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Gender perspectives in agriculture


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Presented by Annet A. Mulema (ILRI) at the Initiation Meeting of the Basona Worena “Strategic Innovation Platform”, Ethiopia, 31 January 2014

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Gender perspectives in agriculture

  1. 1. Gender Perspectives in Agriculture Annet A. Mulema (ILRI) Initiation Meeting of the Basona Worena “Strategic Innovation Platform”, Ethiopia, 31 January 2014
  2. 2. Introduction  Gender refers to socially constructed roles and responsibilities of women and men, and includes:  expectations held about the characteristics, and likely behaviors of both men and women,  the roles that we learn to fill from childhood onward,  These roles change over time and are cultural specific.  Limited consideration of women’s role in agriculture  Failure of past agricultural research and development practices to address gender inequalities
  3. 3. Introduction  Changing composition of rural society - feminization of Agriculture  Gradual realization of the key role of women in agricultural development and the constraints that they face in earning a decent and sustainable livelihood.  Increased gender equity can make a significant contribution towards alleviating poverty and increasing food security.
  4. 4. Roles and responsibilities  Variation in roles played by men and women in crop-livestock systems  Roles are defined according to gender norms and this influences:  Participation of women in and control of different forms of household decisions.  Types and nature of enterprises (crops and livestock) women engage with.  Opportunities available to women to increase productivity and income generation and descent livelihoods.  Women less involved in cash cropping  Women perform most of un-mechanized agricultural tasks and perform multiple tasks, which add more burden to them.
  5. 5. Access to and control of resources and benefits  Unequal access to assets and services among men and women  Women’s limited access to agricultural extension, education and veterinary services  Limited access to profitable markets  Limited access to formal information networks and social networks
  6. 6. Institutions and power dynamics  Constraining policies, norms and values limiting:  women’s involvement in decisions making  involvement of women and marginalized groups in leadership positions  ownership and control of resources  Lack of awareness about legal rights.  Weak macro-micro linkages due to limited access to public space.
  7. 7. Implications  Women’s underdevelopment has adverse bearing on growth and development of agriculture.  Need to address gender issues and provide support for social, technological and economic empowerment of women  Integration of gender perspective in agricultural research, extension and policies  Consider women and marginalized groups as important partners in sustainable agricultural development.  Impact men and women equitably
  8. 8. Gender goals in Africa RISING  Promote agricultural systems which improve food, nutrition, and income security, particularly for women and children, while conserving the natural resource base.  Increase women’s participation in production and marketing of high value crops  To develop technologies and market strategies that will be relevant to the needs of both men and women farmers, processors and traders.  Building gender awareness and capacity of staff and local partners to obtain and analyze gender-disaggregated data and diagnose gender related issues  To enhance the knowledge and skills of men and women farmers to foster uptake and dissemination of successful technologies  Increase women’s leadership in the community and capacity to participate in decision making on agricultural production
  9. 9. Anticipated Benefits  Increased yield, livestock and livestock products improvement;  Improved nutrition  Reduced inequalities in income, access to and control of resources  Reduced gap between men and women through:  Improved value chains  Access to extension, education and veterinary services,  Access to labor saving technologies  Sustainable natural resource management  Reduction in poverty and global food security
  10. 10. Bibliography  FAO. 2011. The State of Food and Agriculture: Women in Agriculture–Closing the gender gap for development, Rome, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.  World Bank. 2009. Gender in Agriculture Source Book. D.C: The World Bank.
  11. 11. Project partners in Ethiopia