Webinars onWomen’s Collective Action (WCA) in Agricultural Markets Webinar 3: Synthesis of Findings Second Phase of Research Facilitated by
Where are we in the world today 11 Countries represented!• Canada • Netherlands• Ethiopia • Palestine• France • Philippines• India • USA• UK • Tanzania• Mali
What organisations are we from? Care USA Coady Oxfam GB Oxfam America Oxfam Novib Self-help Africa Oxfam Ireland Oxfam Canada Solidarity Eastern and Central Expertise Centre SNV
Who is Who? Presenting: Facilitating Discussion:Thalia Sally Ralph Claudia SallyKidder Smith Roothaert Canepa Baden Monitoring Chat: Technical Assistance: Hugo Kimberley Sally Amanda Sintes Loveday-Long King Shriwise
Agenda for today• Presentation of findings Thalia Kidder, Oxfam GB• Comments on implications Sally Smith, Independent Researcher Ralph Roothaert, Oxfam GB• Discussion in plenary • Research findings • Implications• Next steps...
Oxfam’s research on Women’s Collective Action A research, learning and communications project on women’s collective action (WCA) in agricultural markets Aims to identify: • the conditions • types of organisation, and • strategies of support…that enable women to take on strategic roles in markets in ways that increasewomen’s incomes, assets and empowerment.
The Research Question• To what extent and under what conditions does women smallholder’s engagement in market- focused collective action lead to gender equitable outcomes?• Who benefits?• Which benefits?• Does CA overcome constraints?
Beginnings of answers on WCA Design FindingGeneral: External support, government policies matter CA addresses production constraints, rarely social norms, time, land, etc. Various levels influence outcomes for women Look more closely at groups (don’t assume) – More production …. Less marketing – Women-only groups; Specialised groups (mostly ‘mixed’); – Who in Ethiopia: women heads of households – A spectrum of ‘mixed’ groups; groups evolve – Informal groups
The research done:• Primary level CA of small-holder farmers, formal and informal• Mali, Ethiopia, Tanzania – two regions & six sub- sectors each (rice, coffee, chicken…)• Qualitative, focus groups• 529 groups identified, over 200 studied• Describe CA in each sector: Benefits for women & how they vary? Why?
Conceptual Framework COLLECTIVE OUTCOMES, INDIVIDUAL IMPACT Incomes, building assets, empowermentLEGAL/POLICY PATTERNS OF COLLECTIVE CHARACTERISTICSFRAMEWORK OF SUB-SECTORS ACTION ASSET ENDOWMENT AGE, SKILLS, LITERACY FARMING SYSTEM WOMEN’S HOUSEHOLD DYNAMICS MOTIVATION AND CAPACITY NO COLLECTIVE ACTION
Which women join, and why? Design FindingMany factors relevant….• Entry fees, lack of information• Negative attitudes about women in groups• Land tenure – Mali: 3% women avg 0.5 ha; men 1.5 ha, but older women tend to have access to land – Tanz: FHH avg 1.6 ha, MHH 2.7 ha• Status in household: age, junior wives, FHH• Savings group formal producer group
Gendered patterns of CA• Government role: – Promoting support for women farmers; coop laws• External support: • Widespread, dominant feature• Functions: multi-functional, more production• Women’s Participation – a spectrum – Women’s groups with token men – Membership doesn’t equate with leadership• Formal linked to informal – Informal labour-sharing, savings groups• Evolution of groups
Benefits for Women?• Common benefits for women – Social support, income, inputs-training-savings, labour• Women-only groups – Social cohesion, skills, leadership, family responsibility• Specialised organisations – More economic benefits, less leadership and voice?• Mixed groups – Tanz: overcoming ‘husbands’ restrictions’
Constraints (for women) in agr markets Design Finding Constraint more so for CA women… helping?Buyers Low volumes for sale– side * * Limited capital * *Farmer Transport – mobilityside * Family responsibilities * Social norms * Little market info, lack of * business skills & organisation * Collusion between middlemen * and wholesalers
Constraints for women not (often) addressed• Land tenure• Literacy• Family responsibilities• Linking women to profitable markets• Time poverty• Mobility and transport• Social attitudes
Thank you!1) Any questions for clarification purposes?2) What findings did you find the most interesting or surprising, and why? Please submit via ‘chat’ box (moderators tab)
Commentators• Sally Smith Independent Consultant• Ralph Roothaert Tanzania Agricultural Scale Up Programme Coordinator
Implications: Sally Smith• Important addition to knowledge base on CA in agriculture - – Shows complexity; contrasts with way (women’s) CA is usually portrayed; – Important implications for key development actors and initiatives, e.g. CAADP, AGRA, Making Markets Work for the Poor• Raises ‘why’ questions for investigation in Phase 3- – Shea in Mali – specialised, high value but dominated by women, why? – access to land – how and why here not elsewhere? – Explore ‘exceptions’, especially those with positive outcomes for women• Marketing function important –linked to greater economic benefits. – what brings groups to marketing function? sub-sector needs, policy environment, donor support, etc. – Is this function is transferable (e.g. From rice in Mali to staple crops elsewhere)
• Mixed and women-only groups – Is extending functions of women’s groups feasible/desirable to get more economic benefits? – Is enhancing position of women in mixed groups more effective long term (to address structural causes of gender inequality)?• Critical to know disabling factors and how they are overcome in different socio-cultural contexts – E.g., What hinders WCA in sectors traditionally under women’s control and how have these constraints been overcome for ‘exceptions’? – How did men’s attitudes to WCA change in Mali? WCA may not be the best tool – what other strategies have worked (e.g. labour-saving technology, gender sensitisation, etc.)?• Indications of strong influence of governance structures and group dynamics – How do leadership, mission and values of groups affect outcomes? – What’s the role of linked organisations in these dynamics (e.g. second tier CA, buyers, NGOs)• Indications of changes in intra-household gender relations where women are contributing to household income. – how and when does this occur (e.g. only where groups have marketing function?) – what does it mean in terms of women’s empowerment?
Implications: Ralph Roothaert OverviewImplications for Oxfam’s agriculture programme• External influences on WCA across countries: – Cultural – Government – NGOs• Importance of other movements• Degree of formality of groups
How do external factors influence WCA and agricultural value chains in a market system?Enabling environment, e.g. cultural, governmentInputs Production Processing Distribution Consumption WCA WCA WCA Finance and supporting services, e.g. NGOs
Importance of other initiatives and movements to reach scale• Many NGOs or government programmes promote group formation; difficult to reach scale of WCA without them. – Farmer and gender networks – Women empowerment• Programmes need to ‘piggy back’ on existing positive internal or external movements that affect women organisations in agriculture – Good leadership – Role models
Degree of formality of groups• The definition of formal and informal groups or CA is very difficult and tends to be blur. – E.g. Formal groups in Tanzania have informal components of saving groups• It is more difficult to identify or access informal groups in the field because of their informal nature. Proper assessment of informal groups needs more time from researchers.• In Mali, formal groups trigger informal groups upstream (towards production). This could be a lead towards identifying more informal groups elsewhere.
To wrap up• Programmatic value chain approaches need to focus on enabling environment. The research has provided important lessons on cultural institutions from which contextual guidelines can be formed on group formation.• We should link our approaches of facilitating WCA with dynamic movements that happen regardless• Lessons on informal WCA are very diverse. We need more research to draw general conclusions or link findings to conditions.
Q&A• Answers to questions seeking clarification on research process or findings
Let’s discuss!• Your views on what you found most interesting or surprising…
New Ideas?! How might you improve your agr/markets programme or policy work? C. Address B. Rigorous Selection gender- D. Support groups of GROUPS to support– specific to evolve andA. POLICY context E. Other? considering formal and BARRIERS to improve informal women FUNCTIONS participatingPlease chat your ideas to us!
Constraints for women farmers to engage in markets Doing well A challenge Learn moreLow volumes for saleLimited capitalMobility & transportFamily responsibilitiesSocial normsTime povertyLack of marketing or linksto buyersIlliteracyLittle market info or fewbusiness skillsLand tenure
Phase III research• Nov 2011-June 2012• Qualitative: case studies of development interventions on women’s collective action which strategies effective and why?• Quantitative: surveys of hhs and women who participates in CA and who benefits?
Upcoming WCA webinars• Three more webinars coming next year: – January: Innovative types of groups that enable greater inclusion by women (Coady) – February/March: Women producers, collective enterprises & Fair Trade (WIEGO) – May: Evolution of groups (Care/Coady) Co- organised by:
Thank you! Visit us at http://womenscollectiveaction.com/Webinarsfor a summary of this webinar and information on upcoming webinars!