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  • 1. SOCIAL AND CULTURAL CONSIDERATIONS Session 3
  • 2. CULTURE DEFINED in an international marketing context
    • The sum total of learned beliefs, values and customs that serve to direct customer behaviour in a particular country market
  • 3. COMPONENTS OF CULTURE #1 Beliefs : A large number of mental and verbal processes which reflect our knowledge and assessment of products and services
  • 4. COMPONENTS OF CULTURE #2 Values: The indicators consumers use to serve as guides for what is appropriate behaviour, they tend to be relatively enduring and stable over time and widely accepted by members of a particular market
  • 5. CULTURAL VALUES AND THEIR RELEVANCE TO CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR Value Achievement & success Efficiency & practicality Progress Material comfort Individualism External conformity Youthfulness Features Success flows from hard work Admiration of things that solve problems People can improve themselves The ‘good life’ Being oneself Uniformity of observable behaviour State of mind that stresses being young at heart Relevance to behaviour Justification for acquisition of goods Stimulates purchase of well functioning products Ready acceptance of ‘new’/‘improved’ products Fosters acceptance of convenience/ luxury products Stimulates acceptance of customised or unique products Stimulates interest in products used by others Stimulates acceptance of products that promote youthfulness Source: Schiffman, L.G. & Kanuk, L. L. (2000)
  • 6. COMPONENTS OF CULTURE #3 Customs: Overt modes of behaviour that constitute culturally approved or acceptable ways of behaving in specific situations. Customs are evident at major events in ones life eg birth, marriage, death and at key events in the year e.g. Christmas, Easter, Ramadan, etc.
  • 7. Layers of Culture Hofstede (2003)
    • A national level
      • according to one’s country which determines our basic cultural assumptions.
    • A regional/ethnic/religious/linguistic affiliation level
      • determining basic cultural beliefs.
    • A gender level
      • according to whether a person was born as a girl or as a boy.
    • A generation level
      • which separates grandparents, parents and children.
    • A social class level
      • associated with educational opportunities, a person’s occupation or profession.
  • 8. A CULTURAL FRAMEWORK
  • 9. THE MAIN SILENT LANGUAGES IN OVERSEAS BUSINESS #1 Source: Hall & Hall (1987) Silent Language Implications For Marketing & Business
    • - Appointment scheduling
    • - The importance of being ‘on time’
    • The importance of deadlines
    • - Sizes of offices
    • Conversational differences between people
    • - The relevance of material possessions
    • - The interest in the latest technology
    Time Space Things
  • 10. THE MAIN SILENT LANGUAGES IN OVERSEAS BUSINESS #2 Silent Language Implications For Marketing & Business - The significance of trusted friends as social insurance in times of stress and emergency - Rules of negotiations based on laws, moral practices or informal customs Friendship Agreements
  • 11. CULTURAL INFLUENCES ON BUYER BEHAVIOUR Adapted from Jeannete & Hennessey; 2004
  • 12. ASSUMPTIONS TO BE QUESTIONED BY INTERNATIONAL MARKETING MANAGERS
    • Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs is consistent across cultures
    • The buying process in all countries is an individualistic activity
    • Social institutions and local conventions are similar across cultures
    • The consumer buying process is consistent across cultures
      • consumer involvement
      • perceived risk
      • cognitive style
  • 13. ELIMINATING SELF–REFERENCE CRITERIA
    • Define in terms of home country cultural traits, habits and norms
    • Define in terms of foreign cultural traits, habits and norms
    • Isolate and analyse SRC influences and see how if effects the problem
    • Redefine the problem without the SRC influence
  • 14. THE CONTEXTUAL CONTINUUM OF DIFFERING CULTURES Source: Usiner et al (2005) ) Swiss Germans Scandinavians North Americans English Italians/Spanish Latin Americans Arabs Japanese Low Context High Implicit Explicit Messages French
  • 15. HOFSTEDE’S CRITERIA (2001)
    • Individualism
      • Affects the way people live together
    • Power distance
      • Dealing with human inequality
    • Uncertainty avoidance
      • Managing future uncertainty
    • Masculinity
      • Male / female stereotyping
    • Confucian dynamism
      • Universalistic or particularistic
  • 16. POWER DISTANCE/INDIVIDUALISM DIMENSIONS ACROSS CULTURES Source: Hofstede (2003)
  • 17. COMMUNICATION TYPOLOGIES
    • Direct vs Indirect
      • Degree of explicitness of verbal messages
    • Elaborate vs Succinct
      • Quantity of talk people feel comfy with
    • Personal vs Contextual
      • The role of speaker and relationships
    • Instrumental vs Affective
      • The orientation of the speaker
    Gudykunst et al; 2005
  • 18. LINEAR MODEL OF THE NEGOTIATION PROCESS Non-task discussion Task-related exchange of information Persuasion Concession and agreement
  • 19. MINIMISING CULTURAL IMPACT IN NEGOTIATIONS
    • Adaptation
      • Demonstrate awareness of cultural differences
    • Interpreters
      • Influence meaning
    • Cultural Blocks
      • Not everything translates
    • Stereotype
      • Important to avoid
    • Inter-cultural preparation
    Source: Usiner and Lee (2005)