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Paralanguage a


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Paralanguage a

  1. 1. Paralanguage: Nonverbal Communication “ People are more frightened of being lonely than of being hungry, or being deprived of sleep, or of having their sexual needs unfulfilled” (Frieda Fromm Reichmenn).
  2. 2. Paralanguage: Communication by means other than language .
  3. 3. Paralanguage includes <ul><li>Facial expressions </li></ul><ul><li>Tones of voice </li></ul><ul><li>Gestures </li></ul><ul><li>Eye contact </li></ul><ul><li>Spatial arrangements </li></ul><ul><li>Patterns of touch </li></ul><ul><li>Expressive movements </li></ul><ul><li>Silence </li></ul>
  4. 4. Paralanguage : refers to all nonverbal communication actions (Kinesics and Proxemics)
  5. 5. Paralanguage i ncludes intentional and unintentional nonverbal messages
  6. 6. Paralanguage may be: <ul><li>Complementary </li></ul><ul><li>Unconscious </li></ul><ul><li>Learned </li></ul>
  7. 7. Universals and Cultural Variations <ul><li>eyebrow flash, the nose wrinkle </li></ul><ul><li>basic emotions: </li></ul><ul><li>--happiness, sadness, disgust, fear, anger, and surprise </li></ul>
  8. 8. The functions of nonverbal communication <ul><li>To repeat what was said verbally </li></ul><ul><li>To complement what was said verbally </li></ul><ul><li>To contradict what was said verbally </li></ul><ul><li>To substitute for what would be said verbally </li></ul><ul><li>To regulate and manage the communication event </li></ul>
  9. 9. Nonverbal communication divided into <ul><li>Kinesic and Proxemic acts </li></ul><ul><li>Kinesics: The study of nonverbal gestures, facial expressions, eye contact, and body posture </li></ul><ul><li>Proxemics: The study of the use of space, touch, and distance as features of nonverbal communication. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Inborn Nonverbal Actions <ul><li>Smiling </li></ul><ul><li>Crying </li></ul>
  11. 11. Universality versus Relativism <ul><li>Birdwhistell (1970) </li></ul><ul><li>Emblems: are gestures understood by participant of a communicative community to express a specific meaning </li></ul>
  12. 12. Cultural Specific Emblems <ul><li>Can you guess what the following gestures from Japan, France and Iran mean? </li></ul>
  13. 13. Could reflect social status and gender: In North America <ul><li>Dominance versus subordination </li></ul><ul><li>---more space--- take less space </li></ul><ul><li>---stare at others --- less eye contact </li></ul><ul><li>--- smile more-- smile less </li></ul>
  14. 14. Dangers of overgeneralizations <ul><li>Cannot assume everybody in a culture behaves the same way </li></ul><ul><li>Infrequent actions should not be used to characterize a culture </li></ul><ul><li>We should not ignore that nonverbal behaviors are part of complex communication processes </li></ul>
  15. 15. How do we communicate with those we don’t know? <ul><li>Leonard Zunin (The First Four Minutes, 1972) </li></ul><ul><li>Three common behaviours: </li></ul><ul><li>Which side of the path” look </li></ul><ul><li>I acknowledge you” look </li></ul><ul><li>Look—away priority” </li></ul>
  16. 16. Proxemics <ul><li>Edward, T Hall in 1963 </li></ul><ul><li>refers to touch and issues of personal space </li></ul>
  17. 18. Distance Between Faces Tone of Voice Type of Message very close (3-6 inches) soft whisper top secret or sensual close (8-12 inches) audible whisper very confidential neutral (20-36 inches) soft voice, low volume personal subject matter neutral (4.5-5 feet) full voice non-personal information across the room (8-20 feet) loud voice talking to a group stretching the limit
  18. 23. All nonverbal communication is best understood within cultural context <ul><li>Body movements </li></ul><ul><li>Eye contact </li></ul><ul><li>Facial expressions </li></ul><ul><li>Touch </li></ul>
  19. 24. Silence also part of nonverbal communication <ul><li>Sends nonverbal clues during communication </li></ul><ul><li>Culturally determined </li></ul><ul><li>Igbo s of Nigeria </li></ul>
  20. 25. Do you think that by studying nonverbal patterns can help us identify our own ethnocentric attitudes?