The classical period in ap world history

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The classical period in ap world history

  1. 1. The  Classical  Period  in  World  History  Thursday, May 9, 13
  2. 2. Periodiza5on:  ClassicalThursday, May 9, 13
  3. 3. Periodiza5on:  Classical• The  classical  period  runs  from  about  1000  or  800  BCE  to  500  or  600  CE.Thursday, May 9, 13
  4. 4. Periodiza5on:  Classical• The  classical  period  runs  from  about  1000  or  800  BCE  to  500  or  600  CE.• Some  of  the  key  forma5ve  elements  of  major  civiliza5on-­‐what  historians  call  the  great  tradi5ons-­‐were  forged  in  the  classical  period  and  would  be  ingredients  in  world  history  from  this  point  onward.Thursday, May 9, 13
  5. 5. Periodiza5on:  Classical• The  classical  period  runs  from  about  1000  or  800  BCE  to  500  or  600  CE.• Some  of  the  key  forma5ve  elements  of  major  civiliza5on-­‐what  historians  call  the  great  tradi5ons-­‐were  forged  in  the  classical  period  and  would  be  ingredients  in  world  history  from  this  point  onward.• The  classical  civiliza5ons  were  situated  in  areas  where  river  valley  civiliza5ons  had  flourished  earlier,  although  they  usually  relocated  somewhat  and  always  expanded.Thursday, May 9, 13
  6. 6. The  Classical  Age• Areas:   China  expanded  from  the  north  to  the  southern  por5on  of  the  Yellow  River,  forming  the  Middle  Kingdom.   Indian  civiliza5on  spread  through  the  whole  subcon5nent,  with  its  focus  now  in  the  Ganges  River  basin  rather  than  the  northwest.   Classical  Mediterranean  civiliza5on  was  located  in  Greece  and  along  the  shoreline  of  the  eastern  Mediterranean  and  ul5mately  spread  westward,  both  in  North  Africa  and  southern  Europe.Thursday, May 9, 13
  7. 7. The  Classical  Age   The  classical  civiliza5on  that  stayed  closest  to  it  river  valley  roots  was  Persia,  which  had  its  center  in  the  Tigris-­‐Euphrates  valley  but  also  spread  more  widely  in  the  Middle  East.So  the  core  areas  of  China,  India,  Persia  and  the  Mediterranean  are  the  centers  of  the  Classical  Age.Thursday, May 9, 13
  8. 8. The  Classical  AgeThursday, May 9, 13
  9. 9. The  Classical  Age• The  period  saw  great  ac5vity  and  many  changes.  These  major  civiliza5ons  included  major  popula5on  centers.  Thursday, May 9, 13
  10. 10. The  Classical  Age• The  period  saw  great  ac5vity  and  many  changes.  These  major  civiliza5ons  included  major  popula5on  centers.  • At  its  height,  China  included  54  million  people;  Rome  had  52  million.  *Urbaniza5on  chartThursday, May 9, 13
  11. 11. The  Classical  Age• The  period  saw  great  ac5vity  and  many  changes.  These  major  civiliza5ons  included  major  popula5on  centers.  • At  its  height,  China  included  54  million  people;  Rome  had  52  million.  *Urbaniza5on  chart• It  must  be  noted  that  the  features  that  came  from  the  classical  civiliza5ons  did  not  define  the  whole  world—key  parts  of  northern  Europe,  many  parts  of  sub-­‐Saharan  Africa,  places  in  Asia  (such  as  Japan)  and  the  Americas  are  le`  out.Thursday, May 9, 13
  12. 12. The  Classical  AgeThursday, May 9, 13
  13. 13. The  Classical  Age• Also  of  note:  The  Classical  socie5es  did  build  on  the  river  valley  kingdom’s  achievements,  but  classical  civiliza5on  differed  in  many  ways:– Classical  civiliza5ons  are  much  larger.– All  of  these  civiliza5ons  had  iron  technologies.  Iron  had  been  introduced  around  1500  BCE.  (Thus  the  Assyrian  Empire  was  one  of  the  first  to  use  Iron  and  building  an  Empire  in  the  Middle  East.)  **Metallurgy– Leaders  saw  advantages  in  terms  of  popula5on  expansion  for  economic  and  military  reasons.Thursday, May 9, 13
  14. 14. The  Classical  Age• Also  of  note:  The  Classical  socie5es  did  build  on  the  river  valley  kingdom’s  achievements,  but  classical  civiliza5on  differed  in  many  ways:– Classical  civiliza5ons  are  much  larger.– All  of  these  civiliza5ons  had  iron  technologies.  Iron  had  been  introduced  around  1500  BCE.  (Thus  the  Assyrian  Empire  was  one  of  the  first  to  use  Iron  and  building  an  Empire  in  the  Middle  East.)  **Metallurgy– Leaders  saw  advantages  in  terms  of  popula5on  expansion  for  economic  and  military  reasons.– Places  were  used  to  civiliza5on.Thursday, May 9, 13
  15. 15. The  Classical  Age• Also  of  note:  The  Classical  socie5es  did  build  on  the  river  valley  kingdom’s  achievements,  but  classical  civiliza5on  differed  in  many  ways:– Classical  civiliza5ons  are  much  larger.– All  of  these  civiliza5ons  had  iron  technologies.  Iron  had  been  introduced  around  1500  BCE.  (Thus  the  Assyrian  Empire  was  one  of  the  first  to  use  Iron  and  building  an  Empire  in  the  Middle  East.)  **Metallurgy– Leaders  saw  advantages  in  terms  of  popula5on  expansion  for  economic  and  military  reasons.– Places  were  used  to  civiliza5on.• Classical  civiliza5ons  did  have  numerous  contacts.  *Trade-­‐the  Phoenicians  Thursday, May 9, 13
  16. 16. General  Comparisons:  Overview• China:  From  the  fairly  decentralized,  o`en  landlord-­‐dominated  Zhou  dynasty,  China  made  a  move  to  centraliza5on  under  the  Qin  dynasty  and  even  more  centralized  poli5cal  and  ideological  opera5on  under  the  Han  dynasty  at  the  end  Thursday, May 9, 13
  17. 17. General  Comparisons:  Overview• Mediterranean:  This  area  emphasized  the  Greek  tradi5on  un5l  the  4th  century.  This  was  followed  by  the  period  of  Alexander  the  Great’s  conquests  and  the  Hellenis5c  period,  in  which  Greek  cultural  and  poli5cal  influences  interacted  with  the  tradi5ons  of  Egypt  and  the  Middle  East.  In  its  final  phase,  the  civiliza5on’s  emphasis  shi`ed  to  Rome,  the  republican  period  and  expression  of  the  classical  Mediterranean.Thursday, May 9, 13
  18. 18. General  Comparisons:  Overview• Persia:  In  the  6th  and  5th  centuries  BCE,  Persia  was  more  important  than  Greece  and  had  established  a  strong,  effec5ve  government.  The  Persian  tradi5on  would  be  par5ally  overshadowed,  however,  first  by  the  conquests  of  Alexander,  then  by  the  conquests  of  Arab  Islam.Thursday, May 9, 13
  19. 19. General  Comparisons:  Overview• India:  Classical  India  involves  the  story  of  the  in-­‐migra5on  of  Arian  or  Indo-­‐European  peoples,  whose  culture  was  gradually  codified  into  major  works  of  literature  and  religious  philosophy.  Indian,  in  this  second  civiliza5on  period,  seiled  down  into  more  recognizably  coherent  development,  with  a  major  empire  in  the  4th  century  BCE-­‐the  Mauryan  Empire-­‐and,  at  the  end  of  the  classical  period,  another  major  imperial  statement-­‐the  Gupta  Empire.Thursday, May 9, 13
  20. 20. Cultural  comparisons  (differences)Thursday, May 9, 13
  21. 21. Cultural  comparisons  (differences)Belief  systems:• China:  Confucianism  and  Daoism;  on  the  whole  China  was  mostly  secularThursday, May 9, 13
  22. 22. Cultural  comparisons  (differences)Belief  systems:• China:  Confucianism  and  Daoism;  on  the  whole  China  was  mostly  secular• India:  the  most  spiritual  genera5ng  Hinduism  and  Buddhism.Science:• China:  Emphasized  empirical  science  because  of  its  u5lity  to  society  and  the  economy.• The  Greco-­‐Roman  tradi5on  was  more  theore5cal.Thursday, May 9, 13
  23. 23. Cultural  comparisons  (differences)Belief  systems:• China:  Confucianism  and  Daoism;  on  the  whole  China  was  mostly  secular• India:  the  most  spiritual  genera5ng  Hinduism  and  Buddhism.Science:• China:  Emphasized  empirical  science  because  of  its  u5lity  to  society  and  the  economy.• The  Greco-­‐Roman  tradi5on  was  more  theore5cal.• India  had  a  strong  tradi5on  emphasizing  mathema5cs.Thursday, May 9, 13
  24. 24. Cultural  Comparisons  (differences)Thursday, May 9, 13
  25. 25. Cultural  Comparisons  (differences)Poli5cal:• China:  Created  a  strong  central  government  and  a  large  bureaucracy.  Emphasis  on  key  poli5cal  concepts  that  supported  the  central  government,  specific  training  systems  and  even  exams  for  government  officials.• India:  Stresses  a  smaller,  decentralized  states  and  placed  less  emphasis  on  poli5cal  ideology.Thursday, May 9, 13
  26. 26. Cultural  Comparisons  (differences)Poli5cal:• China:  Created  a  strong  central  government  and  a  large  bureaucracy.  Emphasis  on  key  poli5cal  concepts  that  supported  the  central  government,  specific  training  systems  and  even  exams  for  government  officials.• India:  Stresses  a  smaller,  decentralized  states  and  placed  less  emphasis  on  poli5cal  ideology.• Mediterranean:  A  strong  poli5cal  emphasis,  although  its  overall  poli5cal  tradi5on  was  more  decentralized  than  China.  The  Roman  state  was  more  interested  in  the  development  of  a  legal  system  as  a  unifier,  than  massive  bureaucracies.  Thursday, May 9, 13
  27. 27. Cultural  Comparisons  (differences)Thursday, May 9, 13
  28. 28. Cultural  Comparisons  (differences)Social:• India:  The  Caste  SystemThursday, May 9, 13
  29. 29. Cultural  Comparisons  (differences)Social:• India:  The  Caste  System• Med:  Strong  reliance  on  slavery;  slavery  did  exist  in  India  and  ChinaThursday, May 9, 13
  30. 30. Cultural  Comparisons  (differences)Social:• India:  The  Caste  System• Med:  Strong  reliance  on  slavery;  slavery  did  exist  in  India  and  China• China:  Under  Confucianism,  developed  a  social  hierarchy  based  on  the  no5on  of  rule  by  wise  people  of  an  upper  class,  with  the  lower  classes  offering  deference  in  return.Thursday, May 9, 13
  31. 31. Cultural  Comparisons  (differences)Thursday, May 9, 13
  32. 32. Cultural  Comparisons  (differences)Economics• China:  Depended  on  trade,  but  Confucianism  prompted  a  cultural  bias  against  merchants,  who  were  viewed  with  suspicion  because  of  their  devo5on  to  moneymaking  and  the  possibility  that  they  would  pull  away  from  the  central  poli5cal  and  social  values  of  Chinese  society.Thursday, May 9, 13
  33. 33. Cultural  Comparisons  (differences)Economics• China:  Depended  on  trade,  but  Confucianism  prompted  a  cultural  bias  against  merchants,  who  were  viewed  with  suspicion  because  of  their  devo5on  to  moneymaking  and  the  possibility  that  they  would  pull  away  from  the  central  poli5cal  and  social  values  of  Chinese  society.• India:  Merchants  were  encouraged  to  use  the  Indian  Ocean  as  an  artery  for  foreign  trade.Thursday, May 9, 13
  34. 34. Cultural  Comparisons  (differences)Thursday, May 9, 13
  35. 35. Cultural  Comparisons  (differences)Technologies• China:  Would  be  the  most  important  source  of  technological  innova5on  in  the  world.  Most  technologies  would  go  westward.• India:  Also  success  in  stressing  inven5on—especially  steelmaking.Thursday, May 9, 13
  36. 36. Cultural  Comparisons  (differences)Technologies• China:  Would  be  the  most  important  source  of  technological  innova5on  in  the  world.  Most  technologies  would  go  westward.• India:  Also  success  in  stressing  inven5on—especially  steelmaking.• Med:  Probably  the  least  developed  emphasis  on  technology,  possibly  because  it  tended  to  expand  the  slave  system  rather  than  increase  produc5on  through  tech  development.Thursday, May 9, 13
  37. 37. Why  the  differences?• China  may  have  focused  on  poli5cal  order  because  of  its  geography.  The  possibility  of  invasion  from  Central  Asia  may  have  encouraged  an  emphasis  on  order  to  ward  off  disrup5on,  but  the  threat  was  not  so  great  that  establishing  poli5cal  order  became  impossible.Thursday, May 9, 13
  38. 38. Why  the  differences?• India  was  also  affected  by  invasions  and  influences  from  the  outside  world  that  came  through  the  passes  that  lead  through  the  Himalayas  and  northwestern  India.  Indian’s  emphasis  on  ar5s5c  sensuality  and  religious  fervor  could  have  stemmed  from  its  climate.Thursday, May 9, 13
  39. 39. How  did  these  empires  maintain?Thursday, May 9, 13
  40. 40. How  did  these  empires  maintain?• Economic  integra5on:  e.g.  China  created  canals  to  connect  loca5ons;  Med  leaders  connected  with  grain  growing  regions  of  Africa.Thursday, May 9, 13
  41. 41. How  did  these  empires  maintain?• Economic  integra5on:  e.g.  China  created  canals  to  connect  loca5ons;  Med  leaders  connected  with  grain  growing  regions  of  Africa.• Culture  integra5on:  In  the  6th  and  5th  centuries  BCE  all  of  these  groups  introduced  belief  systems.  E.g.  China  and  Confucianism  and  Daoism;  Hinduism  and  Buddhism  in  India;  Zoroastrianism  in  Persia,  philosophy  and  art  in  the  Greco-­‐Roman  world.Thursday, May 9, 13
  42. 42. How  did  these  empires  maintain?• Poli5cal  integra5on:  The  building  of  imperial  structures  that  would  foster  and  reinforce  economic  and  cultural  coherence.Thursday, May 9, 13

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