Chapter 17      The Foundations of Christian Society in      Western Europe                                               ...
The Germanic Successor States, c. 500 CE   Last Roman emperor deposed by Germanic    Odoacer, 476 CE   Administrative ap...
Successor States to the Roman Empire c.500                                                                                ...
The Franks   Heavy influence on European development   Strong agricultural base   Shifts center of economic gravity to ...
Clovis (ruled 481-511)   Major Frankish leader   Destroyed last vestiges of Roman rule in Gaul   Dominated other German...
Clovis’ Conversion to Christianity   Paganism, Arian Christianity popular among    Franks   Clovis and army chooses Roma...
The Carolingians   Charles “The Hammer” Martel begins    Carolingian dynasty   Defeats Spanish Muslims at Battle of Tour...
The Carolingian Empire                                                                                             8     C...
Charlemagne (r. 768-814)   Grandson of Charles Martel   Centralized imperial rule   Functional illiterate, but sponsore...
Charlemagne’s Administration   Capital at Aachen, Germany   Yet constant travel throughout empire   Imperial officials:...
Charlemagne as Emperor   Hesitated to challenge Byzantines by taking title    “emperor”       Yet ruled in fact   Pope ...
Louis the Pious (r. 814-840)   Son of Charlemagne   Lost control of courts, local authorities   Civil war erupts betwee...
Invasions   South: Muslims   East: Magyars   North: Vikings       Norse expansion begins c. 800 CE       Driven by po...
Dissolution of the Carolingian Empire                                                                                     ...
The Vikings   From village of Vik, Norway (hence “Viking”)   Boats with shallow drafts, capable of river travel as well ...
England   Viking invasions force consolidation of Angles,    Saxons and other Germanic peoples under King    Alfred (r. 8...
Germany and France   King Otto of Saxony (r. 936-973) defeats    Magyars, 955   Proclaimed emperor by Pope in 962   Est...
Early Medieval Society   Concept of Feudalism       Lords and vassals       Increasingly inadequate model for describin...
Organizing in a Decentralized Society   Local nobles take over administration from weak    central government   Nominal ...
Lords and Retainers   Formation of small private armies   Incentives: land grants, income from mills, cash    payments ...
Potential for Instability   Complex interrelationship of lord-retainer    relations   Rebellion always a possibility   ...
Origins of Serfdom   Slaves, free peasants in both Roman and    Germanic societies   Heavy intermarriage   Appeals to l...
Serfs’ Rights and Obligations   Right to pass on land to heirs   Obligation to provide labor, payments in kind to    lor...
Manors   Large, diverse estates   Lord provides governance, police, justice services   Serfs provide labor, income     ...
The Economy of Early Medieval Europe   Agricultural center moves north from    Mediterranean   8th century iron-tipped p...
Norse Merchant Mariners   Commerce or plunder as convenient   Link with the Islamic world for trade                     ...
Population Growth of Europe, 200-1000 CE  40  35  30  25  20                                                              ...
The Formation of Christian Europe   Clovis’ conversion forms strong alliance with    Roman Christianity   Church supplie...
The Franks and the Church   Protectors of the Papacy   Charlemagne destroys Lombards, who threatened    Pope, Rome   Sp...
The Spread of Christianity   Charlemagne fights pagan Saxons (772-804)       Saxons later adopt Christianity   Scandina...
Pope Gregory I (590-604 CE)   “Gregory the Great”   Asserted papal primacy   Prominent theologian       Sacrament of p...
Monasticism   Egyptian origins, 2nd-3rd centuries   Monastic lifestyle expands 4th century   Large variety of monastic ...
St. Benedict (480-547)   Established consistent rule for monasteries       Poverty       Chastity       Obedience   S...
Monasticism and Society   Accumulation of large landholdings, serfs   Social welfare projects       Esp. labor contribu...
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17 bentley3

  1. 1. Chapter 17 The Foundations of Christian Society in Western Europe 1 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  2. 2. The Germanic Successor States, c. 500 CE Last Roman emperor deposed by Germanic Odoacer, 476 CE Administrative apparatus still in place, but cities lose population Germanic successor states:  Spain: Visigoths  Italy: Ostrogoths  Gaul: Burgundians, Franks  Britian: Angles, Saxons 2 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  3. 3. Successor States to the Roman Empire c.500 3 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  4. 4. The Franks Heavy influence on European development Strong agricultural base Shifts center of economic gravity to Europe Firm alliance with western Christian church 4 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  5. 5. Clovis (ruled 481-511) Major Frankish leader Destroyed last vestiges of Roman rule in Gaul Dominated other Germanic peoples Franks establish themselves as preeminent Germanic people 5 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  6. 6. Clovis’ Conversion to Christianity Paganism, Arian Christianity popular among Franks Clovis and army chooses Roman Catholicism Influence of wife Clotilda Political implications:  Alliance with western church 6 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  7. 7. The Carolingians Charles “The Hammer” Martel begins Carolingian dynasty Defeats Spanish Muslims at Battle of Tours (732)  Halts Islamic advance into western Europe 7 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  8. 8. The Carolingian Empire 8 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  9. 9. Charlemagne (r. 768-814) Grandson of Charles Martel Centralized imperial rule Functional illiterate, but sponsored extensive scholarship Major military achievements 9 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  10. 10. Charlemagne’s Administration Capital at Aachen, Germany Yet constant travel throughout empire Imperial officials: missi dominici (“envoys of the lord ruler)  Continued yearly circuit travel 10 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  11. 11. Charlemagne as Emperor Hesitated to challenge Byzantines by taking title “emperor”  Yet ruled in fact Pope Leo III crowns him as emperor in 800  Planned in advance?  Challenge to Byzantium 11 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  12. 12. Louis the Pious (r. 814-840) Son of Charlemagne Lost control of courts, local authorities Civil war erupts between three sons Empire divided in 843 12 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  13. 13. Invasions South: Muslims East: Magyars North: Vikings  Norse expansion begins c. 800 CE  Driven by population pressure, hostility to spread of Christianity  Superior seafaring technology  Sailed to eastern Canada, northeastern US 13 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  14. 14. Dissolution of the Carolingian Empire 14 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  15. 15. The Vikings From village of Vik, Norway (hence “Viking”) Boats with shallow drafts, capable of river travel as well as open seas Attacked villages, cities from 9th century  Constantinople sacked three times Carolingians had no navy, dependent on local defenses 15 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  16. 16. England Viking invasions force consolidation of Angles, Saxons and other Germanic peoples under King Alfred (r. 871-899) Built navy Fortified cities against attack 16 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  17. 17. Germany and France King Otto of Saxony (r. 936-973) defeats Magyars, 955 Proclaimed emperor by Pope in 962 Establishment of Holy Roman Empire France endures heavy Viking settlement Loss of local autonomy 17 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  18. 18. Early Medieval Society Concept of Feudalism  Lords and vassals  Increasingly inadequate model for describing complex society Ad hoc arrangements in absence of strong central authorities 18 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  19. 19. Organizing in a Decentralized Society Local nobles take over administration from weak central government Nominal allegiances, esp. to Carolingian kings But increasing independence 19 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  20. 20. Lords and Retainers Formation of small private armies Incentives: land grants, income from mills, cash payments Formation of hereditary class of military retainers Development of other functions  Justice, social welfare 20 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  21. 21. Potential for Instability Complex interrelationship of lord-retainer relations Rebellion always a possibility Nevertheless, viable large states developed (Germany, France, England) 21 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  22. 22. Origins of Serfdom Slaves, free peasants in both Roman and Germanic societies Heavy intermarriage Appeals to lords, special relationships Mid-7th century: recognition of serf class  Midway between slave and free peasant 22 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  23. 23. Serfs’ Rights and Obligations Right to pass on land to heirs Obligation to provide labor, payments in kind to lord Unable to move from land Fees charged for marrying serfs of another lord 23 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  24. 24. Manors Large, diverse estates Lord provides governance, police, justice services Serfs provide labor, income 24 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  25. 25. The Economy of Early Medieval Europe Agricultural center moves north from Mediterranean 8th century iron-tipped plow introduced in Europe Draft animals breeded Water mill technology Agricultural output insufficient to support growth of cities Strong Mediterranean trade despite Muslim domination of sea 25 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  26. 26. Norse Merchant Mariners Commerce or plunder as convenient Link with the Islamic world for trade 26 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  27. 27. Population Growth of Europe, 200-1000 CE 40 35 30 25 20 Millions 15 10 5 0 200 400 600 800 900 1000 27 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  28. 28. The Formation of Christian Europe Clovis’ conversion forms strong alliance with Roman Christianity Church supplies Clovis with class of literate information workers:  Scribes  secretaries 28 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  29. 29. The Franks and the Church Protectors of the Papacy Charlemagne destroys Lombards, who threatened Pope, Rome Spreads Christianity in northern areas Support of scholarship, scribal activity 29 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  30. 30. The Spread of Christianity Charlemagne fights pagan Saxons (772-804)  Saxons later adopt Christianity Scandinavia, other pockets of paganism until c. 1000 CE 30 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  31. 31. Pope Gregory I (590-604 CE) “Gregory the Great” Asserted papal primacy Prominent theologian  Sacrament of penance Major missionary activity, especially in England 31 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  32. 32. Monasticism Egyptian origins, 2nd-3rd centuries Monastic lifestyle expands 4th century Large variety of monastic rules  Range from extremely ascetic to very lax 32 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  33. 33. St. Benedict (480-547) Established consistent rule for monasteries  Poverty  Chastity  Obedience St. Scholastica (482-543)  Sister of St. Benedict  Adapts Benedictine Rule for convents 33 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  34. 34. Monasticism and Society Accumulation of large landholdings, serfs Social welfare projects  Esp. labor contributions Expansion of literacy Inns, orphanages, hospitals 34 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.

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