Classical approach of Management

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A simple presentation about the classical approach of Management.

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  • “one best way for doing the job”
  • Taylor insisted that management itself would have to change and further, that the manner of change could be determined only by scientific study
  • Followers of Taylor
  • Classical approach of Management

    1. 1. INTRODUCTION TO CLASSICAL APPROACH<br />
    2. 2. DEFINITION OF CLASSICAL APPROACH<br /> “Classical approach of management professes the body of management thought based on the belief that employees have only economical and physical needs and that the social needs & need for job satisfaction either does not exist or are unimportant. Accordingly it advocates high specialization of labour,centralized decision making & profit maximization.”<br />
    3. 3. Classical approach is the oldest formal school of thought which began around 1900 and continued into the 1920s.<br />Its mainly concerned with the increasing the efficiency of workers and organizations based on management practices, which were an outcome of careful observation.<br />Classical approach mainly looks for the universal principles of operation in the striving for economic efficiency.<br />Classical approach includes scientific, administrative & bureaucratic management.<br />
    4. 4. SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT focuses on the “one best way” to do a job. <br />ADMINISTRATIVE MANAGEMENT focuses on the manager & basic managerial functions.<br />BUREAUCRACTIC MANAGEMENT focuses on the guidelines for structuring with formaliazation of rules,procedures and a clear division of labour.<br />
    5. 5. MAJOR CONTRIBUTORS<br />FREDERICK WINSLOW TAYLOR<br /> (1856-1915)<br />FRANK GILBERTH (1868-1924) & LILLIAN GILBERTH(1878-1972)<br />
    6. 6. HENRI FAYOL <br /> (1841-1925)<br />MAX WEBER<br /> (1864-1920)<br />
    7. 7. CLASSICAL APPROACH<br />SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT THEORY<br />FREDERICK W.TAYLOR (1856-1915) <br /> - FATHER OF SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT<br />ANALYSED MANAGEMENT SCIENTIFICALLY TO FIND OUT THE MOST EFFICTIVE WAY TO DO A JOB - “ONE BEST WAY” TO DO THE JOB.<br />GENERAL ADMINSTRATIVE MANAGEMENT THEORY<br />HENRI FAYOL (1841- 1925)<br /> - FATHER OF MODERN MANAGEMENT<br />ANALYSED MANAGEMENT AS A UNIVERSAL PROCESS OF PLANNING,ORGANIZING, COMMANDING,COORDINATI-NG& CONTROLLING. ALSO INTRODUCED FOURTEEN PRINCIPLES OF MANAGEMENT.<br />
    8. 8. THEORIES<br />TAYLOR’S THEORY OF SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT<br />FAYOL’S ADMINISTRATIVE THEORY<br />WEBER’S THEORY OF BUREAUCRACY<br />
    9. 9. SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT<br />
    10. 10. FEDRICK WINSLOW TAYLOR(1856-1915) Father of Scientific Management<br />“one best way for doing the job”<br />
    11. 11. Definition <br />
    12. 12.
    13. 13.
    14. 14.
    15. 15. Time Studies<br />
    16. 16.
    17. 17. 1.Pig Iron<br />
    18. 18.
    19. 19. 2.The Science of Shoveling<br />
    20. 20. The main things Taylor noticed for inefficiency <br />
    21. 21.
    22. 22.
    23. 23.
    24. 24. General approach<br />
    25. 25. Contributions<br />
    26. 26. Criticism <br />
    27. 27. FRANK B GILBRETH & LILLIAN M GILBRETH<br /> Followers of Taylor<br />
    28. 28.
    29. 29. Experiments <br />
    30. 30.
    31. 31. Implementation <br />
    32. 32. Drawbacks of Scientific Management<br />
    33. 33.
    34. 34. General Management Theory<br />
    35. 35. <ul><li>Henri Fayol(1841-1925)Father of modern operational management theory</li></li></ul><li>Fayol:-French mining engineer and a management theorist.-Started as an engineer at a mining company and became Director in 1888.- Viewed management as a profession that can be trained and developed.-First one to analyze the functions of management.<br />
    36. 36. Contd.<br />-Made three major contributions to the theory of Management:<br />(A)A clear distinction b/n technical & managerial skills. (B)Identified functions constituting the management process. (C)Developed principles of management.<br />
    37. 37. (A) According to,-Activities of an industrial enterprise can be grouped in to six categories: technical, commercial, financial, security, accounting & managerial.<br />
    38. 38.
    39. 39. (B) Fayol described management as a scientific process built up of five immutable elements: Planning, Organizing, Commanding, Coordinating, Controlling<br />
    40. 40. Functions of Management<br />1. Planning –process of activities required<br /> to meet a goal.<br />2. Organizing – making orderly determination & arrangement of a task.<br />3. Commanding(Directing) – involves guiding, supervising, motivating & leading people for attainment of the time-oriented tasks.<br />
    41. 41. Contd.<br />4. Coordinating- bringing together the elements<br />5. Controlling- having control over all of the aspects that contribute to meeting the goal.<br />
    42. 42. (C) Fayol’s Principles<br />Henri Fayol, developed a set of 14 principles:<br />1. Division of Labour:allows for job specialization. <br />Fayol noted firms can have too much specialization leading to poor quality and worker involvement.<br />2.. Authority and Responsibility:Fayol included both formal and informal authority resulting from special expertise.<br />3.Discipline:obedient, applied, respectful employees needed<br />4. Line of Authority:a clear chain from top to bottom of the firm[ ‘Gang Plank’]<br />5. Centralization:the degree to which authority rests at the very top.<br />
    43. 43. Fayol’s Principles<br />6. Unity of Direction:One plan of action to guide the organization.<br /> 7. Unity of Command:Employees should have only one boss.<br />8. Order:Each employee is put where they have the most value.<br /> 9. Initiative:Encourage innovation.<br />10. Equity:Treat all employees fairly in justice and respect.<br />
    44. 44. Fayol’s Principles<br />11. Remuneration of Personnel:The payment system contributes to success.<br />12. Stability of Tenure:Long-term employment is important.<br />13. General interest over individual interest:The organization takes precedence over the individual.<br />14. Esprit de corps: ‘Union is strength’-refers to harmony & mutual understanding among the members of an organization.<br />
    45. 45. MAX WEBER(1864-1920)<br />
    46. 46. German theorist and sociologist.<br />Follower of General Administrative Theory proposed by Henry Fayol.<br />Introduced most of the concepts on Bureaucratic Organizations.<br />
    47. 47. During 1800’s, European Org. were managed on a personal, family-like basis.<br />Employees loyal towards a single individual.<br />Resources used to realize individual desires.<br />Weber envisioned Org. would be managed on an impersonal, rational basis. This form of Org. is known as Bureaucracy.<br />Birth of Bureaucracy<br />
    48. 48. Org. based on rational authority would be more efficient and adaptable to changes.<br />Employee selection and advancement is based on competence and technical qualification.<br />Org. relies on rules and regulations which are impersonal and applied uniformly to all employees.<br />Characteristics<br />
    49. 49. Division of labour.<br />Positions in an Org. are organised in a hierarchy.<br />Managers depends not on personality for successfully giving orders but on legal power invested in managerial position.<br />Cont…<br />
    50. 50.
    51. 51. Today, the term Bureaucracy is taken on a negative meaning.<br />Its associated with endless rules and red tapism.<br />But still they provide a standard way of dealing with employees.<br />Equal treatment for all employees.<br />This foundation enables many Org. to become extremely efficient.<br />
    52. 52. MANAGEMENT AS AN ART<br /> Art means the application of knowledge and personal skills to achieve desired result. Art involves practical application of theoretical knowledge and skill. Management is an art because it fulfils this feature. <br />
    53. 53. Management as an art: features<br />Situational<br />Personal skill<br />Personal judgment<br />Continuous practice<br />Practical knowledge<br />
    54. 54. Management as a science<br /> Science is a systematically organized body of knowledge. It is based on logically observed findings, facts and events. It consist of exact principles which are capable of verification and its findings are universaltruths and could be applied in any situation.<br />
    55. 55. Management as a science: features<br />Management is now a systematized body of knowledge.<br />Principles and theories are now available in every area of management.<br />Principles of management has evolved through practical experience and theoretical research.<br />Management principles have wide range of application<br />Management theory and principles can be taught in classrooms and industry.<br />
    56. 56. Management- Both art and science<br /> It means management is a combination of an organized body of knowledge and skillful application of this knowledge.<br /> It is a science because it uses certain principles.<br />It is a art because it requires continuous practice and personal skill<br />Thus science and art in management exist together in every function of management.<br />

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