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Chapter 4 Roman Republic


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Chapter 4 Notes

Week 3 & 4

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Chapter 4 Roman Republic

  1. 1. RomanRepublic Chapter 4
  2. 2. Beginnings Geography  Not a hindrance as in Greece  Land good for farming  No rugged mountains to separate people
  3. 3. Beginnings Early Inhabitants  Came from across Alps  Settled in N. Italy  Called “Latins”  Eventually moved southward  Settled western coast of Italy Portions of Italy colonized by:  Phoenicians  Greeks  Etruscans
  4. 4. Beginnings Etruscans  Came to Italy 900- 800 BC  Probably from Asia Minor by sea  Became competitors with Greece in trade  Probably introduced Greek culture to Romans
  5. 5. Etruscans
  6. 6. Beginnings Founding of Rome
  7. 7. Beginnings Founding of Rome  Villages established near Tibet River and West Coast of Italy  7 villages allied (League of 7 Hills)  Beginning of city of Rome  Developed myths about beginnings  Twins, Romulus and Remus founded Rome 753 B.C.  Thrown out by evil uncle, found by wolve and raised them
  8. 8. - Digging for the city wall of Rome- Peasantsexchangingproduce at borderseparating theirlands
  9. 9. Early Society & Government  Basic Unit of society = FAMILY  Self sufficient and self ruled  Father authority figure  Religion, discipline, power of life and death  Pride in family heritage Loyalty Submit to Authority Hard Working Patriotism Self Control
  10. 10. Early Society & Government Tribe Clan Clan Family Family Family Family
  11. 11. Early Society & Government Patricians Plebeians • Wealthy • Majority of landowners people • Nobility based on • Common people birth • Inferior class • Held high • Tradesmen, positions in craftsmen, society farmers
  12. 12. Early Society & Government Early government = Monarchy  Monarch chosen by people  Imperium – absolute authority to govern  Monarch would advise with senate
  13. 13. View of Early Roman Senate
  14. 14. Early Roman Republic 509 B.C. overthrew monarchy and established republic Consuls Senate Assemblies
  15. 15. Consul ONLY Patricians Elected for 1 year terms Took care of:  Every day government affairs  Commanded army  Supreme judges
  16. 16. Senate Most powerful body in government Served the interest of ALL people 300 elite people appointed for life by consuls Took care of:  Finances  Pass laws  Foreign affairs
  17. 17. See anysimilarities?
  18. 18. Assemblies People could express their views Voted legislation submitted by consul Took care of:  Declare war  Elected high ranking officials  Power to Veto
  19. 19. Struggles within Republic Patricians controlled government  Plebeians had no voice in government  For 200 years struggled for representation Constant warfare with neighbors made Patricians dependent upon plebeians for army force  Plebeians demanded more say in gov’t or else no more army participation Plebeians get their own assembly and gov’t. officials  Voted resolutions  plebiscites (apply only to plebeians)  Tribune – elected official who protected plebeian rights (rights of common people)
  20. 20. Law of 12 Tables Plebeians demanded written law Laws written on 12 tablets and hung in Roman Forum  What other civilization wrote laws on tablet?  What other civilization publicly displayed law throughout land? Law applied equally to ALL Boys memorized law as school work
  21. 21. “The women shall not tear their faces nor wail on account of the funeral.” “Marriages should not take place between plebeians and patricians.” “Let them keep the road in order. If they have not paved it, a man may drive his“A dreadfully deformed child shall be team where he likes.”quickly killed.” “If one is slain while committing theft by“A child born after ten months since night, he is rightly slain.”the fathers death will not beadmitted into a legal inheritance.”
  22. 22. Changes in Society Plebeians’ social status gradually improved  Began to gain government positions  Some became senators  Intermarriage allowed  Tribal Assembly created 287 B.C.  Pass laws that apply to ALL people Division between patricians and plebeians began to disappear and a new division appeared:  Rich vs. Poor Wealthy patricians and wealthy plebeians allied together and took control over government
  23. 23. The Mediterranean – Roman Sea From 509 B.C. to 133 B.C. Rome grew from a small city to biggest empire in ancient world  How? First Rome became master of Italy  War with neighbors  Defeated Etruscans in North  Turned towards south to fight Greeks  Seek help from Pyrrhus and his war elephants  Victory over romans but with GREAT losses  Says another such victory will cause his ruin! By 265 BC- Rome controls all Italian Peninsula  Treated all conquered people with dignity and respect  Mercy and fair  Some even granted Roman citizenship
  24. 24. Rome dominates Western Mediterranean
  25. 25. Rome dominates Western Mediterranean B.C. Carthage war 241 First Punic War (264 B.C. – 241 B.C.) weary, signs peace treaty Rome wins Sicily  Fight over island of Sicily Carthage has to pay war loss Only way to win is to beat Carthage navy supremacy  Built their own boats  New fighting tactics  Instead of ramming into boats  Drop plank onto enemy boat  Soldiers run over and take over
  26. 26. Rome dominates Western Mediterranean Second Punic War (218 B.C. – 201 B.C.)  Carthage recovers from first war and spreads into Spain  Attacks roman ally city, Sagantum  Start war
  27. 27.  Hannibal  Carthaginian Commander  Strong character and leaders  Military tactics were genius  Once dropped barrels of snakes on enemy ship  Wanted to invade Italy and capture Rome  Crossed into Italy through Alps  Never gave up fighting against Romans  Lived to be 64 years old  Died from poison in his ring
  28. 28. Hannibalcrossingthe Alps intheSecondPunic War
  29. 29.  Battle of Cannae  Carthage losses- 6,000  Rome losses – 60,000 It took Rome a whole generation to recover from this loss.
  30. 30.  Scipio  Young Roman commander  Defeated Carthaginian forces in Spain  Moved on to attack Carthage, N. Africa  Hannibal called home to defend Carthage  Scipio and Romans won victory before he got home  Battle of Zama (202 B.C.) Carthage had to give up all territory outside of N. Africa Reduce fleet to 10 vessels Pay Rome war damages
  31. 31. 3rd Punic War 149 B.C. – 146 B.C. Romans fearful and jealous of Carthage prosperity Carthage breaks one provision of peace treaty Rome demands they move city ten miles inland  This would have hurt their trade and commerce  Carthage refuses  Fighting begins, 3 year siege  Rome takes city and destroys it  Sells inhabitants into slavery  Land becomes new roman province = Africa
  32. 32. Rome Dominates Eastern Mediterranean Power struggle in Eastern Mediterranean  Macedonia  Syria  Egypt Macedonia Conquers Syria Conquers Egypt Allies Rome provinces remain free as long as they did not rebel  Pay tribute to Rome (money or grain)  Rome offered them protection and order
  33. 33. Time for a parade!