Chapter 15      The Resurgence of Empire in East Asia                                                                     ...
The Sui Dynasty (589-618 CE)   Regional kingdoms succeed collapse of Han    dynasty   Yang Jian consolidates control of ...
The Grand Canal   Intended to promote trade between north and south China       Most Chinese rivers flow west-east   Li...
The Tang Dynasty (618-907 CE)   Wide discontent over conscripted labor in Sui    dynasty   Military failures in Korea pr...
Tang Taizong   Second emperor of Tang dynasty (r. 627-649 CE)   Murdered two brothers, thrust father aside to take    th...
Major achievements of Tang Dynasty   Transportation and communications       Extensive postal, courier services   Equal...
Bureaucracy of Merit   Imperial civil service examinations       Confucian educational curriculum   Some bribery, nepot...
Tang Military Expansion and ForeignRelations   Manchuria, Korea, Vietnam, Tibet   One of the largest expansions of China...
The Sui and Tang dynasties, 589-907 C.E.                                                                                  ...
Tang Decline   Governmental neglect: Emperor obsessed with music,    favorite concubine   775 rebellion under An Lushan,...
Song Dynasty (960-1279 CE)   Emphasis on administration, industry, education, the arts   Military not emphasized   Dire...
The Song dynasty, 960-1279 C.E.                                                                                           ...
Song Weaknesses   Size of bureaucracy heavy drain on economy       Two peasant rebellions in 12th c.       Internal ine...
Agricultural Economies of the Tangand Song Dynasties   Developed Vietnamese fast-ripening rice, 2 crops    per year   Te...
Population Growth120                                                                      Result of increased            ...
Urbanization   Chang’an world’s most populous city: 2 million    residents       Southern Song capital Hangzhou: over 1 ...
Patriarchal Social Structures   Increased emphasis on ancestor worship       Elaborate grave rituals       Extended fam...
Footbinding                                                                                             18     Copyright ©...
Technology and Industry   Porcelain (“Chinaware”)   Increase of iron production due to use of coke, not coal,    in furn...
Emergence of a Market Economy   “Flying cash:” letters of credit developed to deal with    copper coin shortages       P...
China and the Hemispheric Economy   Increasingly cosmopolitan nature of Chinese    cities   Chinese silk opens up trade ...
Cultural Change in Tang and SongChina   Declining confidence in Confucianism after    collapse of Han dynasty   Increasi...
Dunhuang   Mahayana Buddhism especially popular in western China    (Gansu province), 600-1000 CE   Buddhist temples, li...
Conflicts with Chinese Culture   Buddhism:                                                           Confucianism:     ...
Chan (Zen) Buddhism   Buddhists adapt ideology to Chinese climate       Dharma translated as dao       Nirvana translat...
Persecution of Buddhists   Daoist/Confucian persecution supported in late    Tang dynasty   840s begins systematic closu...
Neo-Confucianism   Song dynasty refrains from persecuting    Buddhists, but favors Confucians   Neo-Confucians influence...
China and Korea   Silla Dynasty: Tang armies withdraw, Korea    recognizes Tang as emperor   Technically a vassal statue...
China and Vietnam   Vietnamese adaptation to Chinese culture,    technology   But ongoing resentment at political domina...
China and Early Japan   Chinese armies never invade Japan   Yet Chinese culture pervasive   Imitation of Tang administr...
Heian Japan (794-1185 CE)   Japanese emperor moves court to Heian (Kyoto)   Yet emperor figurehead, real power in hands ...
Japanese Literature   Influence of Chinese kanji characters       Classic curriculum dominated by Chinese   Development...
Institution of the Shogun   Civil war between Taira and Minamoto clans in    12th century   Minamoto leader named shogun...
Medieval Japan   Kamakura (1185-1333 CE) and Muromachi    (1336-1573 CE) periods   Decentralized power in hands of warlo...
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15 bentley3

  1. 1. Chapter 15 The Resurgence of Empire in East Asia 1 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  2. 2. The Sui Dynasty (589-618 CE) Regional kingdoms succeed collapse of Han dynasty Yang Jian consolidates control of all of China, initiates Sui Dynasty Massive building projects  Military labor  Conscripted labor 2 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  3. 3. The Grand Canal Intended to promote trade between north and south China  Most Chinese rivers flow west-east Linked network of earlier canals  2000k (1240 miles)  Roads on either bank Succeeded only by railroad traffic in 20th century 3 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  4. 4. The Tang Dynasty (618-907 CE) Wide discontent over conscripted labor in Sui dynasty Military failures in Korea prompt rebellion Emperor assassinated in 618  Tang Dynasty initiated 4 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  5. 5. Tang Taizong Second emperor of Tang dynasty (r. 627-649 CE) Murdered two brothers, thrust father aside to take throne Strong ruler  Built capital at Chang’an  Law and order  Taxes, prices low  More effective implementation of earlier Sui policies 5 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  6. 6. Major achievements of Tang Dynasty Transportation and communications  Extensive postal, courier services Equal-field System  20% of land hereditary ownership  80% redistributed according to formula  Family size, land fertility  Worked well until 8th century  Corruption, loss of land to Buddhist monasteries 6 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  7. 7. Bureaucracy of Merit Imperial civil service examinations  Confucian educational curriculum Some bribery, nepotism But most advance through merit  Built loyalty to the dynasty  System remains strong until early 20th century 7 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  8. 8. Tang Military Expansion and ForeignRelations Manchuria, Korea, Vietnam, Tibet One of the largest expansions of China in its history Established tributary relationships  Gifts China as “Middle Kingdom”  The kowtow ritual 8 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  9. 9. The Sui and Tang dynasties, 589-907 C.E. 9 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  10. 10. Tang Decline Governmental neglect: Emperor obsessed with music, favorite concubine 775 rebellion under An Lushan, former military commander Captures Chang’an, but rebellion crushed by 763 Nomadic Uighur mercenaries invited to suppress rebellion, sacked Chang’an and Luoyang Tang decline continues, rebellions in 9th century, last emperor abdicates 907 10 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  11. 11. Song Dynasty (960-1279 CE) Emphasis on administration, industry, education, the arts Military not emphasized Direction of first emperor, Song Taizu (r. 960-976 CE)  Former military leader  Made emperor by troops  Instituted policy of imperial favor for civil servants, expanded meritocracy 11 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  12. 12. The Song dynasty, 960-1279 C.E. 12 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  13. 13. Song Weaknesses Size of bureaucracy heavy drain on economy  Two peasant rebellions in 12th c.  Internal inertia prevents reform of bureaucracy Civil service leadership of military  Lacked military training  Unable to contain nomadic attacks  Jurchen conquer, force Song dynasty to Hangzhou, southern China (Southern Song) 13 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  14. 14. Agricultural Economies of the Tangand Song Dynasties Developed Vietnamese fast-ripening rice, 2 crops per year Technology: iron plows, use of draft animals Soil fertilization, improved irrigation  Water wheels, canals Terrace farming 14 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  15. 15. Population Growth120  Result of increased agricultural production100  Effective food distribution80 system60  Transportation networks Millions built under Tang and Song40 dynasties20 0 600 1000 CE 15 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  16. 16. Urbanization Chang’an world’s most populous city: 2 million residents  Southern Song capital Hangzhou: over 1 million  Several cities over 100,000 16 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  17. 17. Patriarchal Social Structures Increased emphasis on ancestor worship  Elaborate grave rituals  Extended family gatherings in honor of deceased ancestors Footbinding gains popularity  Increased control by male family members 17 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  18. 18. Footbinding 18 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  19. 19. Technology and Industry Porcelain (“Chinaware”) Increase of iron production due to use of coke, not coal, in furnaces  Agricultural tools, weaponry Gunpowder invented Earlier printing techniques refined  Moveable type by mid-11th century  Yet complex Chinese ideographs make wood block technique easier Naval technology 19 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  20. 20. Emergence of a Market Economy “Flying cash:” letters of credit developed to deal with copper coin shortages  Promissory notes, checks also used Development of independently produced paper money  Not as stable, riots when not honored Government claims monopoly on money production in 11th century 20 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  21. 21. China and the Hemispheric Economy Increasingly cosmopolitan nature of Chinese cities Chinese silk opens up trade routes, but increases local demands for imported luxury goods 21 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  22. 22. Cultural Change in Tang and SongChina Declining confidence in Confucianism after collapse of Han dynasty Increasing popularity of Buddhism Christianity, Manichaeism, Zoroastrianism, Islam also appear Clientele primarily foreign merchant class 22 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  23. 23. Dunhuang Mahayana Buddhism especially popular in western China (Gansu province), 600-1000 CE Buddhist temples, libraries Economic success as converts donate land holdings Increase popularity through donations of agricultural produce to the poor 23 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  24. 24. Conflicts with Chinese Culture Buddhism:  Confucianism:  Text-based (Buddhist  Text-based (Confucian teachings) teachings)  Daoism not text-based Emphasis on Metaphysics  Emphasis on ethics, Ascetic ideal politics  Celibacy  Family-centered  isolation  Procreation  Filial piety 24 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  25. 25. Chan (Zen) Buddhism Buddhists adapt ideology to Chinese climate  Dharma translated as dao  Nirvana translated as wuwei Accommodated family lifestyle  “one son in monastery for ten generations of salvation” Limited empahsis on textual study, meditation instead 25 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  26. 26. Persecution of Buddhists Daoist/Confucian persecution supported in late Tang dynasty 840s begins systematic closure of Buddhist temples, expulsions  Zoroastrians, Christians, Manicheans as well Economic motive: seizure of large monastic landholdings 26 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  27. 27. Neo-Confucianism Song dynasty refrains from persecuting Buddhists, but favors Confucians Neo-Confucians influenced by Buddhist thought Zhu Xi (1130-1200 CE) important synthesizer Popular to 20th century 27 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  28. 28. China and Korea Silla Dynasty: Tang armies withdraw, Korea recognizes Tang as emperor Technically a vassal statue, but highly independent Chinese influence on Korean culture pervasive 28 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  29. 29. China and Vietnam Vietnamese adaptation to Chinese culture, technology But ongoing resentment at political domination Assert independence when Tang dynasty falls in 10th century 29 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  30. 30. China and Early Japan Chinese armies never invade Japan Yet Chinese culture pervasive Imitation of Tang administration  Establishment of new capital at Nara, hence “Nara Japan” (710-794 CE) Adoption of Confucian, Buddhist teachings Yet retention of Shinto religion 30 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  31. 31. Heian Japan (794-1185 CE) Japanese emperor moves court to Heian (Kyoto) Yet emperor figurehead, real power in hands of Fujiwara clan  Pattern in Japanese history: weak emperor, power behind the throne  Helps explain longevity of the institution 31 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  32. 32. Japanese Literature Influence of Chinese kanji characters  Classic curriculum dominated by Chinese Development of hiragana, katakana syllabic alphabet Court life: The Tale of Genji  Written by woman with weak command of Chinese, becomes classic of early Japanese literature 32 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  33. 33. Institution of the Shogun Civil war between Taira and Minamoto clans in 12th century Minamoto leader named shogun, 1185 CE Ruled from Kamakura, allowed imperial throne to continue in Kyoto 33 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  34. 34. Medieval Japan Kamakura (1185-1333 CE) and Muromachi (1336-1573 CE) periods Decentralized power in hands of warlords Military authority in hands of samurai Professional warriors 34 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.

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