Chapter 11      Mediterranean Society: The Roman      Phase                                                               ...
Establishment of Rome   Legend of Romulus and Remus   Rome Founded 753 BCE   Indo-European migrants c. 2000 BCE   Bron...
The Etruscans   Originally from Anatolia   Colonized Roman regions   Society declines late 6th c. BCE       Greek mari...
The Kingdom of Rome   Monarchy through 7th-6th c. BCE       Streets, temples, public buildings   Major center of trade ...
Establishment of the Republic   509 BCE Romans overthrow last Etruscan    king   Roman forum built   Republican constit...
Social Conflict   Patricians (aristocrats)   Plebeians (commoners)   Major class conflict 5th c. BCE   Plebeians allow...
Expansion of the Republic   Dominated Etruscans   Took over iron industry 5th-4th c. BCE   Expansion via military threa...
The Punic Wars   Conflict with Carthage, 264-164 BCE   Three major wars over Sicilian grain supply   Later conflict wit...
Imperial Expansion and DomesticProblems   Land distribution       Perennial problem       Development of large latifund...
The Roman Empire to 146 BCE                                                                                             10...
The Gracchi Brothers   Tiberius and Gaius   Attempted to limit land holdings of aristocrats   Assassinated   Developme...
Civil War   87 BCE Gaius Marius takes Rome   Lucius Cornelius Sulla drives Marius out 83    BCE   Reign of terror follo...
Julius Caesar   Nephew of Marius   Escapes Sulla’s terror       Relatively young, well-timed trip abroad   Rises to po...
Caesar’s Policies   Centralized military, governance under personal control   Redistribution of land to war veterans, ot...
Augustus   Civil conflict follows death of Caesar   Nephew Octavian fights Mark Antony &    Cleopatra   Takes title Aug...
Augustus’ Administration   Monarchy disguised as a republic   Increasing centralization of political, military    power...
Expansion and Integration of Empire   Roman occupation of increasingly remote areas       Gaul, Germany, Britain, Spain...
The Roman Empire, c. 117 CE                                                                                             18...
Pax Romana: “Roman Peace”   27-250 CE   Facilitated trade, communication   Roadwork       Curbs, drainage, milestones ...
Roman Law   Twelve Tables, c. 450 BCE   Adapted to diverse populations under Roman    Rule       Innocent until proven ...
Commercial Agriculture and Trade   Latifundia: production for export   Regional specialization increases   Integration ...
The City of Rome   Cash flow       Taxes, tribute, spoils, commerce   Massive construction projects       Statuary, mo...
Roman Attractions   Imported goods   Underground sewage   Circus Maximus       250,000 spectators   Colosseum   Glad...
Family and Society   Pater Familias: “father of the family”       Right to arrange marriages, sell children into        ...
Wealth and Social Change   Newly rich challenge aristocracy   Yet poor class increasing in size   Distraction: “Bread a...
Slavery   2nd c. CE: estimated at 1/3 of Empire population       Customary manumission at age 30   Agricultural work, q...
Roman Deities   Polytheistic   Major gods   Tutelary deities   Absorption of gods from other cultures                 ...
Cicero and Stoicism   Marcus Tullius Cicero (106-46 BCE)   Major orator, writer   Influenced by Greek thought   Propon...
Mithraism   From Zoroastrian myth: god of Sun, light   Roman version emphasizes strength, courage,    discipline   Wome...
Judaism in Early Rome   Jewish monotheism at odds with most ancient    cultures   Refusal to recognize state gods   Rep...
Synagogue at Capernaum                                                                                             31     ...
The Essenes   Messianic Jewish Cult   Baptism   Ascetic lifestyle   Dead Sea Scrolls                                  ...
Jesus of Nazareth   Jewish teacher   Moral code, reputation for miracle-working   Romans fear instigation of rebellion,...
Jesus’ Early Followers   Belief in Jesus’ resurrection, divine nature   Title Christ: “Anointed One”   Teachings record...
Paul of Tarsus   Extends teachings far beyond Jewish circles   Intensive travel, missionary activity                    ...
Early Christian Communities   Local leaders: Bishops   Regional variation in doctrine and ritual       Nature of resurr...
Growth of Early Christianity   Roman persecution   Yet dramatic expansion of Christianity       Especially with disposs...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

11 bentley3

332 views

Published on

0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
332
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
2
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
5
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

11 bentley3

  1. 1. Chapter 11 Mediterranean Society: The Roman Phase 1 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  2. 2. Establishment of Rome Legend of Romulus and Remus Rome Founded 753 BCE Indo-European migrants c. 2000 BCE Bronze c. 1800 BCE, Iron c. 900 BCE 2 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  3. 3. The Etruscans Originally from Anatolia Colonized Roman regions Society declines late 6th c. BCE  Greek maritime attacks  Celtic invasions from north 3 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  4. 4. The Kingdom of Rome Monarchy through 7th-6th c. BCE  Streets, temples, public buildings Major center of trade routes 4 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  5. 5. Establishment of the Republic 509 BCE Romans overthrow last Etruscan king Roman forum built Republican constitution Executive: 2 consuls senate 5 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  6. 6. Social Conflict Patricians (aristocrats) Plebeians (commoners) Major class conflict 5th c. BCE Plebeians allowed to elect tribunes for representation Rights expanded through 3rd c. BCE Yet 6-month appointments of dictators 6 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  7. 7. Expansion of the Republic Dominated Etruscans Took over iron industry 5th-4th c. BCE Expansion via military threat and incentives  Tax exemptions  Trade privileges  Citizenship 7 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  8. 8. The Punic Wars Conflict with Carthage, 264-164 BCE Three major wars over Sicilian grain supply Later conflict with declining Hellenistic Empires Rome dominates Mediterranean by middle of 2nd C. BCE 8 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  9. 9. Imperial Expansion and DomesticProblems Land distribution  Perennial problem  Development of large latifundia  Unfair competition for smaller landholders 9 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  10. 10. The Roman Empire to 146 BCE 10 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  11. 11. The Gracchi Brothers Tiberius and Gaius Attempted to limit land holdings of aristocrats Assassinated Development of private armies made up of landless peasants  Gaius Marius (with reformers)  Lucius Cornelius Sulla (with aristocrats) 11 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  12. 12. Civil War 87 BCE Gaius Marius takes Rome Lucius Cornelius Sulla drives Marius out 83 BCE Reign of terror follows 12 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  13. 13. Julius Caesar Nephew of Marius Escapes Sulla’s terror  Relatively young, well-timed trip abroad Rises to popularity  Public spectacles, victories in Gaul Attacks Rome 49 BCE Names self Dictator for life in 46 BCE 13 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  14. 14. Caesar’s Policies Centralized military, governance under personal control Redistribution of land to war veterans, other allies Major building projects reduce urban unemploymnent Extended citizenship to provinces Aristocrats threatened, assassinate Caesar in 44 BCE 14 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  15. 15. Augustus Civil conflict follows death of Caesar Nephew Octavian fights Mark Antony & Cleopatra Takes title Augustus 27 BCE 15 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  16. 16. Augustus’ Administration Monarchy disguised as a republic Increasing centralization of political, military power Stablilized empire Death in 14 CE 16 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  17. 17. Expansion and Integration of Empire Roman occupation of increasingly remote areas  Gaul, Germany, Britain, Spain Coordination of crop production, transport of natural resources Developed infrastructure, cities emerge 17 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  18. 18. The Roman Empire, c. 117 CE 18 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  19. 19. Pax Romana: “Roman Peace” 27-250 CE Facilitated trade, communication Roadwork  Curbs, drainage, milestones  Postal service 19 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  20. 20. Roman Law Twelve Tables, c. 450 BCE Adapted to diverse populations under Roman Rule  Innocent until proven guilty  Right to challenge accusers in court 20 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  21. 21. Commercial Agriculture and Trade Latifundia: production for export Regional specialization increases Integration of Empire-wide economy Mediterranean Sea: Mare Nostrum, “our sea” 21 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  22. 22. The City of Rome Cash flow  Taxes, tribute, spoils, commerce Massive construction projects  Statuary, monumental architecture, aqueducts Technology: concrete 22 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  23. 23. Roman Attractions Imported goods Underground sewage Circus Maximus  250,000 spectators Colosseum Gladitorial Games 23 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  24. 24. Family and Society Pater Familias: “father of the family”  Right to arrange marriages, sell children into slavery Women not allowed to inherit property  Rarely enforced 24 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  25. 25. Wealth and Social Change Newly rich challenge aristocracy Yet poor class increasing in size Distraction: “Bread and Circuses” 25 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  26. 26. Slavery 2nd c. CE: estimated at 1/3 of Empire population  Customary manumission at age 30 Agricultural work, quarries, mines Chain labor Revolt under Spartacus, 73 BCE 26 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  27. 27. Roman Deities Polytheistic Major gods Tutelary deities Absorption of gods from other cultures 27 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  28. 28. Cicero and Stoicism Marcus Tullius Cicero (106-46 BCE) Major orator, writer Influenced by Greek thought Proponent of Stoicism 28 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  29. 29. Mithraism From Zoroastrian myth: god of Sun, light Roman version emphasizes strength, courage, discipline Women not admitted into cult Appealed to military Cult of Isis also popular 29 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  30. 30. Judaism in Early Rome Jewish monotheism at odds with most ancient cultures Refusal to recognize state gods Repeated Jewish rebellions Romans finally crush Jewish self-governance in Jewish Wars (66-70 CE) 30 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  31. 31. Synagogue at Capernaum 31 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  32. 32. The Essenes Messianic Jewish Cult Baptism Ascetic lifestyle Dead Sea Scrolls 32 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  33. 33. Jesus of Nazareth Jewish teacher Moral code, reputation for miracle-working Romans fear instigation of rebellion, crucify Jesus 33 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  34. 34. Jesus’ Early Followers Belief in Jesus’ resurrection, divine nature Title Christ: “Anointed One” Teachings recorded in New Testament 34 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  35. 35. Paul of Tarsus Extends teachings far beyond Jewish circles Intensive travel, missionary activity 35 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  36. 36. Early Christian Communities Local leaders: Bishops Regional variation in doctrine and ritual  Nature of resurrection  Role of women Gradual acceptance of core texts 36 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.
  37. 37. Growth of Early Christianity Roman persecution Yet dramatic expansion of Christianity  Especially with dispossessed, disenfranchised classes  Urban poor  women 37 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display.

×