FAO partnerships on health risk and control of influenza and emerging zoonoses


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FAO partnerships on health risk and control of influenza and emerging zoonoses

  1. 1. FAO Partnerships on health risk and control of influenza and emerging zoonoses Yilma Jobre Makonnen SAAHRI Meeting, April 3, 2013 Cairo, Egypt
  2. 2. Presentation Outline FAO - Animal Health Service  FAO’s Partners and collaborations  Emphasis on OFFLU An overview on ‘One Health’ The situation in Egypt  Current and planned work
  3. 3. FAO - Animal Health ServiceFunctional Units EMPRES-Animal Health ECTAD – AGA and TCE CMC-AH – AGA and TCE Regional support units VPH Group – zoonotic diseases, food-borne, endemic disease burdens (‘neglected zoonoses”) Parasite/Vector Group (endemic disease burdens; production diseases)
  4. 4. FAO’s Partners and collaborations GOs (MoALR, MoHP,….) NGOs UN Agencies (WHO, UNICEF, UNSIC, …) Other International Organizations (NAMRU-3, CDC, … ) Donors
  5. 5. FAO-WHO-OIE CollaborationGF-TADs – FAO/OIEGLEWS – FAO/OIE/WHO OIE’s WAHIS and WAHID Contributes INFOSAN (WHO-FAO) National and regional food safety issuesOFFLU – OIE-FAO Expertise in Animal InfluenzaOIE Thematic Working Group –Animal Production and Food Safety (FAO-WHO participate)FAO Biological Safety Risks (WHO contributes)Codex Alimentarius Commission (CAC) – Joint FAO-WHO Food standards Program (OIE Contributes)
  6. 6. The Global Framework for Progressive Control ofTransboundary Animal Diseases (GF-TADs)  GF-TADs is a joint FAO/OIE initiative  Combines the strengths of both organizations to achieve agreed common objectives.  It’s a facilitation mechanism that will endeavour to:  empower regional alliances in the fight against TADs  provide for capacity building  assist in establishing programmes for the specific control of certain TADs based on regional priorities Major contribution to the global eradication of Rinderpest
  7. 7. Cont…  With EUFMD Secretariat at FAO HQs, FAO and OIE promote PCP for FMD control
  8. 8. OIE official dataFAO animal Health informationUnofficial information - Rumors 8
  9. 9. The Global Early WarningSystem (GLEWS) It is a joint system that builds on the added value of combining and coordinating the alert and disease intelligence mechanisms of OIE, FAO and WHO for the international community and stakeholders to assist in prediction, prevention and control of animal disease threats, including zoonoses, through sharing of information, epidemiological analysis and joint risk assessment
  10. 10. OFFLU  It’s an OIE-FAO global network of expertise on animal influenza  Aims to reduce the negative impacts of animal influenza viruses by promoting effective collaboration between animal and public health sectors  Implemented the vaccine efficacy project with NLQP and other Partners  Currently partnering in the DOC vaccination study
  11. 11. OFFLU Objectives• Offer technical advice and veterinary expertise to Member Countries• Exchange scientific data and biological materials between vet labs• Highlight, promote development and ensure coordination of avian influenza research needs• Collaborate with the WHO influenza network
  12. 12. OFFLU Technical Expertise Ten OIE/FAO Reference Laboratories (and CC) for Avian/animal influenza and Newcastle Open network; expertise from diagnostic laboratories, research and academic institutes (virology, epidemiology, vaccinology, and molecular biology) Two OFFLU focal points (FAO and OIE) OFFLU dedicated scientists OFFLU geographical focal points (regional) Expert groups for technical activities Technical meetings with OFFLU contributors, mailing
  13. 13. OFFLU network animal influenzalaboratories OFFLU laboratories include OIE Reference Laboratories for avian influenza and for equine influenza, FAO Reference Centres for avian influenza, and OFFLU regional laboratory contacts for swine influenza and avian influenza
  14. 14. OFFLU technical activities 1. Biosafety and biosecurity* 2. Applied epidemiology* 3. Diagnostic kits 4. H5 standard sera 5. RNA standards* 6. Vaccines/Vaccination 7. Proficiency testing* 8. Capacity building 9. Swine influenza group** activities which involve WHO 10. Gene observatory*
  15. 15. 7. Proficiency testing (PT) Guidance on harmonisation of approaches to PT for AI diagnosis  A questionnaire sent to organizers of proficiency tests to see how OFFLU labs organize them and how to standardise Review of PT results in various regions (Africa, Europe, SE Asia, the US) to provide a global picture of vet labs First PT for OIE/FAO Ref labs/centres (organized by NVSL and FLI) in 2011
  16. 16. 8. Capacity BuildingTo harmonize training and improve training efficacy  Development of an OFFLU training facility on the OFFLU website (links, videos, e-learning influenza module)  Tools for candidate selection  Follow-up of training  OFFLU directory of trainings and trainees
  17. 17. 9. OFFLU swine influenzagroup Created in 2010 Group includes leading animal health and public health researchers• To address targeted influenza surveillance in pigs, harmonize approaches, advocate for increased targeted surveillance in pigs, and provide a platform for data exchange
  18. 18. 10. Gene Observatory ‘One Flu’ great role to be played by the animal health sector at the human-animal interface based on strengthened linkage between epidemiology geo/temporal and molecular data support risk assessment for animal/human influenza threats
  19. 19. The genetic module of the FAOEmpres-i database
  20. 20. Automatic transfer of data Sequence ID numberVirus information Virus information EMPRES-i OpenFluDB
  21. 21. OFFLU technical projects• 2 projects on selection of avian influenza vaccines types/strains: Indonesia and Egypt (implemented by FAO)• 1 project on validation of LAMP testing (implemented by FLI)• Evaluation of a pseudotype-based neutralization assay (30% FAO funded, implemented by IZSVe)
  22. 22. Sharing of information and material OIE Resolution (May 2008) ‘Sharing of AI viral material and information in support of global AI prevention and control’ Ongoing collaborative projects and exchanges Encourage the use of several publicly available databases that meet OFFLU’s needs Supporting shipment of materials (empres-shipping-service@fao.org) MTA available on OFFLU website
  23. 23. OFFLU and sequencedatabases OFFLU advocates the use of publicly available sequence databases A list is of databases is available on the website Scientists should choose the one that best suits their needs
  24. 24. Collaboration with WHO: animal-human interface Sharing of important surveillance data and technical information (GLEWS platform) Joint OFFLU-WHO meetings/conferences/projects OFFLU involvement in WHO meetings and vice-versa Joint decisions (eg virus nomenclature)
  25. 25. OFFLU/WHO Technical collaboration WHO influenza Vaccine Composition Meeting Formalization (since January 2010) of OFFLU contribution Develop a mechanism; coordination with OFFLU contributors 3 OFFLU labs: AAHL, IZSVe, VLA for Hi testing with ferretantisera FAO : technical platform for collection and review of epi andvirus information Examine implications of WHO frameworks for animalhealth labs, eg PIP framework OFFLU experts participate in WHO working groupsand WHO experts to OFFLU Technical Activities Contribution to the WHO Influenza Research Agenda
  26. 26. One Health Human Animal Health Health The ‘One Health’ approach can be best defined as a collaborative, international, cross-sectoral, multidisciplinary mechanism to address threats and reduce risks of detrimental infectious Ecosystem diseases at the animal-human-ecosystem Health interface.Disease emergence can no longer be seen in isolation but must now be viewedalongside a continuum of climatic changes, natural resource management, agriculturalintensification, land utilization patterns, trade globalization, and shifting farming, fooddistribution and marketing systems.
  27. 27. Multidisciplinarity of One Health Animal Health and Food Safety Policies and Fisheries Legislation Domestic Wildlife Animal Agro-Ecosystems Production and and Land Use Feed Safety Socio-Economics Policies and Legislation Marketing and Trade
  28. 28. WHO public healthFAO/WHOCodex food waste scavengers - food safety birds food rodents chain food carnivores cycle bats health insects OIE eco-health farming IUCN, MEA, UNEP animal health farming natural landscape landscape IPM AGAH IPPC IFA – EMPRES/ FCC MF
  29. 29. One Health Economic and Social Animal Health Forestry Development and Food Safety Policies and Fisheries Legislation Legal Service Fisheries Domesticand Aquaculture Wildlife Animal Agro-Ecosystems Production and and Land Use Technical Feed Safety Cooperation Socio-Economics Policies and Legislation Marketing and Trade Natural Resources Mgmt Communications and Environment Agriculture and Consumer Protection
  30. 30. Setting the scene - Egypt•High poultry population and density•A/H5N1 reportedly introduced in 2006, currently widespread andendemic•Weak biosecurity•Huge mistrust between the public and private sector – weak PPP•Disease prevalence high and sporadic human infections•Heavy reliance on AI vaccination without any monitoring (currently 41vaccines on market)•Various measures put in place proved ineffective• need to reinvigorate the entire animal health system and create anenabling environment for disease control
  31. 31. Revised Strategy Joint United Nations Assessment of Animal Health and Livelihood Sustainability Strategy Government of Revised 2010 Egypt H5N1 Control Efforts 6-16 December 2009
  32. 32. Animal Health and Livelihood Sustainability Strategy (Revised 2010)• Paradigm shift in thinking: From emergency to longer-term risk reduction• Phased approach of critical measures along the poultry value and market chain • Control • Consolidation • Elimination/eradication• Challenges in implementation• Strategy is still valid and serves as reference for HPAI endemic countries
  33. 33. Current and planned work• Sustaining essential animal health activities (Epidemiology, Biosecurity and coordination) – awaiting the enabling conditions for full-scale implementation of the revised strategy• Rationalizing the AI vaccination strategy in Egypt • Advocate for close collaboration with the private sector • Promote and value effective vaccine/vaccination and monitoring - with an exit strategy • Assess the potential use of DOC vaccine using HVT AI Vectored vaccine for the control of A/H5N1 HPAI in Egypt• Promoting public-private partnerships (PPP) and 4-way linking between the animal and public health sectors• Strengthen institutional capacity and harmonization of response actions