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HUM: 100 - Early China and Ancient India

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Objectives:

1. Identify significant world events from ancient China and India.
2. Identify example of the humanities in ancient civilizations, such as art, architecture, and philosophy.
3. Identify major key examples from the humanities that reflect developments in world events and cultural patterns in ancient China and India.

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HUM: 100 - Early China and Ancient India

  1. 1. Early China and Ancient India HUM/100 – Intro to the Humanities I The Ancient World to Medieval Time Prof. Francisco Pesante-Gonzalez University of Phoenix – Puerto Rico Campus
  2. 2. Objectives  Identify significant world events from ancient China and India.  Identify example of the humanities in ancient civilizations, such as art, architecture, and philosophy.  Identify major key examples from the humanities that reflect developments in world events and cultural patterns in ancient China and India.
  3. 3. What role does China and India play in contemporary culture?
  4. 4. 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000 Mexico Spain United Kingdom France United States of America India 2013 Major Movie Producers Source: UNESCO Cinema Statistics - http://www.uis.unesco.org/culture/Documents/languages-production.xlsx
  5. 5. World Population (2016): 7.444 Billions China Population: 1.383 Billions (18.6%) India Population: 1.329 Billions (17.9%)  United States Population: 324 Millions (4.4%)  North+Central+South America Population: 959 Millions (12.9%)
  6. 6. PREHISTORIC ASIA The Geography of the Indian Subcontinent  Indian Subcontinent  Subcontinent—landmass that includes India,  Pakistan, and Bangladesh  World’s tallest mountain ranges separate it from rest of Asia
  7. 7. PREHISTORIC ASIA The Geography of the Indian Subcontinent  Rivers, Mountains, and Plains  Mountains to north, desert to east, protect Indus Valley from invasion  Indus and Ganges rivers from flat, fertile plain—the Indo-Gangetic  Southern India, a dry plateau flanked by mountains  Narrow strip of tropical land along coast.
  8. 8. PREHISTORIC ASIA
  9. 9. PREHISTORIC ASIA The Geography of the Indian Subcontinent  Monsoons  Seasonal winds dominate India’s climate  Winter winds are dry; summer winds bring rain can cause flooding
  10. 10. PREHISTORIC ASIA The Geography of the Indian Subcontinent  Environmental Challenges  Floods along the Indus unpredictable; river can change course  Rainfall unpredictable; could have droughts or floods
  11. 11. PREHISTORIC ASIA Civilization Emerges on the Indus  Indus Valley Civilization  Influenced an area larger than Mesopotamia or Egypt  Earliest Arrivals  About 7000 B.C., evidence of agriculture and domesticated animals  By about 3200 B.C., people farming in villages along Indus River
  12. 12. PREHISTORIC ASIA Civilization Emerges on the Indus  Planned Cities  By 2500 B.C., people build cities of brick laid out on grid system  Engineers create plumbing and sewage systems Indus Valley called Harappan civilization after Harappa, a city
  13. 13. PREHISTORIC ASIA Civilization Emerges on the Indus  Harappan Planning  City built on mud-brick platform to protect against flood waters  Brick walls protect city and citadel—central buildings of the city  Streets in grid system are 30 feet wide  Lanes separate rows of house (which featured bathrooms)
  14. 14. PREHISTORIC ASIA
  15. 15. INDIA EARLY ANCIENT HISTORY Harappan Culture  Language  Had writing systems of 400 symbols; but scientists can’t decipher it  Culture  Harappan cities appear uniform in culture; no great social divisions  Animals important to the culture; toys suggest prosperity
  16. 16. INDIA EARLY ANCIENT HISTORY Harappan Culture  Role of Religion  Priests closely linked to rulers  Some religious artifacts reveals links to modern Hindu culture  Trade  Had thriving trade with other peoples, including Mesopotamia
  17. 17. INDIA EARLY ANCIENT HISTORY Indus Valley Culture Ends  Harappan Decline  Signs of decline begin around 1750 B.C.  Earthquakes, floods, soil depletion may have caused decline  Around 1500 B.C., Aryans enter area and become dominant
  18. 18. PREHISTORIC ASIA The Geography of China  Barriers Isolate China  Ocean, mountains, deserts isolate China from other areas  River Systems  Huang He (“Yellow River”) in north, Yangtze in south  Huang He leaves loess—fertile silt—when it floods
  19. 19. PREHISTORIC ASIA
  20. 20. PREHISTORIC ASIA
  21. 21. PREHISTORIC ASIA The Geography of China  Environmental Challenges  Huang He floods can devour whole villages  Geographic isolation means lack of trade; must be self-sufficient  China’s Heartland  North China Plain, area between two rivers, center of civilization
  22. 22. PREHISTORIC ASIA Civilization Emerges in Shang Times  The First Dynasties  Around 2000 B.C. cities arise; Yu, first ruler of Xia Dynasty  Yu’s flood control systems tames Huang He (“Yellow River”)  Shang Dynasty, 1700 to 1027 B.C., first to leave written records
  23. 23. PREHISTORIC ASIA Civilization Emerges in Shang Times  Early Cities  Built cities of wood, such as Anyang—one of its capital cities  Upper class lives inside city; poorer people live outside  Shang cities have massive walls for military defense
  24. 24. CHINA EARLY ANCIENT HISTORY The Development of Chinese Culture  Chinese Civilization  Sees China as center of world; views others as uncivilized  The group is more important than the individual
  25. 25. CHINA EARLY ANCIENT HISTORY The Development of Chinese Culture  Family  Family is central social institution; respect for parents a virtue  Elder males control family property  Women expected to obey all men, even sons  Social Classes  King and warrior-nobles lead society and own the land
  26. 26. CHINA EARLY ANCIENT HISTORY The Development of Chinese Culture  Religious Beliefs  Spirits of dead ancestors can affect family fortunes  Priests scratch questions on animal bones and tortoise shells  Oracle bones used to consult gods; supreme god, Shang Di
  27. 27. CHINA EARLY ANCIENT HISTORY The Development of Chinese Culture  Development of Writing  Writing system uses symbols to represent syllables; not ideas  People of different languages can use same system  Huge number of characters make system difficult to learn
  28. 28. CHINA EARLY ANCIENT HISTORY Zhou and the Dynastic Cycle  The Zhou Take Control  In 1027 B.C., Zhou Dynasty takes control of China  Mandate of Heaven  Mandate of Heaven—the belief that a just ruler had divine approval  Developed as justification for change in power to Zhou  Dynastic cycle—pattern of the rise and decline of dynasties
  29. 29. CHINA EARLY ANCIENT HISTORY Zhou and the Dynastic Cycle  Control Through Feudalism  Feudalism—system where kings give land to nobles in exchange for services  Over time, nobles grow in power and begin to fight each other
  30. 30. CHINA EARLY ANCIENT HISTORY Zhou and the Dynastic Cycle  Improvements in Technology and Trade  Zhou Dynasty builds roads, canals to improve transportation  Uses coins to make trade easier  Produces cast iron tools and weapons; food production increases
  31. 31. CHINA EARLY ANCIENT HISTORY Zhou and the Dynastic Cycle  A Period of Warring States  Peaceful, stable Zhou empire rules from around 1027 to 256 B.C.  In 771 B.C., nomads sack the Zhou capital, murder monarch  Luoyang becomes new capital; but internal wars destroy traditions King Cheng of the Zhou
  32. 32. RELIGIONS AND THEIR CULTURE - CHINA Confucius and the Social Order  Confucius Urges Harmony  End of Zhou Dynasty (256 B.C.) is time of disorder  Scholar Confucius wants to restore order, harmony, good government Confusius ( 551 – 479 b.C.)
  33. 33. Confucius and the Social Order  Confucius Urges Harmony  Stresses developing good relationships, including family  Promotes filial piety—respect for parents and ancestors  Hopes to reform society by promoting good government RELIGIONS AND THEIR CULTURE - CHINA
  34. 34. Confucius and the Social Order  Confucian Ideas About Government  Thinks education can transform people  Teachings become foundation for bureaucracy, a trained civil service  Confucianism is an ethical system of right and wrong, not a religion  Chinese government and social order is based on Confucianism RELIGIONS AND THEIR CULTURE - CHINA
  35. 35. Other Ethical Systems  Daoists Seek Harmony  Laozi teaches that people should follow the natural order of life  Believes that universal force called Dao guides all things  Daoism philosophy is to understand nature and be free of desire  Daoists influence sciences, alchemy, astronomy, medicine RELIGIONS AND THEIR CULTURE - CHINA
  36. 36. RELIGIONS AND THEIR CULTURE - CHINA Other Ethical Systems  Legalists Urge Harsh Rule  Legalism emphasizes the use of law to restore order; stifles criticism  Teaches that obedience should be rewarded, disobedience punished
  37. 37. RELIGIONS AND THEIR CULTURE - CHINA Other Ethical Systems  I Ching and Yin and Yang  I Ching (The Book of Changes) offers good advice, common sense  Concept of yin and yang—two powers represent rhythm of universe  Yin: cold, dark, soft, mysterious; yang: warm, bright, hard, clear  I Ching and yin and yang explain how people fit into the world
  38. 38. RELIGIONS AND THEIR CULTURE - INDIA Buddhism and Hinduism Change  Traditional Hindu and Buddhist Beliefs  Hinduism blends Aryan and other beliefs; belief in many gods  To Buddhists, desire causes suffering but suffering can be overcome
  39. 39. RELIGIONS AND THEIR CULTURE - INDIA Buddhism and Hinduism Change  A More Popular Form of Buddhism  Belief in bodhisattvas develops—potential Buddhas who save humanity  Mahayana sect—Buddhists accepting new doctrines of worship, salvation  Theravada sect—Buddhists who follow original teachings of Buddha  Wealthy Buddhist merchants build stupas - stone structures over relics
  40. 40. RELIGIONS AND THEIR CULTURE - INDIA
  41. 41. RELIGIONS AND THEIR CULTURE - INDIA Buddhism and Hinduism Change  A Hindu Rebirth  Hinduism is remote from people by time of Mauryan Empire  Hinduism moves toward monotheism; gods part of one divine force
  42. 42. RELIGIONS AND THEIR CULTURE - INDIA Buddhism and Hinduism Change  A Hindu Rebirth  Chief gods: Brahma: creator of the world Vishnu: preserver of the world Shiva: destroyer of the world
  43. 43. RELIGIONS AND THEIR CULTURE - INDIA Buddhism and Hinduism Change  A More Popular Form of Buddhism  Belief in bodhisattvas develops—potential Buddhas who save humanity  Mahayana sect—Buddhists accepting new doctrines of worship, salvation  Theravada sect—Buddhists who follow original teachings of Buddha  Wealthy Buddhist merchants build stupas - stone structures over relics
  44. 44. THE CIVILIZATION OF ANCIENT INDIA The Mauryan Empire Is Established  Chandragupta Maurya Seizes Power  In 321 B.C., Chandragupta Maurya seizes power, starts Mauryan Empire  Chandragupta Maurya Unifies North India  Chandragupta defeats Seleucus I; north India united for first time  Chandragupta uses taxes to support his large army
  45. 45. THE CIVILIZATION OF ANCIENT INDIA The Mauryan Empire Is Established  Running the Empire  Chandragupta’s chief adviser is Kautilya, a priest  Chandragupta creates bureaucratic government  He divides the government to make it easier to rule
  46. 46. THE CIVILIZATION OF ANCIENT INDIA The Mauryan Empire Is Established  Life in the City and the Country  A Greek ambassador writes glowing praise of the empire  Chandragupta’s son rules from 301 to 269 B.C., 32 years  Asoka—Chandragupta’s grandson, brings the empire to its height
  47. 47. THE CIVILIZATION OF ANCIENT INDIA The Mauryan Empire Is Established  Asoka Promotes Buddhism  After a bloody war with Kalinga, Asoka promotes Buddhism and peace  Preaches religious toleration—accepting people of different religions  Builds roads, with wells along them
  48. 48. THE CIVILIZATION OF ANCIENT INDIA A Period of Turmoil  The Breakup of the Mauryan Empire  Asoka dies in 232 B.C.; kingdoms in central India soon break away  The Andhra Dynasty dominates central India for centuries  Northern India receives immigrants from Greece, other parts of Asia  Tamils—a people living in southern India - remain separate and frequently war with rival peoples
  49. 49. THE CIVILIZATION OF ANCIENT INDIA The Gupta Empire Is Established  Chandra Gupta Builds an Empire  Chandra Gupta marries into kingship in north India in A.D. 320  Starts Gupta Empire—India’s second empire; flowering of Indian civilization, especially Hindu culture  His son Samudra Gupta expands empire with conquest
  50. 50. THE CIVILIZATION OF ANCIENT INDIA The Gupta Empire Is Established  Daily Life in India  Majority of Indians are farmers; entire family raises crops together  Families are patriarchal—headed by the eldest male  Farmers have to contribute work to government and pay heavy taxes  Some Tamil families are matriarchal—led by mother rather than father
  51. 51. THE CIVILIZATION OF ANCIENT INDIA The Gupta Empire Is Established  Height of the Gupta Empire  Chandra Gupta II rules from A.D. 375–415  He defeats the Shakas and adds western coast to empire  Gupta Empire sees flourishing of arts, religion, and science  After Chandra Gupta II dies, the empire declines
  52. 52. THE CIVILIZATION OF ANCIENT INDIA Achievements of Indian Culture  Astronomy, Mathematics, and Medicine  Ocean trade leads to advances in astronomy  Indian astronomers in Gupta Empire prove that world is round  Mathematicians develop idea of zero and decimal system  Doctors write medical guides and make advances in surgery
  53. 53. THE CIVILIZATION OF ANCIENT INDIA The Spread of Indian Trade  India’s Valuable Resources  India has spices, diamonds, precious stones, and good quality wood
  54. 54. THE CIVILIZATION OF ANCIENT INDIA The Spread of Indian Trade  Overland Trade, East and West  Trade routes called Silk Roads connect Asia and Europe  Indians build trading posts to take advantage of the Silk Roads
  55. 55. THE CIVILIZATION OF ANCIENT INDIA The Spread of Indian Trade  Sea Trade, East and West  Indian merchants carry goods to Rome by sea  Merchants trade by sea with Africa, Arabia, China, Southeast Asia
  56. 56. THE CIVILIZATION OF ANCIENT INDIA
  57. 57. THE CIVILIZATION OF ANCIENT INDIA The Spread of Indian Trade  Effects of Indian Trade  Increased trade leads to rise of banking  Bankers lend money to merchants, careful of degree of risk  Increased trade spreads Indian culture to other places  Trade brings Hinduism, Buddhism to other lands
  58. 58. THE CIVILIZATION OF ANCIENT CHINA The Qin Dynasty Unifies China Zhou Dynasty  Lasted 1027 to 256 B.C.; ancient values decline near end of dynasty The Qin Dynasty  Qin Dynasty replaces Zhou Dynasty in third century B.C.
  59. 59. THE CIVILIZATION OF ANCIENT CHINA The Qin Dynasty Unifies China A New Emperor Takes Control  Emperor Shi Huangdi unifies China, ends fighting, conquers new lands  Creates 36 administrative districts controlled by Qin officials  With legalist prime minister, murders Confucian scholars, burns books  Establishes an autocracy, a government with unlimited power
  60. 60. THE CIVILIZATION OF ANCIENT CHINA The Qin Dynasty Unifies China A Program of Centralization  Shi Huangdi builds highways, irrigation projects; increases trade  Sets standards for writing, law, currency, weights and measures  Harsh rule includes high taxes and repressive government
  61. 61. THE CIVILIZATION OF ANCIENT CHINA The Qin Dynasty Unifies China Great Wall of China  Emperor forces peasants to build Great Wall to keep out invaders The Fall of the Qin  Shi Huangdi’s son loses the throne to rebel leader; Han Dynasty begins
  62. 62. THE CIVILIZATION OF ANCIENT CHINA The Han Restore Unity to China  Troubled Empire  In Qin Dynasty peasants resent high taxes and harsh labor, rebel
  63. 63. THE CIVILIZATION OF ANCIENT CHINA The Han Restore Unity to China  Liu Bang Founds the Han Dynasty  Liu Bang defeats Xiang Yu, a rival for power, and founds Han Dynasty  Han Dynasty - begins in 202 B.C., lasts 400 years  Han Dynasty has great influence on Chinese people, culture  Liu Bang establishes centralized government - a central authority rules  Liu Bang lowers taxes and reduces punishments to keep people happy
  64. 64. THE CIVILIZATION OF ANCIENT CHINA The Han Restore Unity to China  The Empress Lü  Liu Bang dies in 195 B.C.; wife Lü seizes control of empire  Empress Lü rules for her young son, outlives him  Palace plots and power plays occur throughout Han Dynasty
  65. 65. THE CIVILIZATION OF ANCIENT CHINA The Han Restore Unity to China  The Martial Emperor  Liu Bang’s great-grandson Wudi rules from 141 to 87 B.C.  “Martial Emperor” Wudi defeats Xiongnu (nomads) and mountain tribes  Colonizes Manchuria, Korea, and as far south as what is now Vietnam
  66. 66. THE CIVILIZATION OF ANCIENT CHINA A Highly Structured Society  Emperor’s Role  Chinese believe their emperor has authority to rule from god  Believe prosperity reward of good rule; troubles reveal poor rule
  67. 67. THE CIVILIZATION OF ANCIENT CHINA A Highly Structured Society  Structures of Han Government  Complex bureaucracy runs Han government  People pay taxes and supply labor, military service  Government uses peasant labor to carry out public projects
  68. 68. THE CIVILIZATION OF ANCIENT CHINA A Highly Structured Society  Confucianism, the Road to Success  Wudi’s government employs 130,000; bureaucracy of 18 ranks of jobs  Civil service jobs—government jobs obtained through examinations  Job applicants begin to be tested on knowledge of Confucianism  Wudi favors Confucian scholars, builds school to train them  Only sons of wealthy can afford expensive schooling  Civil service system works well, continues until 1912
  69. 69. THE CIVILIZATION OF ANCIENT CHINA Han Technology, Commerce, and Culture  Technology Revolutionizes Chinese Life  Invention of paper in A.D. 105 helps spread education  Collar harness, plow, wheelbarrow improve farming
  70. 70. THE CIVILIZATION OF ANCIENT CHINA Han Technology, Commerce, and Culture  Agriculture Versus Commerce  As population grows, farming regarded as important activity  Government allows monopolies—control by one group over key industries  Techniques for producing silk become state secret as profits increase
  71. 71. THE CIVILIZATION OF ANCIENT CHINA The Han Unifies Chinese Culture  Bringing Different Peoples Under Chinese Rule  To unify empire, Chinese government encourages assimilation  Assimilation—integrating conquered peoples into Chinese culture  Writers encourage unity by recording Chinese history
  72. 72. THE CIVILIZATION OF ANCIENT CHINA The Han Unifies Chinese Culture  Women’s Roles—Wives, Nuns, and Scholars  Most women work in the home and on the farm  Some upper-class women are educated, run shops, practice medicine
  73. 73. THE CIVILIZATION OF ANCIENT CHINA The Fall of the Han and Their Return  The Rich Take Advantage of the Poor  Large landowners gain control of more and more land  Gap between rich and poor increases
  74. 74. THE CIVILIZATION OF ANCIENT CHINA The Fall of the Han and Their Return  Wang Mang Overthrows the Han  Economic problems and weak emperors cause political instability  In A.D. 9, Wang Mang seizes power and stabilizes empire  Wang Mang is assassinated in A.D. 23; Han soon regain control
  75. 75. THE CIVILIZATION OF ANCIENT CHINA The Fall of the Han and Their Return  The Later Han Years  Peace restored, Later Han Dynasty lasts until A.D. 220
  76. 76. • Murpey, R. & Stapleton, K. (2014). History of Asia (7TH ed). Pearson Education. • World History: Patterns of Interaction (2007). McDougal Littell. REFERENCES

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