06 bentley3

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06 bentley3

  1. 1. Chapter 6 Early Societies in the Americas and Oceania 1 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  2. 2. Early Mesoamerican societies, 1200B.C.E.-1100 C.E. 2 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  3. 3. Origins of Mesoamerican Societies Migration across Bering land bridge?  Probably 13,000 BCE, perhaps earlier By sea from Asia? By 9500 BCE reached southernmost part of South America Hunter/Gatherer societies  evolve into agricultural societies 3 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  4. 4. Olmecs 1200-100 BCE The “Rubber People” Ceremonial Centers  San Lorenzo, La Venta, Tres Zapotes Olmec Heads  Up to 10 ft tall, 20 tons  Transported by dragging, rolling on logs  1000/workers per head 4 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  5. 5. Agriculture and Herding Staple: maize Herding: turkeys, barkless dogs  Both food No draft animals  No development of wheeled vehicles 5 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  6. 6. Olmec Society Probably authoritarian in nature Large class of conscripted laborers to construct ceremonial sites  Also tombs for rulers, temples, pyramids, drainage systems 6 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  7. 7. Mysterious Decline of Olmecs Ceremonial centers destroyed No evidence of warfare Revolution? Civil war? 7 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  8. 8. Maya huge cities discovered in 19th c. 300 BCE-900 CE Terrace Farming Cacao beans  hot chocolate  Currency Major ceremonial center at Tikal 8 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  9. 9. Maya Warfare Warfare for purposes of capturing enemy soldiers Ritual sacrifice of enemies  Enslavement  Small kingdoms engage in constant conflict until Chichén Itzá begins to absorb captives  Some nevertheless choose death  Center of empire develops 9 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  10. 10. Mayan Ritual Calendar Complex math  Invention of “Zero” Calendar of 365.242 days (17 seconds off)  Solar calendar of 365 days  Ritual calendar of 260 days Management of calendar lends authority to priesthood  Timing of auspicious moments for agriculture 10 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  11. 11. Mayan Language and Religion Ideographs and a syllable-alphabet  Most writings destroyed by Spanish conquerors  Deciphering work begins in 1960s Popol Vuh: Mayan creation myth Importance of bloodletting rituals  Human sacrifices follow after removal of fingers, piercing to allow blood flow  Self-mutilation of penises, earlobes 11 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  12. 12. The Maya Ball Game Ritual form of ball game High-ranking captives, prisoners of war contestants Execution of losers immediately follows the match Bloodletting ritual for the gods 12 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  13. 13. City of Teotihuacan Highlands of Mexico Lakes in area of high elevation Village of Teotihuacan, 500 BCE, expands to become massive city  Important ceremonial center Extensive trade network, influenced surrounding areas Begins to decline c. 650 CE, sacked in middle of 8th century, massive library destroyed 13 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  14. 14. Andean Societies  Migration into South America c. 12000 BCE  Climate improves c. 8000 BCE  Largely independent from Mesoamerica  Highly individualized due to geography 14 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  15. 15. Chavin Cult New religion in central Andes, 900-300 BCE South America, contemporary Peru  Little known about particulars of religion  Intricate stone carvings 15 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  16. 16. The Mochica State Valley of the Moche River Dominated northern Peru, 300-700 CE Painting survies One of many states in region, none able to consolidate into empire 16 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  17. 17. Early societies of Oceania, 1500B.C.E.-700 C.E. 17 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  18. 18. Oceania Prehistoric land bridges, lower seas permit migration Outrigger canoes for open-sea travel Early hunter-gatherer societies in Australia Early agriculture in New Guinea 18 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  19. 19. Aborigine of the Naomi Tribe 19 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  20. 20. Lapita Peoples Found throughout Pacific Islands Agriculture, animal herding Political organization based on chiefdoms Trade over open ocean declines 500 BCE  Greater independence of settlements 20 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.

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