The role of mangroves in the fight against climate change

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Vietnam is one of the few tropical countries that has increased its forest cover over the past several years, so it plays a unique and important role in global discussions on the importance of forests in combating climate change, sustaining people’s livelihoods and safeguarding biodiversity. Vietnam is also one of five countries expected to be most affected by climate change, due to its long coastline and stretched natural resources.

CIFOR scientist Daniel Murdiyarso gave this presentation on the importance of mangroves for climate change mitigation and adaptation at a journalist training workshop on ‘Investing in coastal ecosystems’ held on 27–29 March 2012 in Da Nang City, Vietnam. Media plays a critical role in informing and influencing public perception, as well as informing policymakers. But aside from limited coverage, most environmental articles, and those on climate change and REDD in particular, are of low quality in Vietnam, most notably in objective reporting of scientific findings. To address these gaps and in response to requests, CIFOR organised a series of media trainings in Vietnam in association with Transparency International, IUCN, UN-REDD and the National Journalism Association.

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The role of mangroves in the fight against climate change

  1. 1. The role of mangroves in thefight against climate change Daniel Murdiyarso
  2. 2. Who we are CIFOR is one of 15 centers that make up the CGIAR CIFOR is the lead center for the CGIAR Research Programme Forests, Trees and Agroforestry (CRP6), in partnership with the World Agroforestry Centre, Bioversity and the International Center for Tropical Agriculture
  3. 3. Where we workPeru Brazil Burkina Faso Cameroon Zambia Kenya Ethiopia Indonesia Vietnam Headquarters: Bogor, Indonesia 8 regional & project offices Research sites in more than 30 countries
  4. 4. Why forests are important They make up 31% of the world’s land mass Forests provide $250 billion in various forms of income and are essential to the livelihoods of 1.6 billion people – a quarter of the world’s population They contain 80% of the Earth’s terrestrial biodiversity Forests absorb up to a third of all carbon emissions
  5. 5. Mangroves forests• Support numerous ecosystem services, including fisheries production, nutrient cycling, coast protection• Globally cover 13.8 million ha; declined by 30–50% over the past half century due to coastal development, aquaculture expansion and over-harvesting• Resulting carbon emissions of 0.02– 0.12 Pg per year (0.2-1.2 billion tons Carbon per year)• Ten percent of global emissions due to deforestation of tropical forests (0.7% of total tropical forest area)
  6. 6. Researchcomponent Climate change adaptation and mitigation  Harnessing forests, trees and agroforestry for climate change mitigation  Enhancing climate change adaptation  Understanding synergies between climate change mitigation and adaptation
  7. 7. How to fight climate change? Adaptation Climate change and variability Mitigation ImpactsMitigation Adaptation ResponsesKyoto Protocol UNFCCC
  8. 8. Tropical Wetlands Initiatives for Climate Adaptation and Mitigation (TWINCAM)
  9. 9. Standardized Method• Tested across Indo-Pacific region (30o Lat, 73o Long)• Results have been peer-reviewed and published
  10. 10. Sonneratia sp. Rhizophora sp. Avicennia sp. Bruguiera sp.
  11. 11. Measuring stem diameter
  12. 12. From diameter to biomassKauffman and Cole (2010)
  13. 13. Woody debrisFine : < 0.6 cm (count along 10-12 m)Small : 0.6 - 2.5 cm (count along 7-10 m)Medium : 2.5 - 7.5 cm (count along 2-7 m)Large : >7.5 cm (measure, sound and rotten)
  14. 14. Soil carbonIntervals: 0-15 cm, 15-30 cm, 30-50 cm, 50-100 cm, 100-300 cm
  15. 15. Large belowground C-stocks 400 Aboveground Total C stock ( x Mg ha-1): Aboveground pools 200 863.3 891.9 1044.4 1038.8 1073.4 1047.8 TreesCarbon stock (Mg ha )-1 Down wood 0 Belowground pools 200 Roots Soil 400 Belowground 600 800 1000 1200 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 Distance from Ocean (m)
  16. 16. Indo-Pacific region (30o Lat, 73o Long)
  17. 17. Mangroves for CC mitigation New finding: Surprisingly large amounts of carbon stored in mangrove forests,Mangrove photo especially below ground Source: Donato et al. (2011)
  18. 18. Global surveyMexico Gabon VietnamCosta Rica Mozambique IndiaEcuador
  19. 19. Bali Action Plan: REDD+ REDDConservation SFM ECS Source: Pedroni (2009)
  20. 20. A Reference Level is neededForest carbon stocks Crediting period = 35 years? Base Period Or With REDD+ Historical With REDD baseline Reduced emissions Without REDD 5 or 10 (BAU) years?
  21. 21. Cancun Agreement: Phase approach • REDD+ national strategy: follow UN-REDD and WB FCPF processes • National reference level: sub- national reference level is accepted only temporary in while taking care of domestic leakage • Forest monitoring system: to demonstrate additionality that includes environmental and social safeguards (UN-DRIP)
  22. 22. GHG emissions from Vietnam – 2000Source: Vietnam SNC 2002
  23. 23. Mangroves:Providers of ecosystem services Direct benefits to the community
  24. 24. Adaptation agenda:window of opportunity The UNFCCC’s Adaptation Fund Board approved the first proposal Joint CIFOR-CATIE research in Honduras on CC adaptation We can do the same for Vietnam or SEA region To mainstream CC adaptation in mangroves in development agenda
  25. 25. Financing Adaptation• Adaptation Fund Board – Guidelines to access the fund – Established accreditation panel• Adaptation fund – available for LDCs• Levy from CDM – 2%• To date (March 2012) – Registered projects: 3887 – Issued CERs: 877 million – Sale of CERs generate $ 18.7 million• Expected CERs (2012): 2163 million• Expected AF generated (2012): Euro 300 million
  26. 26. Adaptation Strategy for Mangroves  Mangroves = protective roles (low-laying coastlines) • Species and rooting system • Depending on the coastal topography  Sequester and store large amount of carbon  Adaptation to CC-related sea level rise
  27. 27. Beach erosion leading to ecosystems loss
  28. 28. The SundarbandsThe world mangroves • The worlds largest remaining single block of mangrove forest • Appr. 1 Mha (10,000 km2) • Delta front has undergone a net erosion of ~170 km2 of coastal land in the past 37 years study period Source: Rahman et al. (2011)
  29. 29. 1 m sea level rise
  30. 30. Concluding remarks• Mangroves ecosystem have a huge potential for CC adaptation and mitigation• Climate change mitigation (CDM, REDD+) has been widely recognized• Putting back CC adaptation is necessary for countries with low-laying coastal zones like Vietnam• Financially it is funded by public; the mechanism should attract private sector to get involved

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