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  2. 2. THE RESEARCH PROCESS <ul><li>Define the problem </li></ul><ul><li>Develop an approach </li></ul><ul><li>Design the research </li></ul><ul><li>Undertake fieldwork </li></ul><ul><li>Analyse the data </li></ul><ul><li>Report and present findings </li></ul>ch4/
  3. 3. 3 FUNCTIONS OF INTERNATIONAL MARKET ANALYSIS <ul><li>Scanning international markets to identify and analyse opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>Building marketing information systems to monitor environmental trends </li></ul><ul><li>Carrying out primary marketing research for input into the development of marketing strategies </li></ul>ch4/
  4. 4. SCANNING INTERNATIONAL MARKETS <ul><li>Identification of opportunities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>accessibility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>profitability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>market size </li></ul></ul>ch4/
  5. 5. Nature of Competition and Level of Market Development ch4/
  6. 6. RESEARCHING INCIPIENT MARKETS <ul><li>Demand pattern analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple factor indices </li></ul><ul><li>Analogy estimation </li></ul><ul><li>Regression analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Macrosurvey technique </li></ul>ch4/
  7. 7. RESEARCHING UNDER-DEVELOPED MARKETS <ul><li>Lack of reliable secondary data </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural issues </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of communication infrastructure </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of literacy </li></ul><ul><li>No market research agencies </li></ul>ch4/
  9. 9. BUSINESS PORTFOLIO MATRIX ch4/ Source: Harrell G D and Kiefer R O (1993)
  10. 10. LIMITATIONS OF COUNTRY BASED SYSTEMS <ul><li>Market selection is geographically based </li></ul><ul><li>Effective secondary segmentation relies on the quality of the information base in each country </li></ul><ul><li>Risk of differentiated approach across international markets </li></ul><ul><li>Difficulty of applying controlled and consistent international marketing strategy </li></ul>ch4/
  11. 11. TRANSNATIONAL SEGMENTATION & METHODS <ul><li>Demographic: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>sex, age, income level, social class and educational achievement </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Psychographic: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>lifestyle factors - activities, interests and opinions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Behavioural: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>patterns of consumption, loyalty to product category and brand </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>needs benefits occasion usage </li></ul></ul>ch4/
  12. 12. EURO MOSAIC <ul><li>Claims to be the first pan-European segmentation system </li></ul><ul><li>Allows the classification of 500 million consumers across the European Union on the basis of the types of neighbourhood in which they live. </li></ul><ul><li>Elite suburbs </li></ul><ul><li>Average areas </li></ul><ul><li>Luxury flats </li></ul><ul><li>Low-income inner city </li></ul><ul><li>High-rise social housing </li></ul><ul><li>Industrial communities </li></ul><ul><li>Dynamic families </li></ul><ul><li>Low-income families </li></ul><ul><li>Rural agricultural </li></ul><ul><li>Vacation retirement </li></ul>ch4/
  13. 13. HIERARCHICAL COUNTRY-CUSTOMER SEGMENTATION STAGES # 1 <ul><li>Identify countries with the infrastructure to support the product and are accessible to the company </li></ul><ul><li>From these, select countries that meet certain qualifying criteria </li></ul><ul><li>Develop mini-segments; e.g. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>information search behaviour </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>product characteristics required </li></ul></ul>ch4/
  14. 14. HIERARCHICAL COUNTRY-CUSTOMER SEGMENTATION STAGES # 2 <ul><li>Look for similarities across segments to identify characteristics of demand for each segment. They can then be rated in terms of potential response </li></ul><ul><li>Use Cluster Analysis to identify meaningful cross-national segments which would evoke a similar response to any marketing mix strategy. </li></ul>ch4/
  15. 15. BUILDING MARKETING INFORMATION SYSTEMS - THE 12C FRAMEWORK ch4/ Country Culture/consumer Behaviour Concentration Channels Commitment Choices Caveats Consumption Communication Currency Contractual Obligations Capacity to Pay 12c
  16. 16. Market Profile Analysis ch4/
  17. 17. SOURCES OF INFORMATION INSTITUTONS <ul><li>Business libraries </li></ul><ul><li>University libraries </li></ul><ul><li>International chambers of commerce </li></ul><ul><li>International Market Intelligence Centre (Trade Partners UK) </li></ul><ul><li>Business Links </li></ul><ul><li>Embassies </li></ul><ul><li>Banks </li></ul><ul><li>Trade associations </li></ul><ul><li>Export councils </li></ul><ul><li>Overseas distributors </li></ul><ul><li>Overseas sales subsidiaries </li></ul><ul><li>Foreign brokerage houses </li></ul><ul><li>Foreign trade organisations such as JETRO </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(Japanese Export Trade and Research Organisation) </li></ul></ul>ch4/
  18. 18. SOURCES OF INFORMATION ON-LINE DATABASES <ul><li>Brand data </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Business Week </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Economist </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><li>European Union </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><li>UK Trade and Investment </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><li>UK Chambers of Commerce </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><li>United Nations </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><li>World Bank </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><li>World Fact Book </li></ul><ul><ul><li> factbook </li></ul></ul><ul><li>World Trade Organisation </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul>ch4/
  19. 19. PROBLEMS IN USING SECONDARY DATA <ul><li>Availability </li></ul><ul><li>Accessibility </li></ul><ul><li>Accuracy </li></ul><ul><li>Scarcity </li></ul><ul><li>Timeliness of collection </li></ul><ul><li>Way data is reported / interpreted </li></ul>ch4/
  20. 20. CARRYING OUT PRIMARY MARKETING RESEARCH INTERNATIONAL MARKETING RESEARCH PROCESS ch4/ Source: Adapted from Malhotra et al (2006) Problem Definition & Research Objectives - Comparability of the phenomenon/behaviour - Isolating the self-reference criterion (SRC) Developing an Innovative Approach - Networking - Multi-country studies - Consortium Organising the Research Study - Centralised versus de-centralised - In-house versus agency Research Design - Redefine research problem - Reliability and validity of research data - Appropriate use of qualitative research - Questionnaire design - Sampling design Fieldwork - Interviewee bias - Interviewer bias Analysis & Evaluation - Data preparation - Cross-country comparability Report Preparation & Presentation - Interpretation and presentation
  21. 21. ORGANISING THE RESEARCH STUDY Questions for the International Manager <ul><li>Should the research be carried out by foreign local subsidiaries or should all marketing research be centralised at headquarters? </li></ul><ul><li>Should the fieldwork be carried out in house or by an agency? </li></ul>ch4/
  22. 22. Options when choosing an Agency <ul><li>Local agency in the market under investigation </li></ul><ul><li>Domestic agency with offices overseas </li></ul><ul><li>Domestic agency with overseas associate companies </li></ul><ul><li>Domestic agency which subcontracts fieldwork to an agency in the market under investigation </li></ul><ul><li>Domestic agency with competent foreign staff </li></ul><ul><li>Global agency with offices around the world </li></ul>ch4/
  23. 23. MULTI-COUNTRY STUDIES <ul><li>Project discussed at length with the client </li></ul><ul><li>Fieldwork agencies in each country selected </li></ul><ul><li>Questionnaire designed centrally </li></ul><ul><li>Translated locally, translation checked centrally </li></ul><ul><li>Piloted locally </li></ul><ul><li>Finalised centrally </li></ul><ul><li>Interviewers briefed locally by executive of central company </li></ul><ul><li>Fieldwork carried out locally </li></ul><ul><li>Coding and editing plan provided for the local agencies </li></ul><ul><li>Edited and coded questionnaires returned to head office </li></ul><ul><li>Coding and editing check carried out centrally </li></ul><ul><li>Computing and analysis carried out centrally </li></ul>ch4/
  24. 24. Comparative Evaluation of Survey Methods ch4/ Malhotra et al (1997)