Why should tropical wetlands be part of climate change mitigation strategies?

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This presentation specifically explores how tropical wetlands can be included in REDD+, a global scheme through which developed countries reward developing countries for Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation. Because of the amount of carbon stored by wetlands, there are significant opportunities and challenges inherent in involving wetlands in REDD+.

This presentation was given during a symposium on ‘Sustaining Humans and Forests in Changing Landscapes’, organised by the IUFRO Working Group on Landscape Ecology. Around 200 people attended the symposium, which was held on 5–9 November 2012 in Concepcion, Chile.

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Why should tropical wetlands be part of climate change mitigation strategies?

  1. 1. Why should tropical wetlands bepart of CC mitigation strategies?Daniel Murdiyarso and Boone Kauffman
  2. 2. Coverage1. Introduction2. How can wetlands be included in REDD+3. The opportunities and challenges for wetlands4. The way forward
  3. 3. 1 Introduction  Tropical wetlands are well distributed in REDD+ countries  The global mechanism is gaining scientific and political support
  4. 4. REDD+ countries with varying D rate      
  5. 5. Bali Action Plan: REDD+ REDDConservation SFM ECS Source: Pedroni (2009)
  6. 6. Cancun Agreement: Phased-approach • REDD+ national strategy: follow UN-REDD and WB FCPF processes • National reference level: sub- national reference level is accepted only temporary in while taking care of domestic leakage • Forest monitoring system: to demonstrate additionality that includes environmental and social safeguards (UN-DRIP)
  7. 7. A Reference Level is neededForest carbon stocks Crediting period = 35 years? Base Period Reduced emissions With REDD+ Or Historical With REDD baseline 5 or 10 Without REDD years? (BAU)
  8. 8. Global wetlands C surveyMexico Gabon IndonesiaCosta Rica Mozambique VietnamPeru Tanzania? India
  9. 9. Mangroves forests     • Globally cover 13.8 million ha Source: FAO (2007)• Declined by 30–50% over the past half century• Emissions of 0.2-1.2 billion t C/y  10% tropical deforestation (0.7% of total tropical forest area)Source: Donato et al. (2011)
  10. 10. Tropical peatlands distribution Shallow to deep (5.8 Mha = 11 GtC)Deep to very deep(7.2 Mha = 19 GtC) Shallow to moderate (8.0 Mha = 3 GtC) 1990 2002Global 400 Mha (528 Pg)Tropics 40 Mha (191 Pg)SE Asia 35-40 Mha 25-30 MhaIndonesia 21 Mha 17 Mha (?) (33 Pg)
  11. 11. Task Force on National Greenhouse Gas InventoriesExisting 2006 IPCC Guidance on WetlandsLand-use Peatlands Flooded Landcategory/GHGWetlands Remaining Wetlands No Guidance CO2 Section 7.2.1.1 (Included Elsewhere) No Guidance CH4 Appendix 3 (Assumed Negligible) No Guidance N2 O Section 7.2.1.2 (Included Elsewhere)Lands Converted to Wetlands CO2 Section 7.2.2.1 Section 7.3.2.1 and Appendix 2 No Guidance CH4 Appendix 3 (Assumed Negligible) No Guidance N2 O Section 7.2.2.2 (Included Elsewhere)
  12. 12. 2 How can wetlands be included? Wetlands store large amount of carbon Offer variety of co-benefits Synergies with adaptation measures
  13. 13. Large belowground pools: peatlandsMurdiyarso et al. (2009)
  14. 14. Large belowground pools: mangroves 400 Aboveground Total C stock ( x Mg ha-1): Aboveground pools 200 863.3 891.9 1044.4 1038.8 1073.4 1047.8 TreesCarbon stock (Mg ha ) Down wood-1 0 Belowground pools 200 Roots Soil 400 Belowground 600 800 1000 1200 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 Distance from Ocean (m) Murdiyarso et al. (2009)
  15. 15. The SundarbandsThe world mangroves • The worlds largest remaining single block of mangrove forest • Appr. 1 Mha (10,000 km2) • Delta front has undergone a net erosion of ~170 km2 of coastal land in the past 37 years study period Source: Rahman et al. (2011)
  16. 16. Beach erosion leading to ecosystems loss
  17. 17. Peatlands high biodiversity
  18. 18. 3 The opportunities and challenges  Low hanging fruit  High opportunity costs
  19. 19. Low hanging fruit 1,600Ecosystem C storage (Mg ha ) Aboveground live + dead-1 1,400 Soils 0-30 cm depth + roots 1,200 Soils below 30 cm depth 1,000 800 600 400 200 0 Boreal Temperate Tropical Mangrove Tropical upland peat swamp Donato et al., (2011)
  20. 20. High opportunity costs: pulpwood industries
  21. 21. High opportunity costs: palm oil industries • Extensive - low yields (3-4 t/ha/y) • Emits around 60 Mg CO2/ha/y • Revenue from palm oil: $16 B/y Source: Murdiyarso et al. (2010)
  22. 22. 4 The way forward Monitoring capacity remains a challenge Reforming (peat) forest governance Securing tenure /rights should be part of the mechanism Monetizing co-benefits should be promoted Synergizing mitigation and adaptation strategies
  23. 23. http://www.cifor.orghttp://www.forestsclimatechange.org

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