Nile Basin Challenge program : N3 on targeting and                                        scaling out                     ...
   Introduction   The conceptual framework   Classify the informal institutions(governance    structure) for Ethiopia ...
   Understanding what rainwater management    practice (RMP) works where?    ◦ Bio-physical    ◦ Socio-economic    ◦ Inst...
•   Identify the existing informal institutions in    Ethiopia•   Define their respective role and economic purpose•   Cla...
   Material    ◦ Literature review    ◦ Existing secondary data (IFPRI ERH survey, NBDC      farmers’ focus group discuss...
   Introduction   The conceptual framework   Describe the identified informal institutions(    structures) for Ethiopia...
   New institutional economics (Williamson    2000)    ◦ Multi-level approach of institutional analysis       Governance ...
Risk            reducti…            2Informati            1          credit   on            0 Conflict              Labor ...
   Introduction   The framework   Describe the identified informal    institutions(governance structures) for    Ethiop...
   Iddir   Eqqub   Mehber   Debo/Wonfel/Jigie/labor sharing   Oxen sharing   Elder’s group   Gadaa system   Women’...
Iddir : mainly organizes funeralactivities and supports financiallythe family 85% of HH are members Sometimes  ◦ Cover m...
   Primary role : risk reduction   Secondary role : credit, information, conflict    resolution
Mahber/Senbete-are voluntary and mutual aidcommunity (religious) associations peculiar toOrthodox Church followers. Finan...
   Primary role : risk reduction, Information   Secondary role : credit, labor, conflict    resolution
   Eqqub-an informal organization established    voluntarily to collect a specific amount of money    from the members on...
   Primary role:Credit   Secondary role: Information
   Women’s association- is a voluntary association of    women group who have explicit agreement to help    each other in...
   Primary role:Risk reduction, credit   Secondary role:information
   Debo/Wenfel/labor share-are arrangement of    agricultural work groups in rural Ethiopia.    ◦ “pooling the labor of a...
   Percentage of HH who                                     Percentage of HH who    called the members for              ...
   Primary role:labor(man) power   Secondary role:risk reduction, information
Pairing oxen if both households do not havesufficient oxen=> Considered similar to labor sharing
   Gadaa/Cheffee Kore-one form of social    organization based on the age-grade classes of    males that succeed every 8 ...
Primary role:conflict resolutionSecondary role:information, NRM                        Gadaa/Cheffee kore                 ...
   Elder’s’ Group- Group-called Shimagelay is a    traditional association of Elders people who are    elected by the loc...
0                    Village officialsLand use committee   Social courtVillage elders       Woreda court
   Primary role:Conflict resolution   Secondary role:NRM, Information
   Introduction   The conceptual framework   Classify the informal institutions(governance    structure)   Compare the...
   Cover specific issues connected to market failures    only
Gadaa/Cheffee kore                                               Risk reduction                                           ...
1.   Classify informal institutions in to three categories :     • Risk Reduction (iddir, mehber, women’s association)    ...
Classifying informal institutions (governance structures) in Ethiopia
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Classifying informal institutions (governance structures) in Ethiopia

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Presented by Kiros Habtu at an IWMI Seminar, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 19 April 2012.

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Classifying informal institutions (governance structures) in Ethiopia

  1. 1. Nile Basin Challenge program : N3 on targeting and scaling out By: Kiros Habtu 19 April 2012 Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
  2. 2.  Introduction The conceptual framework Classify the informal institutions(governance structure) for Ethiopia Compare the informal institutions(governance structures) Conclusion
  3. 3.  Understanding what rainwater management practice (RMP) works where? ◦ Bio-physical ◦ Socio-economic ◦ Institutional Often RMP requires cooperation between farmers (social capital) ◦ No maps for cooperation at basin scale Can we use informal institutions (governance structures) as a proxy for assessing cooperation/social capital?
  4. 4. • Identify the existing informal institutions in Ethiopia• Define their respective role and economic purpose• Classify informal institutions based on their roles
  5. 5.  Material ◦ Literature review ◦ Existing secondary data (IFPRI ERH survey, NBDC farmers’ focus group discussion) Methods ◦ Desk study on informal institutions in Ethiopia ◦ Development of a conceptual classification framework ◦ Applied the classification framework to Ethiopian context
  6. 6.  Introduction The conceptual framework Describe the identified informal institutions( structures) for Ethiopia Classify the structure Conclusion
  7. 7.  New institutional economics (Williamson 2000) ◦ Multi-level approach of institutional analysis Governance structure emerge to address particular issues linked specific transaction characteristics. Poor Economics by Banjeree and Duflo 2011 ◦ Rewriting economic theory from the perspective of the poor => Dimensions regulated by informal governance structures in developing countries
  8. 8. Risk reducti… 2Informati 1 credit on 0 Conflict Labor R. power NRM
  9. 9.  Introduction The framework Describe the identified informal institutions(governance structures) for Ethiopia Classify the structure Conclusion
  10. 10.  Iddir Eqqub Mehber Debo/Wonfel/Jigie/labor sharing Oxen sharing Elder’s group Gadaa system Women’s association
  11. 11. Iddir : mainly organizes funeralactivities and supports financiallythe family 85% of HH are members Sometimes ◦ Cover medical expenses ◦ Support oxen loss ◦ Compensation in case of fire Offer weather insurances ◦ Conflict resolution within the community ◦ Gives credit (23% in survey data) ◦ Shares information from campaigns (HIV) ◦ House construction
  12. 12.  Primary role : risk reduction Secondary role : credit, information, conflict resolution
  13. 13. Mahber/Senbete-are voluntary and mutual aidcommunity (religious) associations peculiar toOrthodox Church followers. Financial support to needy families Share information / campaign Sometimes ◦ Support sick person ◦ Gives credits ◦ Share information / campaigns ◦ Conflict resolution ◦ Organize collective action and labor sharing ◦ Supports funerals
  14. 14.  Primary role : risk reduction, Information Secondary role : credit, labor, conflict resolution
  15. 15.  Eqqub-an informal organization established voluntarily to collect a specific amount of money from the members on a specific date to be paid on round and lottery basis to the members (Rotating savings and credit associations) Gives credit Allows to save money Sometimes ◦ Information sharing ◦ Business trainings ◦ Consultancies
  16. 16.  Primary role:Credit Secondary role: Information
  17. 17.  Women’s association- is a voluntary association of women group who have explicit agreement to help each other in a specified way when well-defined events occur 25 % HH are members (IFPRI) Give credit to women Cover expenses that Iddir does not cover What they sometimes do: ◦ Share information
  18. 18.  Primary role:Risk reduction, credit Secondary role:information
  19. 19.  Debo/Wenfel/labor share-are arrangement of agricultural work groups in rural Ethiopia. ◦ “pooling the labor of a number of people from an area to assist one or more individuals with building a house, cultivating a large piece of land, or ploughing, harvesting crops, clearing forests and similar tasks through promises of future reciprocity among member participants Sometimes : ◦ Share information about common issues of member ◦ Support if unexpected natural catastrophies
  20. 20.  Percentage of HH who  Percentage of HH who called the members for work in work party(44%) reciprocity(63.4%) not call for work party call for work party 0 1
  21. 21.  Primary role:labor(man) power Secondary role:risk reduction, information
  22. 22. Pairing oxen if both households do not havesufficient oxen=> Considered similar to labor sharing
  23. 23.  Gadaa/Cheffee Kore-one form of social organization based on the age-grade classes of males that succeed every 8 years to serve the community in economic, political, military and social issues. Do mainly conflict resolution ◦ mainly about ressource related conflict Sometimes ◦ Resolve other conflicts ◦ Resource management ◦ Information sharing / campaigns ◦ Water management ◦ Management of wetlands ◦ Management of rangeland
  24. 24. Primary role:conflict resolutionSecondary role:information, NRM Gadaa/Cheffee kore Risk reduction 2 Information 1 credit 0 Conflict R. Labor power NRM
  25. 25.  Elder’s’ Group- Group-called Shimagelay is a traditional association of Elders people who are elected by the local community in order to serve the society in times of disagreements and coordinate them in common resource management. Mainly they do Conflict resolution ◦ Natural ressource related conflicts ◦ Boundaries conflict ◦ Family conflict ◦ Ethnic conflicts Sometimes ◦ Natural ressource management ◦ Information sharing
  26. 26. 0 Village officialsLand use committee Social courtVillage elders Woreda court
  27. 27.  Primary role:Conflict resolution Secondary role:NRM, Information
  28. 28.  Introduction The conceptual framework Classify the informal institutions(governance structure) Compare the informal institutions(governance structures) Conclusion
  29. 29.  Cover specific issues connected to market failures only
  30. 30. Gadaa/Cheffee kore Risk reduction 2 Information 1 credit 0 Conflict R. Labor power NRM Focus on social cohesion Play an important role in natural resource management though it is not their primary role
  31. 31. 1. Classify informal institutions in to three categories : • Risk Reduction (iddir, mehber, women’s association) • Market failure (Eqqub, Debo/Wenfel/labor/oxen sharing) • Conflict resolution (Elder’s group and gadda/cheffe)2. Institutions involved in risk reduction are more important for the cooperation/social captial • Might be the best proxy for cooperation /social capital3. No institution address natural resources management as a primary role

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