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  1. 1. Wetlands By Archie Woodhouse Monday, 11 November 13
  2. 2. What are Wetlands Wetlands are areas containing a large body of water submerging or surrounding areas of land. Wetlands can be areas that are either permanently a wetland (saturated in water) or the saturation caused seasonally. Wetlands are distinguished by the vegetation, bodies of water and soil conditions of the area. There are many types of wetlands Coastal wetlands ( salt and brackish water) and Inland (freshwater) wetlands. Monday, 11 November 13
  3. 3. Attitudes towards wetlands In the Past, Wetlands were seen as worthless, mosquito-infested wastelands. Now in the present Wetlands are looked on as one of the most important productive life ecosystems on earth. Wetlands help to maintain water quality and are home thousands of different plant and animal species. They also are a play a major role in the coastal fishing industry-a major supplier of food Monday, 11 November 13
  4. 4. Coastal Wetlands Areas of Saturated salt water for all or part of the year are called Coastal wetlands. Coastal wetlands are normally found in tropical or temperate areas of the world, these wetlands can be features such as bays, lagoons, salt flats, mud flats and salt marshes. grasses are the most common type of vegetation in this area. These wetlands help catch sediment washed from land; absorb nutrients and other pollutants; provide breeding and feeding grounds for important marine and land animals and invertebrates. Coastal Wetlands also protect the coastline from erosion and reduce damage when cyclones and storms hit. Monday, 11 November 13
  5. 5. Inland (freshwater) Wetlands Areas covered in fresh water permanently or seasonally are acled Inland (freshwater wetlands. They include wet meadows, bogs (peat rich-areas), oxbow lakes (billabongs), river floodplains, mud flats, swamps (dominated by trees and shrubs), prairie potholes (depressions carved out by glaciers and marshes. Inland wetlands are sometimes covered throughout the year while others only remain in water for a short time a year. Some inland wetlands can stay dry for years before filling up with water. Inland wetlands provide important habitats for fish, insects water bird and other kinds of animals. These amazing geographical features are like natural filters. the plant life diluting water and absorbing toxic wastes, nutrients, sediments and other pollutants. Wetlands are often called ‘nature's kidneys’ because of their amazing ability to clean water. Wetlands also help maintain the ecosystem in time of drought, providing stored water for animals to drink freely. They prevent erosion by absorbing excess runoffs and releasing it slowly. Monday, 11 November 13
  6. 6. Conservation of Wetlands Wetlands are the only ecosystems in the world to have a special convention and agreement for the conservation of wetlands. This agreement is called the Ramsar convention. This convention started in 1971 and has been conserving wetlands ever since. By mid 2003 more than 136 countries have signed up to this convention, promising the conservation of over 1289 wetlands with a total of 109 million hectares of protected area. The convention includes guidelines for the conservation of wetlands, encouraging practices that benefit and teach the present generation about the importance of wetland. Monday, 11 November 13
  7. 7. Hydrology Hydrology within a wetland is the actions of the water supply and flow in the area of wetland, this means that every wetland is not the same there hydrologic process each unique and special in its own way. The hydrology is associated with the spatial and temporal dispersion, flow of the water and physicochemical (physical chemistries). The source of water in wetlands are predominantly precipitation, surface and ground water storages. Water flows out of Wetlands due mainly to evaporation, surface runoff and evapotranspiration (the evaporation of water supplies due to plant consumption). Monday, 11 November 13
  8. 8. Geomorphic Process Wetlands are very unique, Every Wetland has Its own Geomorphic process. Some wetlands form features due to the water level and others because of the wildlife in that specific wetland. Water is the main reason for changes in the environment, causing erosion to lots of soils and plants. The main features of wetlands include flat wet and marshy plains, very little elevation of the ground and surrounding areas with streams and underwater supplies. Monday, 11 November 13
  9. 9. Bioderversity Flora- There are four main types of hydrophytes (plants that only live in or on water) in a wetland System. Submerged, floating, emergent shrubs and various amphibious trees. Submerged water plants are plants that are only found completely submerged in water. Floating water plants that are plants floating on the water, therefore enabling them move and their roots suck nutrients from floating around freely in the water. Emergent Water plants are plants in which there roots are entirely submerged in water and able to sustain a healthy life. The Surrounding Plants and shrubs make up the swamp area that surrounds the wetland, usually in soils with a high saturated water level. These plants can sustain life with a fair amount of water in their Cells. Algae are also a very important part of a wetland ecosystem. Algae supply food for animals such as small fish, insects and invertebrates. If it was not for the algae to be feeding these animals the whole ecosystem would fall apart Fauna- Wetlands contain a wide variety of Fauna. These important part ecosystems sustain some of the most important animal life in the world. The main animals found in a wetland Include Fish, Amphibians, Reptiles, Mammals, monotremes (mammals that lay eggs), insects and invertebrates. Some Wetlands Sustain thousandths of species of Animals. Dangars Lagoon out near Uralla supports over 3 thousand species of birds. Fauna in a wetland help maintain the flora in a wetland eating and repollinating all the plants. Monday, 11 November 13
  10. 10. The Process of a Wetland Monday, 11 November 13
  11. 11. Wetlands are one the worlds natural filters. Cleaning all the water in the surrounding are, earning the name “earths Kidney”s Monday, 11 November 13
  12. 12. #1 Water flows in to the wetland from surrounding hills and pools in the area in which the wetland is based. Monday, 11 November 13
  13. 13. #2 As the water moves slowly through the wetland the plants and vegetation filter all the dirty bacteria and dirt particles. Trees can suck up the dirty water in their roots, fish can eat all the bacteria and plants catch all large soild material in their foliage. Monday, 11 November 13
  14. 14. #3 Clean Water flows out of the wetland. This fresh and clean water is available for pumping and drinking. Helping the ecosystem service and flourish. Monday, 11 November 13
  15. 15. #4 When the water has been used it can go back to the beginning of the cycle and start this crucial cycle again Monday, 11 November 13