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Art of india

  1. 1. The Art of India From 2700 BCE to 1947
  2. 2. This is India
  3. 3. TIME CHART • Indus Valley Civilization (c. 2700-1200 BCE) • The Vedic Period (1500-322 BCE) Aryan Invasions (c. 1500-1000 BCE) Upanishads developed (800-600 BCE) Mahavira, founder of Jainism (599- 527 BCE) The historic Buddha (c. 563-483 BCE) Alexander the Great campaigns in Gandara (327-326 BCE) • Maurya Period (322-185 BCE) Emperor Ashoka (269-232 BCE) Shunga Period (185-72 BCE) • Andhra Period (70 BCE-320 CE) • Kushan Period (30-320 CE)
  4. 4. TIME CHART • Gupta Period: North India (320-500 CE) • Pallava Period: South India (500-750 CE) • Chola Kingdom (846-1173) • Mughal Empire: North India (1526-1858) • British Rule (1858-1947)
  6. 6. The Indus Valley • Indus Valley or Harappan civilization: earliest Indian civilization around the Indus River (present day Pakistan, Afghanistan, northwest India) • After Harappa– one of its major cities • Dated to around 2700-1200 BCE • As old as the Sumerians, Akkadians, and Old Babylonians in Mesopotamia, Minoan civilization in Aegean Sea and Middle and Late Kingdoms in Egypt
  7. 7. Map of modern day Indus Valley
  8. 8. Indus Valley Civilization • Economy based on cultivation (wheat, barley, peas) • Trade with Mesopotamia and the west • No royal tomb, palace, or large public artwork • Found were well-planned cities with walled neighborhoods, broad avenues, granaries and baths Dholavira house complexes
  9. 9. Indus Valley Civilization • Wooden and kiln-fired brick buildings in the most excavated city, Mohenjo-daro (City of the Dead) • Had about 35,000 inhabitants • Houses were up to 3 stories tall and built around central courtyards • A large bath with brick floor provided water for local residences, general bathing and ritual purification ceremonies
  10. 10. Indus Valley Civilization Unicorn Bison or bull Found were roughly 2,000 seals Rectangular and carved from fine-grained steatite, a soft greenish-gray stone Unified composition of linear and modeled forms Calm and fluid anatomies of animals
  11. 11. Indus Valley Civilization • This type of seal with the horned deity, wearing bangles on both arms and seated in yogic position on a throne, appears at the larger Indus sites during the final phase of the Harappan period, circa 2000–1900 B.C. • The nude image appears to have three faces and is bearded. It wears a headdress of wide, spreading bull or water-buffalo horns, which has a triple-leafed branch sprouting from the center. • Five signs of the Indus script appear on either side of the headdress. The figure wears seven bangles on the left arm and six on the right, with the hands resting on the knees. The heels are pressed together under the groin, and the feet project beyond the edge of the throne. The feet of the throne are carved with the hoof of a bovine as on the bull and unicorn seals. • Because of similarities in a few iconographic elements, some scholars have suggested that this seated figure represents an early form of the Hindu deity Siva, specifically in his role as the master of animals— ”Pasupati Nath”—although there is no confirmed connection between the horned figure on the Indus seals and later Hindu deities. He may rather be a divine bull-man. /stamp-seal-with-a-seated-male-figure-ca Stamp seal with a seated male figure, ca. 2000–1900 B.C.; Harappan. Indus Valley, Mohenjo-daro, DK 12050. Indus inscription. Steatite; L. 2.7 cm (1 1/8 in.); W. 2.7 cm (1 1/8 in.). Islamabad Museum, Islamabad NMP 50.296. Courtesy of the Department of Archaeology and Museums, Ministry of Minorities, Culture, Sports, Tourism, and Youth Affairs, Government of Pakistan.
  12. 12. Indus Valley Civilization • Figures in seated yoga position: yogin (holy man), yogini (holy woman) • These images would reappear later in Buddhist or Hindu art • Yoga is practiced by members of many religion in India • Its purpose is to “yoke” (attach) oneself to universal, divine forces • Continuity of Indus Valley civilization with later periods of Seal discovered during excavation of the Indian history Mohenjodaro archaeological site in the Indus Valley has drawn attention as a possible representation of a "yogi" or "proto-Shiva" figure
  13. 13. Indus Valley Civilization • Their script has 400 known signs and remains undeciphered • The characters are largely pictorial and includes many abstract signs • Over the years, numerous decipherments • have been proposed, but none have been accepted by the scientific community at large. The following factors are usually regarded as the biggest obstacles for a successful decipherment: • The underlying language has not been identified though some 300 loanwords in the Rigveda are a good starting point for comparison. • The average length of the inscriptions is less than five signs, the longest being only 17 signs (and a sealing of combined inscriptions of just 27 signs). • No bilingual texts (like a Rosetta Stone) have been found. Linguistic or nonlinguistic? 10 Indus scripts found Near the northern gateway of the citadel Dholavira
  14. 14. Indus Valley Civilization Male torso from Harappa Artist unknown Location (Architecture): Harappa Culture of Origin: Indus Valley Medium: Limestone Patron: National Museum, New Delhi Approximate date: 2500 - 1500 B.C.E Description: The sculpture shows a dancing male person. There is a theory that the figure may have had several heads, because the pose of the figure is identical to the pose of Shiva, the Lord of Dance, created several thousands years after.
  15. 15. Indus Valley Civilization “Dancing Girl” Culture of Origin: Indus Valley Medium: bronze Patron: National Museum, New Delhi Height: 14 cm Approximate date: 2500 - 1500 B.C.E Discovered: 1926 in Mohenjo-daro Description: These depictions of women were widespread. Vast amounts of those figures were found in Mohenjo-Daro. The women in those figures are almost nude. They are believed to be devoted to a power of fertility of women. This proves their knowledge of metal blending, casting and other methods.
  17. 17. Vedic Period • 1500-1000 BCE – migration to India of Aryan-speaking people from northwest • Sanskrit –Aryan language • Sanskrit became the classic literary language of India • Used today in sacred texts
  18. 18. Vedic Period • Aryan hierarchical order • Warriors (kshatriya) at the apex • Provided the basis for the religiously sanctioned social class (or caste) system that persisted throughout Indian history
  19. 19. Vedic Period • Vedas—ancient poetic hymns and philosophical writings directed to the gods • Vedas deities are representations of natural forces such as Indra (thunder), Varuna (sky) and Surya (the sun) • It is believed that the Aryans were aniconic, that is, they did not employ, permit, or make images in their art. Or simply their art did not survive due to perishable materials.
  20. 20. Vedic Period • Bhramanas and Upanishads (c. 800-600 BCE),new philosophical texts, reflected Aryan and non- Aryan ideas • Expansion of the cryptic Vedic hymns • Explained the relationship of the individual to the universe
  21. 21. Vedic Period • These texts outlined the principles of the brahman (universal soul) and the system of reincarnation (samsara) • Samsara—the cycle in which the atman (interior soul or self) within all sentient beings returns again and again in human or animal bodies. • Ultimate goal of the atman – release from the cycle of rebirths samsara
  22. 22. Vedic Period • The Upanishads explain the principle of dharma • Dharma – what one ought to do according to one’s station in life • Karma – a person’s actions and the effects they have on the progress of his her atman in future bodies • Buddhism, Hinduism and Jainism adapted these ideas. Hinduism: dharma signifies behaviors that are considered to be in accord with rta, the order that makes life and universe possible, and includes duties, rights, laws, conduct, virtues and ‘‘right way of living’. Buddhism: dharma means "cosmic law and order“ Jainism: dharma refers to the teachings of the Jinas and the body of doctrine pertaining to the purification and moral transformation of human beings. Sikhism: the word dharm means the "path of righteousness.”
  23. 23. BUDDHIST ART
  24. 24. Maurya Period • Maurya Period (322-185 BCE) • Chandragupta Maurya – founder of the Mauryan Dynasty • Ashoka – Chandragupta’s grandson became ruler from 273-232 BCE and solidified Mauryan rule through bloody battles • He converted to Buddhism Emperor Ashoka
  25. 25. Maurya Period • Ashoka commissioned works that reflect Greek and Persian influences. • Erected a series of pillars throughout the empire bearing edicts and Buddhist teachings. Pillar edict on the ridge near Hindu Rao hospital, the second pillar shifted from Meerut to Delhi, known as the Delhi-Meerut Pillar Asokan pillar at Vaishali, Bihar, India
  26. 26. Maurya Period • Ashoka may have imported sculptors from Persia and the nearby Hellenistic kingdom of Bactria to work on his art projects. • The lion symbolize the Buddha as Shakyamuni (sage of the Sakya clan) and the world quarters or directions radiating out from the column over which the Mauryan and Buddhist laws extended. • Dharmacakra– large wheel which represents the Wheel of Life or the Sun (Buddha as Light) • At this point, Buddha only appeared in symbolic form such as the wheel. Lion capital of a column erected by Emperor Ashoka. Polished sandstone. Pataliputra, India
  27. 27. Maurya Period • Base is an inverted, bell-shaped lotus which is a symbol of purity of the divine when it manifests in the material world. • The Mahabodhi Temple (Literally: "Great Awakening Temple"), is a Buddhist temple in Bodh Gaya (a UNESCO World Heritage Site), marking the location where Siddhartha Gautma, the Buddha, is said to have attained enlightenment. Bodh Gaya (located in Gaya district) is located about 96 km (60 mi) from Patna , Bihar state, India.
  28. 28. Shunga Period • Shunga Period (185-72 BCE) • After the fall of the Mauryan dynasty, the Shunga dynasty (185- 72 BCE) ruled the north central region of India • The Satavahana family governed the Andhra region (central and southern India) • Buddhist art and architecture took on new monumental forms (although leaders were not Buddhist) • Stupa– started out as small burial mounds erected in sacred places for wealthy individuals and rulers in the Maurya Period The Great Stupa, Sanchi, India Shunga and early Andhra periods, 3rd century BCE-early 1st century CE. Height: 65 ft.
  29. 29. Shunga Period • Stupas became large, hemispheric mounds and contained some of the remains of Buddha • Vedika – stone railing around the shoulder of the mound • Torana – gates in the outer vedika around the stupa point to the cardinal points of the compass • The torana, all of 35 ft high, may have been preceded by simpler stone or wooden prototypes. Completed 1st Century BCE
  30. 30. Shunga Period • Yakshis– (male gods are called yakshas) represented in the stupa gates as bracket figures (Great Stupa) • These are ancient pre-Buddhist spirits associated with the generative or productive forces of nature, wate and the strength of the inner breath (prana) • Appears to be nude and her sexual parts personify the sap that gives life to the flowers and fruits of the tree • Assumes a tribhangha (three bends) pose similar to the Harrapan sculpture. Yakshi bracket figure Stone, 60 inches (height) East gate of the Great Stupa
  31. 31. Shunga Period • A chaitya is a Buddhist shrine or prayer hall with a stupa at one end.[ In modern texts on Indian architecture, the term chaitya-griha is often used to denote an assembly or prayer hall that houses a stupa. • Chaityas were probably constructed to hold large numbers of devotees and to provide shelter for them. • Architecturally, chaityas show similarities to Roman design concepts of column and arch. Interior of the chaitya hall at Karli, India. Early 2nd century CE
  32. 32. • Kushan Period (30-320 CE) and Later Andhra Period (1st century- 320 CE) • The Kushans (known as the Yuen-chin) migrated to Pakistan, Afghanistan and Northern India. They were nomadic Caucasians who came from southern Mongolia and northwestern China. • Established an empire that extended from Gandhara into northern India. Standing Bodhisattra Jamalgarhi region, Gandhara, Pakistan. 2md-3rd century CE, gray shist. 36.5 inches tall The British Museum, London
  33. 33. Kushan Period • 2 Important Developments in the Early Kushan period • 1) The severe, monkish form of Buddhism (Hinayana) was supplemented by Mahayana, in which Buddha was a god and savior surrounded by a cosmology of compassionate bodhisattvas. • 2) The Silk road blockage by the Parthians in northern portion of Iran brought the Kushans into contact with the art and culture of the Romans.
  34. 34. Kushan Period • Indians trained in Roman styles worked in Gandhara, a region previously exposed to the arts of the Persians, Greeks, and Maurya emperors. • They created a hybrid Eastern- Western style that represents the easternmost extension of Roman influences in the arts. • Created monumental images of a Romano-Indian Buddha, a human-turned divine. • Did not last long due to mismatch and decline of Classical tradition in the 3rd century BCE. Kanishka I. Uttar Pradesh, Mathura, India, Kushan Period, c, 120 CE. Ht. 5’4” Flat and hard edge portrait of a ruler and extremely frontal
  35. 35. Gupta Period • Gupta Period (320-500 CE) • The period was named after Chandragupta I (ruled 320-335 CE) who was crowned in Pataliputra, the old Mauryan capital. • At their peak, under Chandragupta II (375-415 CE), the Guptas controlled an empire that spanned northern India and parts of the south. • This period covers the “classical period” of Indian art. Chandragupta I Chandra Gupta was a major king in the Gupta Empire around 320 AD and is generally considered as the founder of the Gupta dynasty. As the ruler of the Gupta Empire, he is known for forging alliances with many powerful families in the Ganges region
  36. 36. Gupta Period • The single most famous Gupta image from Sarnath represents him as a spiritualized yogin ascetic with a large nimbus, seated cross-legged on a Lion Throne. • His sanghati, or sheer muslim garment, is visible on his neck, wrists and ankles. • The sun orb represents the universal spirit of the Buddha. The deer and 6 disciples below refer to the Deer Park in Sarnath where Buddha preached his first sermon. Seated Buddha Preaching the First Sermon. Sarnath, India. 5th century CE. Chunar sandstone, height 5’ 3”
  37. 37. • Acakra mudra, hand gesture for teaching in which the Buddha sets the Wheel (chakra) of the Law (dharma). • Winged lions at the back of the throne symbolize royalty and the regal roar and authority of his preaching.
  38. 38. Gupta Period • The idealism of the Sarnath Buddha is also expressed in the finest surviving paintings of the period, in the rock-cut chaityas and viharas of Ajanta in the Deccan region in western India. • Paintings were applied to a moist coat of lime over layers of clay, cow dung and other elements that had spread on the rock faces of the walls. • Many are large and depict the stories in Buddha’s life (jatakas.) The Ajanta Caves in Aurangabad district of Maharashtra, India are about 30 rock-cut Buddhist cave monuments which date from the 2nd century BCE to about 480 or 650 CE
  39. 39. Gupta Period • Many are large and illustrate more than one tale. • Daring and inventive compared to the sculptural versions in stone. • Today, the paintings exist only in fragments. • The Padmapani holds a blue lotus and wears a jeweled tiara, pearls, and sacred thread woven from seed pearls. • Painting depends heavily on lines with minimal anatomical detailing. • Blissful, dreamy eyes, languorous pose and transcendent character. The Beautifuul Bodhisattva Padmpani Cave 1. Ajanta, India. C. late 5th century CE, wall painting
  40. 40. END