Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Gender in Agricultural Development

1,447 views

Published on

Gender in Agricultural Development

  1. 1. Janani janmabhoomischa sargadapi gariyashi - Ramayana
  2. 2. Gender in Agricultural Development Issues and Challenges Presentation by: Suchiradipta Bhattacharjee Ph.D 1st Year 2nd Semester
  3. 3. Is it GENDER? Or is it SEX? 3
  4. 4. The disparities... • Income disparity • Wage disparity • Medical disparity • Educational disparity • “Missing women” 4
  5. 5. Does gender really matter? 5
  6. 6. And statistics say.... Closing gender gap in agriculture could –  increase GDP by 9-16 %  reduce no. of hungry people by 12-17 %  increase yield by 20-30 % 6 (Source: FAO, 2014)
  7. 7.  84% women engaged in agriculture and allied activities  Produce 80 % of food for developing countries and half of the world’s  Women constitute about 50% world population  50% contribution in food production  30% of official labor hours Without women, the world would go hungry!!! 7 (Source: UN Women, 2014)
  8. 8. Yet they  make up 70 % of the world’s poorest people  Constitute only 15% of the world’s agricultural extension agent  Receive 10% of world’s income  Own 1% of world’s property 8 (Source: UN Women, 2014)
  9. 9. When it all started... Early 1970s Mid 1970s Mid 1980s 1985 1980 1979 1975 ‘Women’s Role in Economic Development’ by Esther Boserup Women in Development (WID) approach 1st World Conference on Women, Mexico Convention on Elimination of all forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) adopted by UN General Assembly 2nd World Conference on Women, Copenhagen Gender and Development (GAD) Framework 3rd World Conference on Women, Nairobi; Harvard Analytical Framework 9
  10. 10. 1990 1993 1995 2000 2010 2011 2012 Longwe Women’s Empowerment Framework by Sara H. Longwe Moser Gender Planning Framework by Carol Moser 4th World Conference on Women, Beijing MDGs identify Gender Equity as key objective Gender in Agriculture Sourcebook by World Bank FAO State of Food and Agriculture: Women in Agriculture 1st Global Conference on Women in Agriculture, New Delhi 10
  11. 11. Gender in Development Issues 11
  12. 12. 1. Food security Women are key to food security in households • Availability and use of time • Hidden hunger • Food availability • Food utilization 12
  13. 13. 2. Strengthening governance “Good governance is perhaps the single most important factor in eradicating poverty and promoting development” -Kofi Annan  Government effectiveness  Policy processes  Public sector reforms  Decentralization 13
  14. 14. 3. Rural finance Financial sector Rural finance Agricultural finance Microfinance 14 (Source: World Bank, 2010)
  15. 15. 4. Land policy • Land rights – a critical resource • Bargaining power • Legal framework – Hindu Succession Act, 2005 • Socio-cultural difficulties 15
  16. 16. 5. Agricultural markets • Access to markets • Capacity development • Collective action and market linkages “Feminization of poverty is the tragic consequence of women’s unequal access to economic opportunities” - UNDP 16
  17. 17. 6. Agricultural labour Increased women’s LFP, productivity and income Increased income; consumption expenditure Greater decision making and income control Improved children’s well being Current poverty reduction and economics growth Future poverty reduction and economic growth Differential savings Better health and education Source: Morrison, Raju and Sinha (2007)17
  18. 18. 7. Rural infrastructure • Transport • Energy • Information and Communication Technologies • Sanitation, hygiene and potable water 18
  19. 19. 8. Natural Resource Management • Biodiversity • Natural disasters • Land and water degradation 19
  20. 20. 9. Agricultural extension Women addressed by extension service Enhances economic productivity Informed decision making Reduced poverty and greater food security Better development outcomes Women in extension service Better exposure of rural women Better utilization of women workforce Role model to rural girls Increased job opportunities 20
  21. 21. 10. Monitoring and Evaluation • Design of sound gendered M&E • Gender sensitive indicators “What gets measured gets managed” 21
  22. 22. Gender in Development Challenges 22
  23. 23. 1. Political challenges • Women’s Reservation Bill • Status quo • Under-representation • India - 11% representation in parliament and 111th among 189 countries “In politics, you want something said, ask a man; you want something done, ask a woman” - Margaret Thatcher 23
  24. 24. 2. Policy andstrategy challenges • Increased recruitment and retention • Women targeted projects • Capacity building • Breaking the mould 24
  25. 25. 3. Practical challenges “This is not a tidy world of tyrannical men and victimized women, but a messier reality of oppressive social customs adhered to by men and women alike.” - (Dunn and Kristof, Unknown)  Discriminatory gender roles  “Education is necessary, but not sufficient, for development” – Simister, 2011 Conflict of interest 25
  26. 26. 4. Technological challenges • Drudgery reduction • Traditional technologies • Gender specificity 26
  27. 27. • Gender sensitization • “The power of 49” “There is no chance of welfare of the world unless condition of women is improved. It is not possible for a bird to fly only with one wing” – Swami Vivekananda 27 End notes
  28. 28. 28
  29. 29. 29

×