Chapter 10      Mediterranean Society: The Greek Phase   Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Requir...
Early Development of Greek Society   Minoan Society       Island of Crete       Major city: Knossos   C. 2200 BCE cent...
Decline of Minoan Society   Series of natural disasters after 1700 BCE       Earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, tidal wave...
Mycenaean Society   Indo-european invaders descend through    Balkans into Peloponnesus, c. 2200 BCE   Influenced by Min...
Chaos in the Eastern Mediterranean   Trojan war, c. 1200 BCE       Homer’s The Iliad       Sequel: The Odyssey   Polit...
The Polis   City-state   Urban center, dominating surrounding rural    areas   Highly independent character       Mona...
Sparta   Highly militarized society   Subjugated peoples: helots       Serfs, tied to land       Outnumbered Spartans ...
Spartan Society   Austerity the norm   Boys removed from families at age seven       Received military training in barr...
Athens   Development of early democracy       Free, adult males only       Women, slaves excluded   Yet contrast Athen...
Athenian Society   Maritime trade brings increasing prosperity    beginning 7th c. BCE   Aristocrats dominate smaller la...
Solon and Athenian Democracy   Aristocrat Solon mediates crisis       Aristocrats to keep large landholdings       But ...
Pericles   Ruled 461-429 BCE   High point of Athenian democracy   Aristocratic but popular   Massive public works   E...
Greek Colonization   Population expansion drives colonization       Coastal Mediterranean, Black sea           Sicily (...
Classical Greece and the Mediterranean basin,800-500 B.C.E.       Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permissi...
Effects of Greek Colonization   Trade throughout region   Communication of ideas       Language, culture   Political a...
Persian Wars (500-479 BCE)   Revolt against Persian Empire 500 BCE in    Ionia   Athens supports with ships   Yet Greek...
The Delian League   Poleis create Delian League to forestall more    Persian attacks   Led by Athens       Massive paym...
The Peloponnesian War   Civil war in Greece, 431-404 BCE   Poleis allied with either Athens or Sparta   Athens forced t...
Kingdom of Macedon   Frontier region to north of Peloponnesus   King Philip II (r. 359-336 BCE) builds massive    milita...
Alexander of Macedon   “the Great,” son of Philip II   Rapid expansion throughout Mediterranean    basin   Invasion of ...
Alexanders empire, ca. 323 B.C.E.       Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproducti...
The Hellenistic Empires                                                                After Alexander’s death,          ...
The Antigonid Empire   Smallest of Hellenistic Empires   Local dissent   Issue of land distribution       Heavy coloni...
The Ptolemaic Empire   Wealthiest of the Hellenistic empires   Established state monopolies       Textiles       Salt ...
The Seleucid Empire   Massive colonization of Greeks   Export of Greek culture, values as far east as    India       Ba...
Trade and Integration of theMediterranean Basin   Greece: little grain, but rich in olives and    grapes   Colonies furt...
Panhellenic Festivals   Useful for integrating far-flung colonies   Olympic Games begin 776 BCE   Sense of collective i...
Patriarchal Society   Women as goddesses, wives, prostitutes   Limited exposure in public sphere   Sparta partial excep...
Slavery   Scythians (Ukraine)   Nubians (Africa)   Chattel   Sometimes used in business   Opportunity to buy freedom ...
The Greek Language   Borrowed Phoenician alphabet   Added vowels   Complex language       “middle” voice   Allowed fo...
Socrates (470-399 BCE)   The Socratic Method   Student: Plato   Public gadfly, condemned on charges of    immorality  ...
Plato (430-347 BCE)   Systematized Socratic thought   The Republic       Parable of the Cave       Theory of Forms/Ide...
Aristotle (389-322 BCE)   Student of Plato   Broke with Theory of Forms/Ideas   Emphasis on empirical findings, reason...
Greek Theology   Polytheism   Zeus principal god   Religious cults       Eleusinian mysteries       The Bacchae     ...
Tragic Drama   Evolution from public presentations of cultic    rituals   Major playwrights (5th c. BCE)       Aeschylu...
Hellenistic Philosophies   Epicureans       Pleasure, distinct from Hedonists   Skeptics       Doubted possibility of ...
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  1. 1. Chapter 10 Mediterranean Society: The Greek Phase Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  2. 2. Early Development of Greek Society Minoan Society  Island of Crete  Major city: Knossos C. 2200 BCE center of maritime trade Undeciphered syllabic alphabet (Linear A) Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  3. 3. Decline of Minoan Society Series of natural disasters after 1700 BCE  Earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, tidal waves Foreign invasions Foreign domination by 1100 BCE Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  4. 4. Mycenaean Society Indo-european invaders descend through Balkans into Peloponnesus, c. 2200 BCE Influenced by Minoan culture Major settlement: Mycenae Military expansion throughout region Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  5. 5. Chaos in the Eastern Mediterranean Trojan war, c. 1200 BCE  Homer’s The Iliad  Sequel: The Odyssey Political turmoil, chaos from 1100 to 800 BCE Mycenaean civilization disappears Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  6. 6. The Polis City-state Urban center, dominating surrounding rural areas Highly independent character  Monarchies  “Tyrannies”, not necessarily oppressive  Early Democracies Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  7. 7. Sparta Highly militarized society Subjugated peoples: helots  Serfs, tied to land  Outnumbered Spartans 10:1 by 6th c. BCE Military society developed to control threat of rebellion Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  8. 8. Spartan Society Austerity the norm Boys removed from families at age seven  Received military training in barracks  Active military service follows Marriage, but no home life until age 30 Some relaxation of discipline by 4th c. CE Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  9. 9. Athens Development of early democracy  Free, adult males only  Women, slaves excluded Yet contrast Athenian style of government with Spartan militarism Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  10. 10. Athenian Society Maritime trade brings increasing prosperity beginning 7th c. BCE Aristocrats dominate smaller landholders Increasing socio-economic tensions  Class conflict Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  11. 11. Solon and Athenian Democracy Aristocrat Solon mediates crisis  Aristocrats to keep large landholdings  But forgive debts, ban debt slavery Removed family restrictions against participating in public life Instituted paid civil service Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  12. 12. Pericles Ruled 461-429 BCE High point of Athenian democracy Aristocratic but popular Massive public works Encouraged cultural development Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  13. 13. Greek Colonization Population expansion drives colonization  Coastal Mediterranean, Black sea  Sicily (Naples: “nea polis,” new city)  Southern France (Massalia: Marseilles)  Anatolia  Southern Ukraine Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  14. 14. Classical Greece and the Mediterranean basin,800-500 B.C.E. Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  15. 15. Effects of Greek Colonization Trade throughout region Communication of ideas  Language, culture Political and social effects Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  16. 16. Persian Wars (500-479 BCE) Revolt against Persian Empire 500 BCE in Ionia Athens supports with ships Yet Greek rebellion crushed by Darius 493 BCE; routed in 490 Successor Xerxes burns Athens, but driven out as well Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  17. 17. The Delian League Poleis create Delian League to forestall more Persian attacks Led by Athens  Massive payments to Athens fuels Periclean expansion  Resented by other poleis Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  18. 18. The Peloponnesian War Civil war in Greece, 431-404 BCE Poleis allied with either Athens or Sparta Athens forced to surrender But conflict continued between Sparta and other poleis Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  19. 19. Kingdom of Macedon Frontier region to north of Peloponnesus King Philip II (r. 359-336 BCE) builds massive military 350 BCE encroaches on Greek poleis to the south, controls region by 338 BCE Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  20. 20. Alexander of Macedon “the Great,” son of Philip II Rapid expansion throughout Mediterranean basin Invasion of Persia successful Turned back in India when exhausted troops mutinied Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  21. 21. Alexanders empire, ca. 323 B.C.E. Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  22. 22. The Hellenistic Empires  After Alexander’s death, competition for empire  Divided by generals  Antigonus: Greece and Macedon  Ptolemy: Egypt  Seleucus: Persian Achaemenid Empire  Economic integration, Intellectual cross-fertilization Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  23. 23. The Antigonid Empire Smallest of Hellenistic Empires Local dissent Issue of land distribution  Heavy colonizing activity Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  24. 24. The Ptolemaic Empire Wealthiest of the Hellenistic empires Established state monopolies  Textiles  Salt  Beer Capital: Alexandria  Important port city  Major museum, library Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  25. 25. The Seleucid Empire Massive colonization of Greeks Export of Greek culture, values as far east as India  Bactria  Ashoka legislates in Greek and Aramaic Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  26. 26. Trade and Integration of theMediterranean Basin Greece: little grain, but rich in olives and grapes Colonies further trade Commerce rather than agriculture as basis of much of economy Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  27. 27. Panhellenic Festivals Useful for integrating far-flung colonies Olympic Games begin 776 BCE Sense of collective identity Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  28. 28. Patriarchal Society Women as goddesses, wives, prostitutes Limited exposure in public sphere Sparta partial exception Sappho Role of infanticide in Greek society and culture Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  29. 29. Slavery Scythians (Ukraine) Nubians (Africa) Chattel Sometimes used in business Opportunity to buy freedom Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  30. 30. The Greek Language Borrowed Phoenician alphabet Added vowels Complex language  “middle” voice Allowed for communication of abstract ideas  Philosophy Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  31. 31. Socrates (470-399 BCE) The Socratic Method Student: Plato Public gadfly, condemned on charges of immorality Forced to drink hemlock Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  32. 32. Plato (430-347 BCE) Systematized Socratic thought The Republic  Parable of the Cave  Theory of Forms/Ideas Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  33. 33. Aristotle (389-322 BCE) Student of Plato Broke with Theory of Forms/Ideas Emphasis on empirical findings, reason Massive impact on western thought Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  34. 34. Greek Theology Polytheism Zeus principal god Religious cults  Eleusinian mysteries  The Bacchae  Rituals eventually domesticated Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  35. 35. Tragic Drama Evolution from public presentations of cultic rituals Major playwrights (5th c. BCE)  Aeschylus  Sophocles  Euripides Comedy: Aristophanes Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  36. 36. Hellenistic Philosophies Epicureans  Pleasure, distinct from Hedonists Skeptics  Doubted possibility of certainty in anything Stoics  Duty, virtue  Emphasis on inner peace Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.

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