Cathedral Chartres, France ca. 1200-1260
    84. 84. Rose Window and lancets north transept of Chartres Cathedral Chartres, France ca. 1220 stained glass rose approximately 43 ft. in diameter
    85. 85. Other Expressions of Temple Structures • Temporal power • Religious power • Broad cultural values • Scale, design, symmetry – Suggest perfection, completion, balance, and formality – Symmetry is metaphor for political power and divinity
    86. 86. Symbols • Islam—sphere and dome (heavens and oneness with God), calligraphy (God) • Hindu—circle (unknowable Supreme Being • Christianity—triangle (trinity), light (God) • Sun—both symbol and deity • Jesus—lamb • Holy Spirit—dove or fire • Earth—female force to generate life
    87. 87. Animal features or natural phenomena can represent, act as metaphors for, or symbolize deiities. • Cow—Hathor (goddess of the heavens), India’s sacred cow (fertility/abundance) • Serpent—snake, cobra (royalty and supreme power) • Bird—Hawk (Horus-Sky God) • Lamb • Ram—W. Africa thunder god Shango
    88. 88. Images of Spiritual Beings – Early deities – Egyptian deities – The Greek gods – Hinduism – Buddhism – Judaism – Christianity – Gods for special purposes

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