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# Ship handling

## by Bohe Bekho, Marine Surveyor at Lloyd's Register of Shipping (M) Bhd on May 01, 2012

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## Ship handlingPresentation Transcript

• Shiphandling/WatchstandingSeminar II
• Lesson Contents• Shiphandling Theory • Laws of Motion • Controllable Forces • Uncontrollable Forces• Shiphandling • Terminology • Ground Tackle • Getting Underway • Single Screw Characteristics • Twin Screw Characteristics • Tug Handling • Man Overboard Recovery
• Shiphandling Theory: Motion• Various forces acting on the ship create movement.• Newton’s Laws of Motion 1. Unless acted upon by an outside force: • An object in motion tends to stay in motion. • An object at rest tends to stay at rest. 2. The resulting motion of an object is the sum of all forces acting on it. 3. Every action has an equal and opposite reaction.
• Shiphandling Theory: Forces• Controllable • Uncontrollable • Propeller • Wind • Rudder • Current/Tides • Bow Thruster/APU • Seas • Mooring Lines • Water Depth • Anchors • Tugs
• Controllable Forces
• Controllable Forces Propellers • Provides the most important source of force on a ship. • (Usually) makes ship go forward. • Most ships have 2 propellers. • Aircraft carriers / Patrol Craft have 4. • Frigates have 1.
• Controllable Forces Propellers • Forces resulting from the use of the propellers: • Forward (or reverse) thrust • Side Force
• Controllable Forces Propeller Thrust • A result of the propeller spinning on its shaft. • Caused by a pressure differential between the opposite sides of the propeller blade.
• Controllable Forces Propeller Thrust Resulting Thrust Low Pressure Water Flow Propeller Blade High Pressure Rotation of propeller blade
• Controllable Forces Controlling Propeller Thrust • Depends on type of propellers • Fixed Pitch Propellers • Controllable Pitch Propellers
• Controllable Forces Controllable Pitch Propellers • Found on all gas turbine ships and some diesel amphibs • 0 - 12 kts • shaft rotates at 55 RPM • thrust (speed) controlled by changing the pitch of the propeller blade
• Controllable Forces Controllable Pitch Propellers • >12 kts • thrust controlled by changing the speed (RPM) of the shaft. • The shaft always spins in same direction whether going forward or backward.
• Controllable Forces Fixed Pitch Propellers • Found on steam ships (carriers, subs, amphibs) • Cannot change pitch of propeller • Thrust (speed) controlled by changing speed of the shaft • To go backwards, must stop shaft and spin the shaft in the opposite direction.
• Controllable Forces Side Force • Causes stern to move sideways in the direction of propeller rotation. Propeller
• Controllable Forces Side Force Side Side Force Force Single Screw Astern Ahead Going Ahead Twin Screw Side Force Bottom
• Controllable Forces Screw Current • Consists of two parts • Suction Current - going into the propeller • Discharge Current (Prop Wash)- comes out of the propeller Suction Current Discharge Current Acts on Rudder Propeller
• Controllable Forces Rudders • Used to control ship’s heading by moving the stern. • To have an effect, must have a flow of water across the rudder. • Normally this flow of water is the discharge current of the screw.
• Controllable Forces Rudder Water • Acts a wing Flow High Pressure Area Low High Pressure Area Low Rudder Rudder Force Force
• Controllable Forces Propellers / Rudders • Primary means of controlling the stern Thrust Side Force Rudder Force
• Controllable Forces Pivot Point • Imaginary point on the ship’s centerline about which the ship pivots Pivot Point Thrust Side Force Rudder Force
• Controllable Forces Pivot Point Ship twisting with no way on.
• Controllable Forces Pivot Point • Usually located 1/3 the length of the ship from the bow. (Just behind the bridge.) • Pivot point is not fixed
• Controllable Forces Forces which affect location of the Pivot Point • Headway or Sternway • Ship’s Speed • Anchors • Mooring Lines • Tugs
• Uncontrollable Forces Wind • Acts on the sail area of the ship • Exposed superstructure • Hull structure • Ships tend to back into the wind • 30kts of wind = 1kts of current Current • Acts on the underwater part of the ship. • Creates set and drift.
• Uncontrollable Forces Depth of Water • Squat - Occurs a high speeds • bow of a ship rides up onto the bow wave • stern of a ship tends to sink • Shallow water effects.
• Shiphandling SHIP TERMINOLOGY • Bow • Superstructure • Shaft • Stem • Pilothouse • Propeller • Forecastle • Mast • Rudder • Hawsepipe • Yardarm • Stern • Weather • Truck • Transom decks • Stack • Waterline • Draft • Keel • Freeboard
• Shiphandling SHIP TERMINOLOGY
• Shiphandling: Terms Turning Circle: The path described by a ship’s pivot point as it executes a 360° turn. Tactical Diameter (180°) Final Diameter (360°)
• Shiphandling: Terms Turning Circle Kick Final Diameter Tactical Diameter
• Shiphandling: Terms Advance and Transfer • Advance • Distance gained toward the direction of the original course after the rudder is put over. • Transfer • Distance gained perpendicular to the original course after the rudder is put over.
• Shiphandling: Terms • Headway • moving forward thru the water • Sternway • moving backwards thru the water • Bare Steerageway • the minimum speed a ship can proceed and still maintain course using the rudders
• Shiphandling: Ground Tackle, Mooring Lines Mooring Lines 6 5 4 3 2 1 After Quarter Forward Quarter After Bow Forward Bow Spring Spring Spring Spring Stern Spring Lines Bow Line Line
• Shiphandling: Ground Tackle, Mooring Lines Mooring Lines • Lines • 1-6 • Lines 1 and 6 are thicker than others • Mooring procedure • fake out lines • safety brief • heaving lines
• Shiphandling: Ground Tackle, Mooring Lines Mooring Lines • Terms: • Heaving Line • Tattletale • Fenders • Capstan (p. 188 Seamanship) • Rat Guards (p. 175 Seamanship)
• Shiphandling: Ground Tackle, Mooring Lines Sequence: • Stand by lines • Slack • Take in the slack • Ease • Take a strain • Take to the capstain Commands: • Heave around • Double up • Avast heaving • Single up • Hold • Take in • Check
• Shiphandling: Ground Tackle, Mooring Lines Safety • Battle dress • Snap back zone • Tugs • Pilots ladder
• Shiphandling: Ground Tackle Deck and Pier Fittings
• Shiphandling: Ground Tackle, Anchors Anchors • Most common anchor • Standard Navy Stockless • Most ships have two • Deep water anchor - 14 shots of chain • Normal anchor - 12 shots of chain • Shot - 15 fathoms (90 feet)
• Shiphandling: Ground Tackle, Anchoring Scope of Chain 15 fathoms 30 fathoms 45 fathoms 60 fathoms
• Shiphandling: Ground Tackle, Anchoring Scope of Chain Next to Last Shot Last Shot
• Shiphandling: Ground Tackle, Anchoring Anchoring • Approach • Standby • Let Go the Anchor • Reports • P. 194 (Seamanship) • Anchor watch
• Shiphandling: Getting Underway, Mooring • Concerns: • Watch the stern/pier • Watch for other ships • Winds / Currents • Set on or set off pier? • Using mooring lines and tugs as necessary to control bow / stern
• Shiphandling: Getting Underway, Mooring The Ideal Approach • Approach on a converging course 10 to 20 degrees from the heading of our berth. • When parallel, swing the rudder opposite the pier, and stop the ship. • Stop headway by backing outboard engine. • “Walk” the ship in by tensioning line 1; “twist” the stern with the engines.
• Shiphandling: Getting Underway, Mooring Less than Ideal Conditions • Being Set On: • Stop parallel to the pier, with 1/2 a beam width of open water between you and the pier. • Allow the current to push you onto the pier. • Being Set Off: • Make your approach at a larger angle to the pier at a considerable speed. • Be careful not to part your bow line.
• Shiphandling: Getting Underway, Mooring • Easier than anchoring • Buoy held securely by several anchors. • Chance of dragging reduced. • Two methods Requires: • Ordinary MWB / RHIB with boat crew • Trolley Your ship A buoy
• Shiphandling: Standard Commands Conning Officer • Drives the ship’s heading and speed through standard commands (orders) to the helm and leehelm • Helm - controls the rudder • Leehelm - controls the propellers
• Shiphandling: Standard Commands Basic Format Conning Officer Helm / Leehelm Command Verbatim Repeat back (Carries out command) Report Acknowledges Report
• Shiphandling: Standard Commands HELM CONSOLE
• Shiphandling: Standard Commands ENGINE ORDER TELEGRAPH
• MODERN HELM CONSOLE
• Shiphandling: Standard Commands • Direction: Either left, right or “Rudder amidships” • Amount: Expressed as a number of degrees of rudder (10, 15, etc.), or one of the following: (nominal values given) • Standard: 15° • Full: 30° • Hard: 35°(maximum rudder angle) • Course: >10 degree change
• Shiphandling: Standard Commands COMMANDS TO THE HELM Format Example -Direction "Right. . ." "Left. . ." -Amount ". . standard rudder. . ." ". . .ten degrees rudder. . ." -Course ". . .steady course two zero zero." ". . .steady on course one one five."
• Shiphandling: Standard Commands COMMANDS TO THE HELM • Exception: Course changes of 10° or less: • For small course changes, a specific rudder angle is not given. This allows the Helm to use up to 10° of rudder to make the course change. • The standard command is: • Direction: “Come right/left” • Course to steer: “Steer course ___”
• Shiphandling: Standard Commands OTHER HELM COMMANDS • Desired action: Increase or decrease rudder angle from a previously ordered angle • Command: • “Increase your rudder to ________” • “Ease your rudder to _______” • Note: Anytime a new rudder angle is ordered, a steering/steady course must be repeated if it is desired.
• Shiphandling: Standard Commands OTHER HELM COMMANDS • Desired action: Change rudder angle to an equal amount of rudder in the opposite direction • Command: “Shift your rudder” • Note: Again, if desired, course to steer must be repeated.
• Shiphandling: Standard Commands OTHER HELM COMMANDS • Desired action: Steady the ship on the current heading • Command: “Steady as she goes” • When given, the Helm immediately determines ship’s head at the instant of the command, and steadies the ship on that course. • This should normally be given only with the rudder at or near amidships.
• Shiphandling: Standard Commands OTHER HELM COMMANDS • Desired action: Determine current • Desired action: ship’s heading Warn the Helm • Command: “Mark to steer more your head” exactly • When given, the Helm • Command: immediately “Mind your determines ship’s helm” head at the instant of the command,and reports it to the Conn.
• Shiphandling: Standard Commands HELM REPLY • Whenever an order to the Helm is given, the Helm repeats the order back to the Conn verbatim. • This assures the conning officer that the order was heard and understood correctly.
• Shiphandling: Standard Commands HELM REPLY • Examples: • The Conn orders: “Right standard rudder, steady course 260.” • The Helm replies: “Right standard rudder, steady course 260, aye.”
• Shiphandling: Standard Commands HELM REPLY • If the helm does not understand an order from the Conn, the helm will reply: “Orders to the helm” • The Conn should immediately check his/her order and restate it clearly to the Helm.
• Shiphandling: Standard Commands REPORT & ACKNOWLEDGEMENT • Once a desired action is complete, the Helm reports it to the Conn. • The Conn acknowledges all reports with “Very well’ • If the Conn does not acknowledge a report, the Helm should repeat the report until acknowledged.
• Shiphandling: Standard Commands EXAMPLES Order: “Right standard rudder, steady course 298.” Reply: “Right standard rudder, steady course 298, aye.” Report: “Sir, my rudder is right standard, coming to new course 298.” Report: “Sir, steady on course 298, checking 309.”
• Shiphandling: Standard Commands EXAMPLES Order: “Come left, steer course 345.” Reply: “Come left, steer course 345, aye.” Report: “Sir, my rudder is left 5°, coming to new course 345.” Report: “Sir, steady on course 345, checking 352.”
• Shiphandling: Standard Commands EXAMPLES Order: “Right full rudder.” Reply: “Right full rudder, aye.” Report: “Sir, my rudder is right full, no new course given.” Report: “Passing 230 to the right.” Order: “Belay your passing heads.” Reply: “Belay my passing heads, aye.”
• Shiphandling: Standard Commands EXAMPLES Order: “Ease your rudder to right 15°.” Reply: “Ease my rudder to right 15°, aye.” Report: “Ma’am, my rudder is right 15°, no new course given.” Order: “Steady course 143.” Reply: “Steady course 143, aye.” Report: “Ma’am, my rudder is right 15°, coming to new course 143.”
• Shiphandling: Standard Commands EXAMPLES Order: “Hard left rudder.” Reply: “Hard left rudder, aye.” Report: “Sir, my rudder is left 35°, no new course given.” Order: “Shift your rudder.” Reply: “Shift my rudder, aye.” Report: “Sir, my rudder is right 35°, no new course given.”
• Shiphandling: Standard Commands EXAMPLES Order: “Right full rudder.” Reply: “Right full rudder, aye.” Report: “Sir, my rudder is right 30°, no new course given.” Order: “Rudder amidships” Reply: “Rudder amidships, aye.” Report: “Sir, my rudder is amidships, no new course given.” Order: “Steady as you go.” Reply: “Steady as you go, aye. Course 098.” Report: “Steady on course 098, checking 107.”
• Shiphandling: Standard Commands ENGINE ORDERS • For fixed pitch propellers, ship speed is dependent on shaft rpm only. • For controllable pitch propellers, ship speed is dependent on shaft rpm and, below about 12 knots, propeller blade pitch. • For gas turbines, the shaft is always spinning when the engine is on line. “All engines stop” is achieved by a blade pitch of 0°.
• Shiphandling: Standard Commands ENGINE ORDERS • Prescribed standard speeds are predetermined ship’s speeds: • “Standard speed” - normally 15 knots • “1/3” - one third of standard speed • “2/3” - two thirds of standard speed • “Full” - speed higher than standard speed • “Flank” - maximum speed
• Shiphandling: Standard Commands ENGINE ORDERS Typical Prescribed Standard Speeds • Ahead Bell Speed • Astern 1/3 5 Bell Speed 2/3 10 1/3 5 Std 15 2/3 10 Full 20 Full Max Flank Max speed speed
• Shiphandling: Standard Commands ENGINE ORDERS Format Example -Engines ”All engines. . ." -Direction ". . ahead full. . ." ". . .back 2/3. . ." -Speed ". . indicate 108 revolutions for 15 knots." ". . .indicate 072 revolutions and 20% pitch for 3 knots."
• Shiphandling: Standard Commands ENGINE ORDERS • Engines: Port, starboard, or all engines. Unnecessary for single screw ships. • Direction: Ahead, back or stop, and nearest standard speed (except for stop)
• Shiphandling: Standard Commands ENGINE ORDERS • Speed: “..indicate ____ turns for __ knots.”, OR “..indicate turns for __ knots.” • For controllable pitch propellers below 12 knots: “..indicate ___ turns and __% pitch for __ knots.” OR, “..indicate pitch and turns for __ knots.” -Note: If proceeding at a prescribed standard speed, none of this is required.
• Shiphandling: Standard Commands MANEUVERING COMBINATIONS • In maneuvering situations, where frequent engine changes are expected, the Conning Officer may set “maneuvering combinations”. • When set, the Lee Helm answers all bells at the prescribed standard speed increment. • On ships with an EOT, this is indicated by an RPM setting of “999”.
• Shiphandling: Standard Commands REPLIES AND REPORTS • Reply: Verbatim repeatback is required. • Reports: Lee Helm reports when action is completed. • Note: Every report must include the complete status of all engines, even if only one was changed. • Acknowledgement: Conn will acknowledge all reports with “Very well”
• Shiphandling: Standard Commands EXAMPLES Order: “All engines ahead standard, indicate 115 revolutions for 16 knots.” Reply: “All engines ahead standard, indicate 115 revolutions for 16 knots, aye.” Report: “Ma’am, engine room answers all engines ahead standard, indicating 115 revolutions for 16 knots.”
• Shiphandling: Standard Commands EXAMPLES (Continued from previous slide) Order: “Indicate 122 revolutions for 17 knots.” Reply: “Indicate 122 revolutions for 17 knots, aye.” Report: “Ma’am, engine room answers all engines ahead standard, indicating 122 revolutions for 17 knots.”
• Shiphandling: Standard Commands EXAMPLES Order: “Port engine ahead 1/3, starboard engine back 2/3.” Reply: “Port engine ahead 1/3, starboard engine back 2/3, aye.” Report: “Ma’am, engine room answers port engine ahead 1/3, starboard engine back 2/3.”
• Shiphandling: Standard Commands EXAMPLES (Continued from previous slide) Order: “Starboard engine stop.” Reply: “Starboard engine stop, aye.” Report: “Ma’am, engine room answers starboard engine stop, port engine ahead 1/3.”
• Shiphandling: Standard Commands EXAMPLES Order: “All engines ahead 1/3, indicate pitch and turns for 5 knots.” Reply: “All engines ahead 1/3, indicate pitch and turns for 5 knots, aye.” Report: “Sir, engine room answers all engines ahead 1/3, indicating 075 turns and 34% pitch for 5 knots.”
• Shiphandling: Single Screw Ships Ship Astern Propeller Astern Rudder Amidships Ship follows the rudder: Ship will tend into the wind: Ship will tend to port very easily Ship does not tend to starboard easily
• Shiphandling: Single Screw Ships Ship Ahead Propeller Astern Rudder Amidships
• Shiphandling: Twin Screw Ships Ship Ahead One Propeller Trailing Counteract with rudder
• Shiphandling: Twin Screw Ships Ship Astern One Propeller Trailing Counteract with rudder
• Shiphandling: Twin Screw Ships Ship Ahead Both Propellers Ahead Different Speeds Counteract with rudder
• Shiphandling: Twin Screw Ships Propellers Split
• Shiphandling: Tug Tie-Ups Single Headline • Simplest Tie-up • Best to allow tug to push or pull only • Not good if complex tug maneuvers required.
• Shiphandling: Tug Tie-Ups Double Headline • Not as simple • Allows tug to push or pull and complex tug maneuvers
• Shiphandling: Tug Tie-Ups Power • Most versatile tie-up • Good for general purpose use • Holds tug securely to ship.
• Shiphandling: Man Overboard Recovery Recovery Maneuvers • Williamson Turn • Anderson Turn • Race Track • Y-Turn
• Shiphandling: Man Overboard Recovery Easiest Method? • Daylight: Anderson • Night: Williamson • Subs: Y backing • Carriers: Racetrack • Boat / Helo?
• Shiphandling: Man Overboard Recovery Recovery considerations • Helicopter • average time to ready for takeoff is 10-12 mins • Small boat • average time to launch 6-8 mins • Ship • fastest method
• Shiphandling: Man Overboard Recovery Small Boat Considerations • PPE for boat crews • manning • coxswain • bow hook • corpsman • boat officer • signalman • SAR swimmer • 3-5 knots; no sternway
• Shiphandling: Man Overboard Recovery Initial Actions • Applicable for all recoveries: • Full rudder to side of ship where person fell overboard. • Full speed. • Throw smoke float, life ring • Keep in sight • Pass the word • 6 short blasts • Mark on chart • Man Boat Deck • Notify other ships, Helos • Receive muster report
• Shiphandling: Man Overboard Recovery Follow-on actions • Notify Captain, TAO and Flag • Hoist Oscar flag (day); turn on red- over-red pulsating (night) • Notify other ships in company • Gather Vitals from CIC • Time in water • Water temp and stay time • Bearing and range to man
• Shiphandling: Man Overboard Recovery Man Overboard Kicks Stern Away Starboard Side Right Full Rudder All Engines Ahead Full
• Shiphandling: Man Overboard Recovery Williamson Turn Shift Rudder When 60° Off Course
• Shiphandling: Man Overboard Recovery maneuvering • Williamson port 60 deg starboard - slow - good for night or low vis
• Shiphandling: Man Overboard Recovery Anderson Turn
• Shiphandling: Man Overboard Recovery maneuvering • Anderson port starboard - fastest - most skill
• Shiphandling: Man Overboard Recovery Racetrack Turn
• Shiphandling: Man Overboard Recovery maneuvering • Race track - high speed port starboard - easier approach
• Shiphandling: Man Overboard Recovery Y-Turn
• Shiphandling: Man Overboard Recovery maneuvering • Y-backing - poor control - keeps ship close to man
• Shiphandling: Man Overboard Recovery maneuvering • tear drop - Carriers modified starboard port racetrack