Chapter 8      The Unification of China                                                                                   ...
Confucius   Kong Fuzi (551-479 BCE)       Master Philosopher Kong   Aristocratic roots   Unwilling to compromise princ...
Confucian Ideas   Ethics and politics       Avoided religion, metaphysics   Junzi: “superior individuals”       Role i...
Confucian Values   Ren        kindness, beneveloence   Li        Propriety   Xiao        Filial piety   Traits lead...
Mencius (372-289 BCE)   Principal Confucian scholar   Optimist, belief in power of ren   Not influential during lifetim...
Xunzi (298-238 BCE)   Career as government administrator   Belief in fundamental selfishness of humanity       Compare ...
Daoism   Critics of Confucianism       Passivism, rejection of active attempts to change        the course of events   ...
The Dao   “The Way” (of nature, of the cosmos)       Water: soft and yielding, but capable of eroding        rock      ...
Doctrine of Wuwei   Attempt to control universe results in chaos   Restore order by disengagement       No advanced edu...
Political Implications of Daoism   Confucianism as public doctrine   Daoism as private pursuit   Ironic combination all...
Legalism   Emphasis on development of the state       Ruthless, end justifies the means   Role of Law       Strict pun...
Legalist Doctrine   Two strengths of the state       Agriculture       Military   Emphasized development of peasant, s...
Unification of China   Qin dynasty develops, 4th-3rd centuries BCE   Generous land grants under Shang Yang       Privat...
The First Emperor   Qin Shihuangdi (r. 221-210 BCE) founds new    dynasty as “First Emperor”   Dynasty ends in 207, but ...
China under the Qin dynasty, 221-207B.C.E.                                                                                ...
Resistance to Qin Policies   Emperor orders execution of all critics   Orders burning of all ideological works   Some 4...
Qin Centralization   Standardized:       Laws       Currencies       Weights and measures       Script           Pre...
Massive Tomb Projects   Built by 700,000 workers   Slaves, concubines, and craftsmen sacrificed    and buried   Excavat...
Tomb of the First Emperor                                                                                             19  ...
The Han Dynasty   Civil disorder brings down Qin dynasty 207    BCE   Liu Bang forms new dynasty: the Han (206    BCE-22...
Early Han Policies   Relaxed Qin tyranny without returning to    Zhou anarchy   Created large landholdings   But mainta...
Han Centralization   The Martial Emperor: Han Wudi (141-87    BCE)   Increased taxes to fund more public works   But hu...
Confucian Educational System   Han Wudi establishes an Imperial University    in 124 BCE   Not a lover of scholarship, b...
Han Imperial Expansion   Invasions of Vietnam, Korea   Constant attacks from Xiongnu       Nomads from Central Asia    ...
East Asia and central Asia at the timeof Han Wudi, Ca. 87 B.C.E.                                                          ...
Patriarchal Social Order   Classic of Filial Piety       Subordination to elder males   Admonitions for Women       Fe...
Iron Metallurgy   Expansion of iron manufacture       Iron tips on tools abandoned as tools entirely        made from ir...
Other technological Developments   Cultivation of silkworms       Breeding       Diet control           Other silk-pro...
Population Growth in the Han Dynasty                                                                     General prosperi...
Economic and Social Difficulties   Expenses of military expeditions, esp. vs.    Xiongnu   Taxes increasing   Arbitrary...
Reign of Wang Mang (9-23 CE)   Wang Mang regent for 2-year old Emperor, 6    CE   Takes power himself 9 CE   Introduces...
Later Han Dynasty   Han Dynasty emperors manage, with    difficulty, to reassert control   Yellow Turban uprising challe...
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08 bentley3

  1. 1. Chapter 8 The Unification of China 1 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  2. 2. Confucius Kong Fuzi (551-479 BCE)  Master Philosopher Kong Aristocratic roots Unwilling to compromise principle Decade of unemployment, wandering Returned home a failure, died soon thereafter Teachings: Analects 2 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  3. 3. Confucian Ideas Ethics and politics  Avoided religion, metaphysics Junzi: “superior individuals”  Role in government service Emphasis on Zhou Dynasty texts  later formed core texts of Chinese education 3 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  4. 4. Confucian Values Ren  kindness, beneveloence Li  Propriety Xiao  Filial piety Traits lead to development of junzi  Ideal leaders 4 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  5. 5. Mencius (372-289 BCE) Principal Confucian scholar Optimist, belief in power of ren Not influential during lifetime  Considered prime exponent of Confucian thought since 10th century 5 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  6. 6. Xunzi (298-238 BCE) Career as government administrator Belief in fundamental selfishness of humanity  Compare with Mencius Emphasis on li, rigid propriety discipline 6 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  7. 7. Daoism Critics of Confucianism  Passivism, rejection of active attempts to change the course of events Founder: Laozi, 6th c. BCE The Daodejing (Classic of Way and of Virtue) Zhuangzi (named for author, 369-236 BCE) 7 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  8. 8. The Dao “The Way” (of nature, of the cosmos)  Water: soft and yielding, but capable of eroding rock  Cavity of pots, wheels: nonexistent, but essential 8 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  9. 9. Doctrine of Wuwei Attempt to control universe results in chaos Restore order by disengagement  No advanced education  No ambition Simple living in harmony with nature Cultivate self-knowledge 9 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  10. 10. Political Implications of Daoism Confucianism as public doctrine Daoism as private pursuit Ironic combination allowed intellectuals to pursue both 10 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  11. 11. Legalism Emphasis on development of the state  Ruthless, end justifies the means Role of Law  Strict punishment for violators  Principle of collective responsibility Shang Yang (390-338 BCE), The Book of the Lord Shang Han Feizi (280-233 BCE)  Forced to commit suicide by political enemies 11 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  12. 12. Legalist Doctrine Two strengths of the state  Agriculture  Military Emphasized development of peasant, soldier classes Distrust of pure intellectual, cultural pursuits Historically, often imitated but rarely praised 12 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  13. 13. Unification of China Qin dynasty develops, 4th-3rd centuries BCE Generous land grants under Shang Yang  Private farmers decrease power of large landholders  Increasing centralization of power Improved military technology 13 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  14. 14. The First Emperor Qin Shihuangdi (r. 221-210 BCE) founds new dynasty as “First Emperor” Dynasty ends in 207, but sets dramatic precedent Basis of rule: centralized bureacracy Massive public works begun  Incl. precursor to Great Wall 14 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  15. 15. China under the Qin dynasty, 221-207B.C.E. 15 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  16. 16. Resistance to Qin Policies Emperor orders execution of all critics Orders burning of all ideological works Some 460 scholars buried alive Others exiled Massive cultural losses 16 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  17. 17. Qin Centralization Standardized:  Laws  Currencies  Weights and measures  Script  Previously: single language written in distinct scripts Building of roads, bridges 17 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  18. 18. Massive Tomb Projects Built by 700,000 workers Slaves, concubines, and craftsmen sacrificed and buried Excavated in 1974, 15,000 terra cotta soldiers unearthed 18 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  19. 19. Tomb of the First Emperor 19 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  20. 20. The Han Dynasty Civil disorder brings down Qin dynasty 207 BCE Liu Bang forms new dynasty: the Han (206 BCE-220 CE)  Former Han (206 BCE-9 CE)  Interruption 9-23 CE  Later Han (25-220 CE) 20 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  21. 21. Early Han Policies Relaxed Qin tyranny without returning to Zhou anarchy Created large landholdings But maintained control over administrative regions After failed rebellion, took more central control 21 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  22. 22. Han Centralization The Martial Emperor: Han Wudi (141-87 BCE) Increased taxes to fund more public works But huge demand for government officials, decline since Qin persecution 22 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  23. 23. Confucian Educational System Han Wudi establishes an Imperial University in 124 BCE Not a lover of scholarship, but demanded educated class for bureaucracy Adopted Confucianism as official course of study 3000 students by end of Former Han, 30,000 by end of Later Han 23 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  24. 24. Han Imperial Expansion Invasions of Vietnam, Korea Constant attacks from Xiongnu  Nomads from Central Asia  Horsemen  Brutal: Maodun (210-174 BCE), had soldiers murder his wife, father Han Wudi briefly dominates Xiongnu 24 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  25. 25. East Asia and central Asia at the timeof Han Wudi, Ca. 87 B.C.E. 25 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  26. 26. Patriarchal Social Order Classic of Filial Piety  Subordination to elder males Admonitions for Women  Female virtues:  Humility, obedience, subservience, loyalty 26 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  27. 27. Iron Metallurgy Expansion of iron manufacture  Iron tips on tools abandoned as tools entirely made from iron Increased food production Superior weaponry 27 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  28. 28. Other technological Developments Cultivation of silkworms  Breeding  Diet control  Other silk-producing lands relied on wild worms Development of paper  Bamboo, fabric abandoned in favor of wood and textile-based paper 28 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  29. 29. Population Growth in the Han Dynasty  General prosperity  Increased agricultural productivity6050  Taxes small part of4030 overall income Produce occasionally20 10 0 220 BCE 9 CE spoiling in state Population (millions) granaries 29 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  30. 30. Economic and Social Difficulties Expenses of military expeditions, esp. vs. Xiongnu Taxes increasing Arbitrary property confiscations rise Increasing gap between rich and poor  Slavery, tenant farming increase  Banditry, rebellion 30 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  31. 31. Reign of Wang Mang (9-23 CE) Wang Mang regent for 2-year old Emperor, 6 CE Takes power himself 9 CE Introduces massive reforms  The “socialist emperor”  Land redistribution, but poorly handled Social chaos ends in his assassination 23 CE 31 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  32. 32. Later Han Dynasty Han Dynasty emperors manage, with difficulty, to reassert control Yellow Turban uprising challenges land distribution problems Internal court intrigue Weakened Han Dynasty collapses by 220 CE 32 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.

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