Food Security in Africa:             Challenges and Policy Options to Ensure Africa’s Future                              ...
Social and Cultural Rights entered into force including an article on the right to adequate food asfollows: “Every man, wo...
ultimately earn less money, and are more frequently ill than adults who enjoy a normal dietaryintake as children.Research ...
Figure1. Prevalence of overweight by country     Ethiopia Madagascar         DRC     Rwanda      Malawi Mozabique     Ugan...
1.7 percent, while the average annual population growth rate was 2.8 percent. Food importsincluding food aid in Africa hav...
capacity, and is likely to reduce output (Antle and Pingali,1994). Malnutrition and diseasepatterns influence market deman...
planning stage; and foods not being preserved appropriately. In agriculture, the food losses arelargely attributable to ha...
Policy Recommendations   1. Africa’s agricultural growth during the last few years have emanated from area expansion      ...
11. Index-based weather insurance schemes for crops and livestock should be investigated as    a solution to covariance ri...
security should include provision of educational facilities and teachers, and promotion of       school enrolment, attenda...
ReferencesAgyare-Kwabi, P. 2003. Women and Food Security in West Africa. A paper presented at aseminar on Women, Integrate...
Keverenge-Ettyang, G., C. Neumann and J. Ernst. 2010. Food security among HIV-infected rural      Kenyan women. Research B...
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Food Security in Africa: challenges and policy options to ensure Africa's future

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Presentation by Dr. Kwadwo Asenso-Okyere (IFPRI) at Wheat for Food Security in Africa conference, Oct 8, 2012, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

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Food Security in Africa: challenges and policy options to ensure Africa's future

  1. 1. Food Security in Africa: Challenges and Policy Options to Ensure Africa’s Future Kwadwo Asenso-Okyere, Director, Eastern and Southern Africa Region, International Food Policy Research InstituteIntroductionThe 1974 United Nations World Food Conference, held in Rome, defined food security as “theavailability at all times of adequate world supplies of basic foodstuffs, primarily cereals, so as toavoid acute food shortages in the event of widespread crop failures or natural disasters, sustain asteady expansion of production and reduce fluctuations in production and prices” (FAO 1974).However, since 1974, the concept of food security has undergone numerous transformations.During the two decades after the World Food Conference, the thinking on food securityunderwent three paradigm shifts: “(a) from the global and the national to the household and theindividual, (b) from a food first perspective to a livelihood perspective, and (c) from objectiveindicators to subjective perception.” These shifts are discernible when comparing how foodsecurity was redefined through these years.Nearly ten years after the 1974 Conference, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the UnitedNations (FAO 1983) published a reappraisal of world food security concepts in which foodsecurity was defined as “ensuring that all people at all times have both physical and economicaccess to the basic food that they need.” Through its focus on access to food, this definitionbalances out the supply-side dominant understanding of food security during the 1970s. Thisemphasis on access is also accompanied by a significant shift from the global to the individuallevel. These changes remain central to subsequent revisions of the food security concept. Forexample, three years later the World Bank (1986) released the following definition of foodsecurity: “Access by all people at all times to enough food for an active, healthy life.” With thisdefinition, the conceptualization of food security shifts further to incorporate food use andstability as fundamental dimensions of the nature of food security. Food provides energy forgrowth, physical activity and basic human functions. Children require food for the developmentof their future potential and adults require food to develop the full range of their capabilities andfunction at their best.The widely accepted and cited 1996 World Food Summit definition of food security, whichprevails as the current thinking on food security, succinctly builds on the versions that precede it:“Food security exists when all people, at all times, have physical and economic access tosufficient, safe and nutritious food that meets their dietary needs and food preferences for anactive and healthy life” (FAO 2006). This definition underscores four main dimensions of foodsecurity: food availability, food access, food use, and the stability of these conditions. Foodsecurity is a multidisciplinary concept which includes economic, political, demographic, social(discriminatory food access), cultural (eating habits), and technical aspects.In 1974, the United Nations Food Conference adopted the Universal Declaration on theEradication of Hunger and Malnutrition. In 1976, the International Covenant on Economic, 1
  2. 2. Social and Cultural Rights entered into force including an article on the right to adequate food asfollows: “Every man, woman, and child has the inalienable right to be free from hunger andmalnutrition in order to develop fully and maintain their physical and mental faculties”. SomeAfrican countries have incorporated the right to food in their constitution.Status of Food Security in Africa (Hunger and Malnutrition)Nutritional problems include: (i) protein-energy-malnutrition, (ii) micronutrient deficiencies, and(iii) over-weight. There is a popular saying, “We are what we eat”. Vulnerability to malnutritiondepends on what we eat.The United Nation’s Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) estimates that nearly one billionpeople go hungry every day in the world. More than one in four Africans – close to 218 millionpeople in 2006-2008 – are undernourished, and food security is precarious. According to the2011 Global Hunger Index which is the average of three indicators, the proportion of thepopulation that is undernourished, the prevalence of underweight children under five years old,and proportion of children dying before age five, Africa south of the Sahara (SSA) is home to 26countries with “extremely alarming” or “alarming” scores. Economic performance and hungerare inversely correlated.It seems that many African countries may not be able to achieve the Millennium DevelopmentGoal 1 which seeks to reduce to half the proportion of the population experiencing hunger andpoverty by 2015. Hunger and malnutrition in Africa have led to low birth weight for children,low scores for weight-for-height (wasting), height-for-age (stunting) and low body mass index(for adults). More than 90 percent of the world’s stunted children live in Africa and Asia, whererates of stunting are 40 percent and 36 percent respectively (Grebmer et al 2010). Even insituations where there has been massive food aid, food security has not been maintained on asustainable manner. Food aid as a social protection measure may be good as a coping mechanismfor transient hunger but does not ensure long-term food security.It is an irony that in a continent with high levels of underweight (body mass index less than18.5), there is also a growing number of people who are overweight or obese (body mass indexgreater than 25) – the double burden of undernutrition and overweight in Africa Figure 1). InUganda, one in every third woman is over-weight and this phenomenon is not only urban based.Rural areas in Uganda have experienced a higher percentage increase in overweight.Surprisingly, overweight/obesity is increasingly occurring among lower income households.(http://who.int/nutgrowthdb/database). The speed of nutrition transition is increasing thelikelihood of stunting and over-weight co-existing in the same households. Given the high levelof underweight in some countries, food waste in the form of excessive nutrition which iscontributing to the increase in the obesity epidemic appears extremely unacceptable.Figure 1. Prevalence of overweight by countryHunger and undernourishment form a vicious circle which is often “passed on” from generationto generation: The children of impoverished parents are often born underweight and are lessresistant to disease (von Braun, Arnold and Preub, 2007). Adults who were undernourished aschildren are physically and intellectually less productive, attain a lower level of education, 2
  3. 3. ultimately earn less money, and are more frequently ill than adults who enjoy a normal dietaryintake as children.Research conducted by IFPRI, Cornell University and World Vision in Haiti found that theearlier and the longer food supplementation is provided before the child reaches two years ofage, the greater the benefits not only on growth in early life, but also on long-term physical,cognitive, and reproductive performance (Rural21, 2008). In Guatemala, boys who participatedin an early childhood intervention that improved their nutrition during the first two to three yearsof life had 46 percent higher wages in adulthood than those who did not participate in theintervention (Hoddinott et al. 2008). Thus the first two years of life are crucial period for achild’s physical and cognitive development. Any compromise to availability of food forhouseholds will therefore have long term consequences for human capacity development.Recent evidence shows that the window of opportunity for improving child nutrition spans theperiod from -9 to +24 months (that is, 1,000 days between conception and a child’s secondbirthday) (Grebmer et al 2010). This is the period when children are in greatest need of adequateamounts of nutritious food, preventive and curative health care, and age-appropriate carepractices for healthy development and when interventions are most likely to preventundernutrition from setting in. After age two, the effects of undernutrition are largelyirreversible.From the time of ancient Rome to the Middle Ages and for many centuries thereafter, people,especially the less wealthy – spend most of their days on the street and enjoyed ready-preparedfoods or snacks purchased in shops or from street vendors. Street food represents practical, low-cost foods which are increasingly linked to the culture of the countries in which they originated.The spread of street food has been associated with urbanization, and has become an essentialcomponent of the food system and to a small degree, contributes to solving the problem of foodsecurity. It is a cheap and functional way of satisfying the basic nutritional needs of low incomepopulations. Street food has become very popular in many African countries and there are manypeople whose source of meals is street food. Street food is an indisputable source of income forlarge numbers of farmers. In Zambia, for example, the street food market generates revenues of100 million dollars and employs close to 16,000 people (typically women with a very loweducational level). In Africa, street food supplies the means for 80 percent of urban population tofeed itself and represents around 40 percent of food spending(http://barillacfn.com/en/news/street-food/). 3
  4. 4. Figure1. Prevalence of overweight by country Ethiopia Madagascar DRC Rwanda Malawi Mozabique Uganda United R.… Zambia Comoros Kenya Zimbabwe Namibia Lesotho Swaziland RSA 0 20 40 60 BMI>25 for womenSource: http://who.int/nutgrowthdb/databaseCauses of food insecurityLow productivity and production. Domestic food production accounts for about 80 percent ofAfrica’s food consumption (UNEP 2002). Increasing agricultural productivity can increase foodavailability and access as well as rural incomes. The large gap between potential and current cropyields makes increased food production attainable. Africa’s low agricultural productivity hasmany causes, including scarce and scant knowledge on improved practices, low use of improvedseeds and breeds, low fertilizer use, inadequate irrigation, conflict, absence of strong institutions,ineffective policies, lack of incentives, and prevalence of diseases. Climate change couldsubstantially reduce yields in a continent where only 4 percent of cropland is irrigated, comparedwith a global average of 20 percent.Agricultural output has not kept pace with population increase in Africa, currently at a rate of 2.4percent. For instance, between 1965 and 1990, agricultural production grew at an annual rate of 4
  5. 5. 1.7 percent, while the average annual population growth rate was 2.8 percent. Food importsincluding food aid in Africa have increased substantially to offset the deficiencies, with foodimports reaching about $30 billion annually in the last few years. If the situation does notchange, the food gap is projected to increase to more than nine times the present gap by 2020(Agyare-Kwabi 2003), and this will drive up prices and aggravate hunger and malnutrition.Inequality. In many African homes food is prepared to satisfy the father or husband at thedetriment of women and children. The detrimental situation of women and children isparticularly serious, as well as the situation among female teenagers, who receive less food thantheir male counterparts in the same households (Sasson 2012).In Africa, women grow most of the food, and process, purchase, and prepare food for theirfamilies, yet they have restrictions on the use of land and inputs such as improved seeds andfertilizer, and limited access to information. Customary and formal tenure systems havemarginalized women’s rights in favor of more limited user rights. This tenure insecurity makeswomen less likely to invest time and resources in land or adopt environmentally sustainablefarming practices. Meeting the growing food needs in Africa puts premium on the capabilitiesand resources of African women. Unequal rights and obligations within the household, as well aslimited time and financial resources, often block women’s potential in agriculture (UNDP 2012).Small farm sizes. Smaller farm sizes lower levels of surplus farm production, which in turn islikely to exacerbate households’ capital constraints and depress their demand for purchasedinputs and new technologies (Jayne and Muyanga 2011). There is evidence about the existenceof positive relationship between farm size and farm income in agrarian rural settings. Using datafrom Ethiopia, Kenya, Rwanda, Mozambique, and Zambia, Jayne et al (2003) showed thatincreases of farm size from below 0.5 hectare to about 2.5 hectares (when adjusting for meanfamily size) are associated with large increases in household income. Given that mostsmallholder farms are well below 2.5 hectares in size, it is likely that measures to promote accessto additional land may reap very high payoffs in terms of rural poverty reduction. Using datafrom Ethiopia, Diao et al (2005) also showed that food deficit areas had mean farm holding(hectares per household) of 0.57 hectare, food balanced areas was 0.94 hectare and food surplusareas was 1.38 hectares. This shows that as farm holding increased households moved from fooddeficit to food surplus. Thus increasing farm size has positive impact on household income andfood security. It is when the returns from the farm enterprise increase would farmers be able tomake the necessary investments to transform subsistence to commercial agriculture and play amajor role in the agriculture value chain and reap additional returns for improvements in thefarm and the livelihood of the farm household.Disease and health. Poor health affects agricultural production and food consumption. It lessensthe farmer’s ability to innovate, experiment, and operationalize changes in agricultural systems.A farmer who is ill cannot attend a farmer field school or interact with an extension officer tolearn about new technologies and improved practices, and so may lack the knowledge toinnovate. Experimentation on technology adoption and improved practices would be too costlyfor a farm household that is spending a lot of money on healthcare and is losing labor to illness.The nutrition and health status of adults affect the duration of labor force participation and theintensity of work effort. Poor health will result in a loss of days worked or in reduced worker 5
  6. 6. capacity, and is likely to reduce output (Antle and Pingali,1994). Malnutrition and diseasepatterns influence market demand for food quantity, quality, diversity, and the price people areable or willing to pay. Limited access to food may occur in a household if individuals are too illor overburdened to produce or earn money to buy food (Keverenge-Ettyang et al., 2010). Highrates of preventable diseases, viz. HIV and AIDS, malaria are among the major factors leading tohigh proportion of people who cannot meet their calorie requirements.Absence or non-functional markets (local, regional and international). One incentive forincreased production is access to markets. It is unfortunate that markets in Africa are not welldeveloped and so lacks integration. Often food will be in abundance at production centers whenthere is scarcity at consumption centers. Thus differences in prices at the two centers cannot beexplained by simple arbitrage. Border rigidities and uncoordinated standards make itcumbersome for food to move from one country to another. This discourages innovation inagriculture and contributes to the low levels of productivity.Staple foods with low nutrients. African countries have diverse staple foods ranging from a largenumber of root crops (yam, cocoyam, cassava, potato) to large number of cereals (rice, sorghum,millet, maize, teff, barley, wheat) and plantain and banana. The wide range of staples allows forsubstitutability when relative prices change but the drawback is cultural and taste preferences forparticular staples crops. Many of the staples have low nutrients (vitamins and micronutrients)and so without diversifying the diet many people do not get the required nutrients for a healthylife.Poverty. Economic performance and hunger are inversely correlated. Countries with high levelsof gross national income (GNI) per capita tend to have low GHI scores, and countries with lowlevels of GNI per capita tend to have high GHI scores, holding other factors constant (Grebmeret al 2010). Poverty and food shortages are the main catalysts of food insecurity in the world. In2004, 121 million Africans south of the Sahara lived on less than a meagre US$ 0.50 a day (ultrapoor). People living on less than US$ 1.00 per day are unable to pay the prices they would needto buy all of the staple food they require, and meat and fish consumption for many poor Africansis a luxury. Although the share of the population living in extreme poverty in SSA declined bymore than 10% to 48% between 1999 and 2008, SSA still has the highest concentration of theultra-poor in the world (Ahmed et al. 2007). Despite the rapid economic growth rate in SSA overthe past decade, there is historical evidence that this has not been converted into povertyreduction as effectively as in other developing regions like East Asia and the Pacific.Poverty constrains the ability of farming households to invest in productive assets andagricultural technologies, resulting in insufficient agricultural productivity.Food Waste. FAO estimates that the global food waste is about 1.3 billion tons, equivalent toabout a third of the food production intended for human consumption. In developing countries,the most significant losses are concentrated at the first part of the food supply chain, primarilydue to limits in the cultivation, harvesting, and preservation techniques, or due to a lack ofadequate transportation and storage infrastructures. Waste in the home arises due to thedifficulties consumers have with correctly interpreting food labeling; the preparation of over-generous portions and dishing more than can be consumed; mistakes made at the purchase 6
  7. 7. planning stage; and foods not being preserved appropriately. In agriculture, the food losses arelargely attributable to harvesting methods; handling procedures; storage facilities and marketingpractices; decay and infestation by pests; fungi and microbes; and general mismanagement ofgrain stocks.Food waste is a phenomenon that raises serious questions form a social point of view. Given theproblem of malnutrition that is affecting around one billion people worldwide, the increase infood waste, even in the form of excessive nutrition (contributing to the increase in obesityepidemic), appears extremely unacceptable.Street Food. Although street food provides food security for many urban dwellers, the majordownside of it is the threat of compromising with food safety. In terms of food safety, there are anumber of areas in the production and distribution process which arouse concern. These involvethe production process, point-of-sale hygiene and the quality of ingredients that often promotecontamination through organic and inorganic pollutants and may lead to ill health afterconsuming the food (http://barillacfn.com/en/news/street-food/)Conflict, war and political instability. Africa south of the Sahara is responsible for 88 percent ofthe death toll resulting from global conflict between 1990 and 2007, in addition to over 9 millionrefugees and internally displaced people. In contrast to the case of conflict-ridden countries,countries that have ended their conflicts, such as Rwanda and Uganda, have seen substantialeconomic recovery as well as a reduction in the prevalence of extreme poverty and malnutrition.The largest deterioration in GHI in 2010 was seen in the Democratic Republic of Congo largelybecause of conflict and political instability. When there is conflict food production is interruptedand even food aid cannot be transported to where it is needed and distributed to those who needit. Violent conflicts have thwarted all efforts to establish food and nutrition security in Centraland East Africa. Violent conflicts, as well as ethnic unrest involving fights over water andgrazing resources, the stealing of women and livestock and quarrels over border lines, havecontributed to the displacement of people, disruption of transportation and market transactionsand subsequently, lack of access to food.Rising or volatile food prices. Higher food prices cut into the budgets of poor consumers butcould raise the incomes of poor producers if they produce more than they consume. In manyAfrican countries, food accounts for over half of household expenditures, and increased foodprices seriously reduce access to food. Volatile food prices, however, harm both consumers andproducers by increasing uncertainty and making it difficult for households to budget for foodconsumption and to plan for production.Weather shocks. In the Horn of Africa in 2011, severe drought due to consecutive poor rainyseasons triggered a widespread crises in the region that was especially catastrophic in Somalia.Many parts of the Horn, especially the lowland areas, saw large crop losses, significant depletionof grazing resources, skyrocketing food prices, and substantial livestock and human mortality.More than 13 million people, principally pastoralists and farmers, were affected and food andnutrition security was severely undermined. Vulnerable groups such as women and childrenexperienced acute food insecurity and undernutrition (IFPRI, 2011). A similar situation wasexperienced in the Sahel in west Africa in the same year but with moderate consequences. 7
  8. 8. Policy Recommendations 1. Africa’s agricultural growth during the last few years have emanated from area expansion instead of increases in land productivity. This is important given growing concerns about deforestation and climate change. Investments in yield increasing technology and extension and advisory services and increasing access to production inputs and output markets by farmers are important in achieving sustainable productivity growth in agriculture. To increase investments in agriculture African countries should endeavor to allocate 10 percent of their budget to agriculture as required by the Comprehensive African Agriculture Development Program (CAADP). 2. It has been established that as farm size increased food insecurity reduced which pinpoints to the need to expand farms from the current smallholdings while at the same time increasing productivity. 3. Strengthen gender equality in land rights and access to other production assets and resources by getting rid of entrenched sociocultural attitudes and strengthen rights for women under constitutional, family and inheritance law. As land rights are secured, biodiversity and soil conservation should be promoted to get the best out of the land. 4. Attention must be given to livestock as they tend to increase the asset base of farmers and provide additional income for the household. However sustainable livestock production depends upon availability of pasture and water for the animals. Efficient use of water and integrated watershed and pasture management should be pursued. Other household asset building programs tend to improve the resilience of household members to shocks and provide working capital for productive activities. 5. The connection of food security to health and labor productivity makes it imperative for all countries to pay particular attention to policies and programs that ensure household food security for their citizens. Access to healthcare can be enhanced through a health insurance scheme so that higher productivity is not unnecessarily lost to illness that can be treated. 6. Efforts to biofortify African staple crops should be intensified and advocacy carried out for their general acceptance. 7. National and regional markets should be developed to provide incentives for innovation and increased productivity and production. There must be regional harmonization of standards and regulations and acceptance of inspection of goods at the origin so that goods can move easily through different national borders. 8. Countries of the world should avoid trade restrictions (export and import bans) and allow food to trade liberally. When there is a shortage of production in any part of Africa, public stocks should be released and consumer subsidies provided to contain the problem of rising food prices. 9. Countries and/or regions should establish strategic food reserves (especially for grains and pulses) which should be used in food emergency situations. 10. To detect an eminent food shortage and combat its disastrous effects early warning systems should be developed by countries and regional economic communities to monitor the food security situation on a continuous basis. 8
  9. 9. 11. Index-based weather insurance schemes for crops and livestock should be investigated as a solution to covariance risk in agriculture, especially at a time when there is so much weather variation and extreme weather events.12. When there is a disaster the international community should act fast with emergency food assistance before the situation develops into a humanitarian calamity.13. In situations of chronic food insecurity, social protection programs which include food and cash transfers (conditional or unconditional) and school feeding programs should be instituted to assist the poor and vulnerable overcome hunger and malnutrition.14. It has been recognized that even in situations where there has been massive food aid, food security has not been maintained on a sustainable manner. It should therefore be noted that food aid as a social protection measure may be good as a coping mechanism for transient hunger but does not ensure long-term food security and so should not be used as a substitute for policies and programs that would put agriculture on a sustained growth path.15. Food waste should be avoided from production through storage and distribution to consumption. Appropriate harvesting and grain threshing equipment should be used at the farm level to reduce losses. Farm produce should be handled properly to reduce post- harvest losses. Processing should be done in such a way that losses are minimal. Appropriate vehicles should be used to transport food and in that respect transport infrastructure should be developed and maintained. People should avoid large portions of food that they cannot eat to avoid wasting of food.16. Food security depends on using food properly. This includes eating a diverse diet; avoiding nutrient losses during food preparation; having clean water and adequate sanitation and energy to ensure basic hygiene for food preparation, storage and consumption.17. Good practices for street food must be defined that are capable of mitigating the harmful effects without eliminating the opportunities it offers in terms of food security and creating value for communities. Standards must be drawn up for the preparation and sale of street food and there must be regular inspection by community health officials to ensure that practitioners adhere to them.18. To reduce child undernutrition, governments should invest in effective nutrition interventions targeted to mothers and children during the window of opportunity (from conception to two years of age of the child). These interventions should focus on improving maternal nutrition during pregnancy and lactation, promoting sound breastfeeding and complementary feeding practices, providing essential micronutrients, and adopting salt iodization, while ensuring appropriate immunization. Ante-natal programs for pregnant women which include nutrition education for the baby when it is born and growth monitoring for babies after birth should be important aspects of national nutrition programs.19. Education, and significantly education of women, has positive effect on household food security. Knowledge and information have become important for increasing agricultural productivity and production, post-harvest management, and access to markets which would in turn improve the food security and incomes of farm households. However, the knowledge is better assimilated and adopted for innovations when the farmers (and their spouses) are educated. Therefore policies and programs to improve household food 9
  10. 10. security should include provision of educational facilities and teachers, and promotion of school enrolment, attendance and achievement.ConclusionThe high food prices experienced in 2007-2008 and 2010-2011 have moved food security to thetop of the global development debate. In addition, the threat of a changing climate and risingworld consumption of grain-intensive animal proteins, and a sense of urgency about the globalfood system render an opportunity for achieving food security in Africa. The good news is thatthere has been a renaissance in interest in agricultural development in Africa with 29 countrieshaving signed their CAADP compacts as of October 2011, with a well defined program foragricultural development. Growth of the agricultural sector has a large impact on povertyreduction, and creates income opportunities for the poor in both the farm and nonfarm economywhile lowering food prices for both rural and urban consumers. 10
  11. 11. ReferencesAgyare-Kwabi, P. 2003. Women and Food Security in West Africa. A paper presented at aseminar on Women, Integrated Farming Systems and Food Security in West Africa, 25-28November 2003, Accra, Ghana.Ahmed, U.A., R.V. Hill, L.C. Smith, D.M. Weismann and T. Frankenberger. 2007. The World’s Most Deprived. Characteristics and Causes of Extreme Poverty and Hunger. Washington, DC: International Food Policy Research Institute.Antle, J.M., and P.L. Pingali. 1994. Pesticides, productivity, and farmer health: A Philippine case study. American Journal of Agricultural Economics 76 (3): 418–30.FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization). 1974. Report of the Council of FAO, November 18- 29, Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. <http://www.fao.org/docrep/meeting/007/F5340E/F5340E00.htm#TOC>FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization). 2002. Making FIVIMS work for you: tools and tips. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization). GIEWS: The global information and early warning system on food and agriculture. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. http://www.fao.org/giews/english/giews_en.pdfFIVIMS.FAO and FIVIMS. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. http://www.fivims.org/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=7&Itemid=29_____. 1983. World food security: A reappraisal of the concepts and approaches. Director Generals Report. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations._____. 2006. Food security. Policy Brief Issue 2. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Quoting World Food Summit, Rome declaration on world food security (Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 1996)Grebmer, von K., Ruel, M., Menon, P., Nestorova, B., Olofinbiyi, T., Fritschel, H., Yohannes, Y., Oppein, von C., Towey, O., Golden, K., and Thompson, J. 2010. Global Hunger Index. The challenge of hunger: Focus on the crises of child nutrition. Welt hunger hilfe, International Food Policy Research Institute, and CONCERN worldwide.Hoddinott, J., Maluccio, J.A., Berhman, R., Flores, R., and Martorell, R. 2008. Effect of a nutrition intervention during early childhood on economic productivity in Guatemalan adults. The Lancet 371 (9610): 411-416.IFPRI. 2011. 2011 Global Food Policy Report. Washington, D.C.: International Food Policy Research Institute.Jayne, T.S., and Muyanga, M. 2011. Land Constraints in Kenya’s densely populated rural areas: Implications for food and policy reform. Seminar presentation at the ILRI Campus, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, November 4, 2011Jayne, T.S. , Yamano, T., Weber, M., Tschirley, D., Benfica, R., Chapto, A., and Zulu, B. 2003. Smallholder income and land distribution in Africa: Implications for poverty reduction strategies. Food Policy 28 (3), 253-275. 11
  12. 12. Keverenge-Ettyang, G., C. Neumann and J. Ernst. 2010. Food security among HIV-infected rural Kenyan women. Research Brief 10-01-HNP, Global Livestock Collaborative Research Support Program, Davis: University of California.Rural21. 2008. Malnutrition: Prevention does pay. International Journal for Rural Development, 42:3/2008.Sasson, Albert. 2012. Food Security for Africa: an urgent global challenge. http://www.agricultureandfoodsecurity.com/content/1/1/2Von Braun, J., T. Arnold and H-J. Preub. 2007. One in seven goes to bed hungry. The Challenge of Hunger 2007, Bonn, Germany: welt hunger hilfe, International Food Research Institute, and Concern.UNDP. 2012. African Human Development Report. Towards a food secure future. New York: United Nations Development Programme Regional Bureau for Africa.UNEP. 2002. Africa Environmental outlook: Past, present and future perspectives. http://www.unep.org/dewa/Africa/publications/aeo-1/World Bank. 1986. Poverty and hunger: Issues and options for food security in developing countries. World Bank Policy Study. Washington DC: World Bank. 12

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