Reducing the impact of infectious disease on poultry production in Ethiopia
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Reducing the impact of infectious disease on poultry production in Ethiopia

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Presented by Rob Christley at the Chicken Health for Development Project Launch Workshop, ILRI, Addis Ababa, 18 January 2011.

Presented by Rob Christley at the Chicken Health for Development Project Launch Workshop, ILRI, Addis Ababa, 18 January 2011.

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  • CIDLID complemented (follows on) from SARID sustainable agriculture research for international Development
  • . Identify and prioritise infectious diseases of village poultry that impact on production and productivity and hence livelihood; 2. Define the prevalence and distribution of genetic markers of resistance within and between well-defined local poultry ecotypes and between local ecotypes and commercial lines; 3. Assess the social and economic factors underpinning village poultry production, particularly the impact of infectious diseases and identification of impediments to development of acceptable disease control programmes (including selective breeding); 4. Develop strategies for enhancing genetic resistance against the priority poultry diseases for incorporation into programmes for improved poultry production and productivity whilst recognising social, cultural and economic factors 5. Develop capacity and inform policy for control of priority avian diseases in East Africa.

Reducing the impact of infectious disease on poultry production in Ethiopia Reducing the impact of infectious disease on poultry production in Ethiopia Presentation Transcript

  • ChickenHealth4D: Reducing the impact of infectious disease on village poultry production in Ethiopia Presented by Rob Christley Chicken Health 4 Development Project Launch, ILRI, Addis Ababa, 18 January 2011
  • What I ’ m going to talk about
    • An interdisciplinary project that aims to improve poultry health in Ethiopia
    • The CIDLID initiative
    • The aims of the project
    • The approaches we will use
    • How to apply the information we gather to achieve our aims
  • Background to the funding
    • UK Department for International Development (DfID) and Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) and Scottish Government
    • “ Combating Infectious Diseases of Livestock for International Development” (CIDLID) programme
    • Aim to contribute to MDGs
    • 16 Projects; total funding £13M
        • PPRV, Bluetongue, Swine fever, FMD (2), MCF, ECF
        • CBPP, liver fluke, lumpy skin disease trypanosomiasis, coccidiosis
        • Multiple disease studies
        • traditional healing methods
    • Work on zoonoses and avian influenza not covered by scheme
    UK Ethiopia (2) Uganda (2) Kenya (2) Tanzania (3) Sth Africa (3) Nigeria India (6)
  • Why village chicken health?
    • Kept as small flocks (up to 10) by poorest and usually landless in society (frequently women)
    • Main source of high quality protein
    • Source of income
    • Loss of even single bird has impact
    • Important socially - chickens are frequently given as gifts
    • Infectious disease identified by farmers as a major constraint
    • Limited previous work considering infectious diseases and host resistance in Ethiopian chickens
  • Poultry disease in Africa
    • Estimated 0.75 billion poultry deaths due to infection n Africa each year
    • Newcastle Disease considered most important pathogen causing frequent epidemics, but disease surveillance limited or non-existent
    • Diseases rare in developed industries (e.g. Fowl Typhoid) are endemic
    • Role of parasitic burden on productivity poorly understood
  • Village poultry - major issues
    • Indigenous breeds (ecotypes) are well adapted to foraging, avoiding predation and are considered to have good immunity to infection
    • Low genetic potential - poor producers of eggs and meat
    • Infectious disease often prevents attainment of this low genetic potential
    • Husbandry often poor
  • Village poultry - major issues
    • Wet season associated with increased mortality – often attributed to Newcastle Disease
    • Villagers may sell poultry at low price before rains then buy back the same birds for considerably more later in the year
    • Practice has profound economic effects of poorest villagers
  • Improving poultry - some challenges
    • Understanding major diseases and their impact
    • Offering appropriate control of disease
    • Improving productivity of birds whilst retaining desirable features of disease resistance and foraging potential
    • Ensuring ‘ improved ’ poultry are acceptable to villagers
    • Working with villagers to improve husbandry.
  • Who are we: the research consortium DrTadelle Dessie ILRI Coordinator, Breeding and genetics Dr Nigussie Dana EIAR Poultry breeding Wondmeneh Esatu EIAR & Wageningen Poultry breeding Kasech Melese EIAR Laboratory/field Assistant Prof Olivier Hanotte Nottingham Population genetics Dr Joram Mwacharo Nottingham Population genetics Open Nottingham & ILRI PhD student – genetics Prof Pete Kaiser Edinburgh SNP analysis Dr Rob Christley Liverpool Epidemiology Dr Paul Wigley Liverpool Microbiology Dr Supriya Garikipati Liverpool Economics Dr Stacey Lynch Liverpool & ILRI PDRA – microbiology & diagnostics Zelalem Gutu Liverpool & ILRI PhD student – socio-economics Judy Bettridge Eshetu Zerihun Liverpool & ILRI ILRI PhD student – infection epidemiology Driver/Field assistant
  • Main aims
    • Identify key infectious diseases of village poultry;
    • Understand the genetics resistance;
    • Assess the social and economic factors underpinning village poultry production;
    • Develop breeding strategies that enhance genetic resistance against the priority poultry diseases;
    • Develop capacity and inform policy for control of priority avian diseases in East Africa.
  • Study areas & poultry ecotypes
    • We will sample birds of two distinct , geographically separated areas
    • Regions differ greatly ecologically, economically and socially
    • Birds from each region show distinct variation or ecotypes
    • Horro - western Ethiopia, sub-humid
    • Jarso - eastern Ethiopia, arid
  • Objective 1 - Identification and prioritisation of infectious diseases of village poultry
    • Determination of disease prevalence in each region before and after rainy season over two years
    • Development of low cost ELISA and microscopy-based diagnostics developed from OIE recommended tests
    • Laboratory being set up at EIAR Debre Zeit
    • Direct investigation of disease outbreaks
      • Re-sampling individuals may help identify resistant phenotypes
  • Field work Timeline 2011 2012 Phase 1 Phase 2 Phase 3 Phase 4 Outbreaks Outbreaks Preparation Laboratory diagnostics Laboratory diagnostics 2013 2014 Socio-economic, genetic and epidemiological analyses Breeding programme, End-of-Project workshop J F M A M J J A S O N D J F M A M J J A S O N D
  • Study areas Market shed 1 Market shed 2 Market shed 3 Market shed 4 2011 – April/May 2011 – Sept/Oct 2012 – April/May 2012 – Sept/Oct 25 (+5) households 2 birds/household Horro
  • Cross-sectional study of households and their poultry
    • Simultaneously investigate:
        • Socio-economics of poultry keeping
        • The causes of endemic infectious disease
        • The genetics of resistance/susceptibility
    • Sampling:
      • Household questionnaires (800)
      • Poultry (1600)
        • Phenotype
        • Blood: genetics, diagnostics
        • Faeces: parasites
        • Clinical examination: condition, ectoparasites
  • Investigation of high-mortality epidemics
    • Epidemics common in wet season
    • High mortality
    • Few survivors, so may not detect in cross-sectional study
    • Sampling survivors may provide clues regarding host resistance
    • Investigate to determine:
      • Role of Newcastle Disease Virus?
      • Role of other pathogens?
  • Infectious diseases diagnostics – capacity building
    • New laboratory at EIAR-DZARC
      • ELISA
        • Viral diseases: Newcastle Disease, IBD (Gumboro), Marek’s Disease, [Influenza]
        • Bacterial diseases: Fowl Cholera (P multocida), Fowl Typhoid (S enterica gallinarum)
      • Parasitology
        • Coprology: Eimeria, Nematodes, Cestodes
        • Heamatology: A pullorum, Plasmodia, L schoutedeni, Haemoproteus, T avium, Borrelia
        • Ecto-parasitology: Ticks, mites, fleas, Lice
      • Haematology
        • Red cells: anaemia
        • White cells: Immune response
  • Objective 2 - Define the prevalence and distribution of genetic markers of resistance
    • Comparison of 2 poultry ecotypes; Horro and Jarso (and commercial lines)
    • 2 complementary approaches:
      • Genome-wide association studies using a large number of SNPs
      • Polymorphism studies at candidate resistance genes
    • Information about resistance/susceptibility will be applied in the breeding improvement programme
  • Objective 3 - Assess the social and economic factors underpinning village poultry production
    • Initial participatory surveys
          • diseases affecting poultry, identifying those of greatest importance to village poultry productivity
          • social and economic context of village poultry production
          • factors that impede/facilitate disease control programmes
    • In-depth questionnaire study
          • Identification of preferred traits (particularly resistance)
          • Chicken management strategies
          • Role of poultry in household economics
          • Impact of these on household income
  • Surveys will determine
    • Current status of poultry in the community and information about the poultry production and management systems.
    • Major problems of poultry production and specifically the impact of disease.
    • Factors influencing the success of disease control programs generally and particularly programmes of breeding for improved resistance, which may include, but will not be limited to, costs desired characteristics of the birds, cultural mores and preferences for existing or traditional production and management practices.
  • Objective 4 - Develop strategies for enhancing genetic resistance of local poultry ecotypes to priority diseases
    • Integration with on-going poultry
      • breeding programme at EIAR
      • Genetic information from project compared with that of EIAR poultry with improved productivity
      • Understanding distribution of genetic loci and polymorphisms associated with resistance to major infectious disease allows their maintenance or inclusion into increased productivity resistant lines
      • Future selection of birds for resistance and productivity
  • Objective 5 - Develop capacity & policy for control of avian infectious diseases
    • 2 Ethiopian nationals undertaken PhD training in soci-economics and genetics
    • 3+ MSc students; socio-economics, animal health, genetics
    • Development of poultry diagnostic lab EIAR-DZARC with trained personnel
    • Structured survey of disease prevalence to inform control measures
    • Substantive genetic information to inform the EIAR breeding programme coupled with socio-economic information that ensures ‘ improved ’ poultry are acceptable
    • Capacity building
      • Skills needs
      • Gap analysis
      • Plan of action
      • Monitoring
    • Communication
      • Who
      • Objectives
      • When
      • Monitoring
    Capacity building and communication strategies
  • THANK YOU