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Livestock, livelihoods and the future of India’s smallholder farmers

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Presented by Jimmy Smith at the 12th Agricultural Science Congress on Sustainable Livelihood Security of Smallholder Farmers, National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal, India, 3–6 February 2015

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Livestock, livelihoods and the future of India’s smallholder farmers

  1. 1. Livestock, livelihoods and the future of India’s smallholder farmers 12th Agricultural Science Congress Sustainable Livelihood Security of Smallholder Farmers National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal, India, 3–6 February 2015 Jimmy Smith  Director General  ILRI
  2. 2. Why livestock matter globally for livelihoods  Smallholder agriculture • 1.5 billion people live on smallholder farms • India has 130m small- holder farms (<4ha) • Smallholders produce 80% or more of the food in Asia & SS Africa • 43% or more of small- holders are women Smallholder livestock Up to 1 billion people depend on livestock for: • livelihoods • food security • income • cropping nutrients and traction • insurance • managing risk
  3. 3. Why this is a livestock ‘moment’ for smallholders Dramatic on-going changes open new opportunities for a more sustainable and equitable future for small food producers, processors, traders With the right support, small-scale livestock production systems can play a major part in creating a sustainable, healthy and equitable future for all
  4. 4. BIG livestock opportunity #1 Fast-rising global demand for livestock products
  5. 5. 4 of 5 highest valueglobal commodities arelivestock FAOSTAT 2014 (values for 2012) 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 Production(MT)millions Netproductionvalue(Int$)billion net production value (Int $) billion production (MT) Cow milk has overtaken rice Eggs have displaced maize
  6. 6. Production value: India and South Asia FAOSTAT 2014 (values for 2012) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Netproductionvalue(Int$)billion net production value India (Int $) billion net production value other S.Asia (int $) billion
  7. 7. Huge increases over 2005/7 amounts of cereals, dairy and meat will be needed by 2050From 2bn−3bn tonnes cereals each year From 664m−1bn tonnes dairy each year From 258m−460m tonnes meat each year
  8. 8. Rising demand for meat, milk and eggs is a global phenomenon . . . . . . but demand is greatest in South Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa
  9. 9. Gains in meat consumption in developing countries are outpacing those of developed 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 1980 1990 2002 2015 2030 2050 Millionmetrictonnes developing developed FAO 2006
  10. 10. Gains in meat consumption in developing countries are outpacing those of developed 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 1980 1990 2002 2015 2030 2050 Millionmetrictonnes developing developed developing at same per cap. as developed (hypothetical)
  11. 11. Developing- vs developed-country annual production to 2050 MILK: expected to grow by 1.8% (2% in S Asia) vs. 0.3% in developed countries MEAT: expected to grow by > 3% vs. 0.4% in developed countries
  12. 12. FAO, 2012Based on anticipated change in absolute tonnes of product comparing 2000 and 2030 Percentage growth in demand for livestock products: 2000−2030
  13. 13. FAO, 2012Based on anticipated change in absolute tonnes of product comparing 2000 and 2030 Percentage growth in demand for livestock products: 2000−2030
  14. 14. BIG livestock opportunity #2 Livestock and cereal products are produced largely on smallholder mixed crop-and- livestock farms
  15. 15. Smallholders still dominate livestock production in many countries
  16. 16. Much of the world’s livestock food comes from small mixed farms in developing countries Herrero et al. 2009 Developing-country mixed crop-livestock systems, most of them smallholders, supply much of the world’s livestock products
  17. 17. What’s special about animal/smallholder food? • 90% of animal products are produced and consumed in the same country or region • Most are produced by smallholders • More than 70% of livestock products are sold ‘informally’ • 500m smallholders produce 80% of developing-world food • 43% of the agricultural workforce is female
  18. 18. BMGF, FAO, ILRI Smallholders still dominate livestock production in many countries Region (definition of ‘smallholder’) % production by smallholder livestock farms Beef Chicken meat Sheep/goat meat Milk Pork Eggs East Africa (≤ 6 milking animals) 60-90 Bangladesh (< 3ha land) 65 77 78 65 77 India (< 2ha land) 75 92 92 69 71 Vietnam (small scale) 80 Philippines (backyard) 50 35
  19. 19. BMGF, FAO, ILRI Smallholders still dominate livestock production in many countries Region (definition of ‘smallholder’) % production by smallholder livestock farms Beef Chicken meat Sheep/goat meat Milk Pork Eggs East Africa (≤ 6 milking animals) 60-90 Bangladesh (< 3ha land) 65 77 78 65 77 India (< 2ha land) 75 92 92 69 71 Vietnam (small scale) 80 Philippines (backyard) 50 35
  20. 20. Farm size and number of holdings: India 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 Averagesize(ha) No.ofholdingsinmillions no.holdings (million) av size (ha)
  21. 21. Increasing farm size: USA (2.2 million holdings in 2007) 21
  22. 22. BIG livestock opportunity #3 In 2011 Indian livestock contributed: 26% of agricultural GDP  4% of total GDP valued at INR4,59,051 crore (US$74 billion today)
  23. 23. BIG livestock opportunity #4 This rising demand for animal-source foods will be met − one way or another We can meet that demand in sustainable, equitable and healthy ways that also reduce poverty and hunger This requires proactive action
  24. 24. Demand for livestock commodities will be met – the only question is how Scenario #1 India meets livestock demand by importing livestock products Scenario #2 India meets livestock demand by importing livestock industrial production know-how Scenario #3 India meets livestock demand by transforming smallholder livestock systems
  25. 25. Scenario #1: Bad news for India’s economy, employment and livelihoods Downsides of importations • A huge import bill straining foreign exchange • Little growth of indigenous livestock enterprises • Industrial-scale pollution in developed countries • Mass emigration of youth (and labour) from developing countries
  26. 26. Downsides of industrial production • Know-how restricted to few enterprises • Employment opportunities, esp. for women and youth, lost • Increased demand for feed and water degrades natural resources • Environment polluted and large financial costs • Synergies of mixed systems lost Scenario #2: Bad news for India’s equity, environment and economy
  27. 27. Scenario #3: Good news for India’s rural economic transformation Upsides of smallholder transformation • The coming livestock transitions and consolidations can help millions improve their food production as well as health, livelihoods and environments • Of the world’s 1 billion smallholder livestock producers, some: ﹣1/3 will find alternate livelihoods ﹣1/3 will succeed in the market ﹣1/3 could go either way
  28. 28. India has shown it can be done India moves from dairy importer to the world’s top milk producer
  29. 29. 12th ASC technical sessions: Action to transform smallholder livestock agriculture 1 Livelihood security for smallholder farmers 2 Attracting and retaining youth in agriculture 3 Skill and human resource development for diversification in employment 4 Linking smallholder farmers with the market 5 Intensification of livestock production for smallholder and landless farmers
  30. 30. 12th ASC technical sessions: Action to transform smallholder livestock agriculture (cont.) 6 Group dynamics of smallholder farmers, SHG, producer companies 7 Mechanization and post-harvest technologies for small farmers 8 Natural resource management and climate change: international perspective 9 Policy issues for the protection of smallholder farmers 10 Empowerment of women in agriculture 11 Credit flow and insurance support to smallholder farmers
  31. 31. Image credits Slide #3: (left) Kolkata Trams, 2000s, by Bengali artist Rupban Chitrakar (via Kalarte) and (right) Cow Boy (IV) by Sekhar Roy (via US-India Art and Culture Exchange Center) Slide #4: Cow and calf, by Jamini Roy (via MyArtTracker) Slide #17: Sacred cows, by Vidushini (via Novica) Slide #23: Untitled, by Kalam Patua (via Asia Art Archive) Slide #25: Handcarved wood print block stamp of goat from India (via Etsy) Slide #26: McDonalds ad for ‘chicken hamburgers’ in India Slide #27: Kalighat painting (via Pinterest) Slide #32: Gond painting, 2012, by Kaushal Prasad Tekam (via Pinterest)
  32. 32. The presentation has a Creative Commons licence. You are free to re-use or distribute this work, provided credit is given to ILRI. better lives through livestock ilri.org Thank you!
  33. 33. The presentation has a Creative Commons licence. You are free to re-use or distribute this work, provided credit is given to ILRI. better lives through livestock ilri.org

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