Intro to basic safety and seamanship2

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Intro to basic safety and seamanship2

  1. 1. LYCEUM OF THE PHILIPPINES UNIVERSITY College of International Tourism and Hospitality Management Introduction to Basic Safety and Seamanship
  2. 2. LYCEUM OF THE PHILIPPINES UNIVERSITY College of International Tourism and Hospitality Management Introduction Shipping is perhaps the most international of all the world's great industries - and one of the most dangerous.
  3. 3. LYCEUM OF THE PHILIPPINES UNIVERSITY College of International Tourism and Hospitality Management • an established United Nations agency that sets standards and adopts regulations that apply to all vessels that operate internationally. • is based in London and includes representatives from 171 major maritime nations including the United States. What is the International Maritime Organization (IMO)?
  4. 4. LYCEUM OF THE PHILIPPINES UNIVERSITY College of International Tourism and Hospitality Management IMO’s most important objectives and accomplishments have been •to improve vessel safety •to prevent marine pollution. IMO’s objectivesIMO’s objectives
  5. 5. LYCEUM OF THE PHILIPPINES UNIVERSITY College of International Tourism and Hospitality Management • new version of the SOLAS - the most important of all treaties dealing with maritime safety (1959) • international collision regulations • global standards for seafarers • international conventions • codes relating to search and rescue, the facilitation of international maritime traffic, load lines, the carriage of dangerous goods and tonnage measurement. IMO regulations:
  6. 6. LYCEUM OF THE PHILIPPINES UNIVERSITY College of International Tourism and Hospitality Management History of the IMO Historically, maritime shipping has been recognized as an international business governed by international treaties and agreements. By the 1930s, the international maritime community had already adopted a number of international agreements on marine safety. Many leading maritime nations, however, believed that there was a need for a more permanent body to develop and oversee implementation of uniform rules and regulations governing the shipping industry.
  7. 7. LYCEUM OF THE PHILIPPINES UNIVERSITY College of International Tourism and Hospitality Management With these goals in mind, a conference held by the United Nations in 1948 adopted a convention calling for establishment of the first ever international body devoted exclusively to maritime matters — the International Maritime Organization (IMO). Since its inception, the IMO’s most important objectives have been safety and the prevention of marine pollution. History of the IMO
  8. 8. LYCEUM OF THE PHILIPPINES UNIVERSITY College of International Tourism and Hospitality Management The Maritime Safety Committee is IMO's senior technical body on safety-related matters. The subcommittees of MSC include: 1.Safety of Navigation 2.Ship Design and Equipment 3.Standards of Training and Watchkeeping 4.Fire Protection 5.Stability and Load Lines 6.Communication and Search and Rescue 7.Flag State Implementation. History of the IMO
  9. 9. LYCEUM OF THE PHILIPPINES UNIVERSITY College of International Tourism and Hospitality Management The governing body of the London-based IMO is the Assembly. The Assembly consists of all Member States and is responsible for approving the work programs, voting the budget and determining the IMO's financial arrangements. The Council, elected by the Assembly and comprised of 32 Member Governments, is responsible under the Assembly for supervising the work of the organization including the appointment of the IMO Secretary General. History of the IMO
  10. 10. LYCEUM OF THE PHILIPPINES UNIVERSITY College of International Tourism and Hospitality Management The IMO has become a vibrant organization responsible for the development of major shipping initiatives. Since its inception in 1948, the IMO’s most important objectives have been improving vessel safety and the prevention of marine pollution. It is recognized as an efficient and successful international body responsible for the development of treaties and conventions governing every aspect of maritime operations. As a result, IMO meetings are attended by maritime experts from around the world. History of the IMO
  11. 11. LYCEUM OF THE PHILIPPINES UNIVERSITY College of International Tourism and Hospitality Management What Does the IMO Do? The purposes of the Organization, as summarized by Article 1(a) of the Convention, are: 1.to provide machinery for cooperation among Governments in the field of governmental regulation and practices relating to technical matters of all kinds affecting shipping engaged in international trade; 2.to encourage and facilitate the general adoption of the highest practicable standards in matters concerning maritime safety, efficiency of navigation and prevention and control of marine pollution from ships". The Organization is also empowered to deal with administrative and legal matters related to these purposes.
  12. 12. LYCEUM OF THE PHILIPPINES UNIVERSITY College of International Tourism and Hospitality Management Through the participation of member nations, IMO has developed an extensive international regulatory framework. To achieve its objectives, the IMO promotes the adoption of conventions (or "treaties") through a formal committee process. These committees examine current maritime issues and make recommendations for changes or improvements to Convention regulations. Generally, a committee or subcommittee presents these recommendations to the assembly for adoption. What Does the IMO Do?
  13. 13. LYCEUM OF THE PHILIPPINES UNIVERSITY College of International Tourism and Hospitality Management Once a convention or amendment is adopted by the IMO, each member nation is required to present the convention to its member government for ratification. For example, the United States as a signatory to the SOLAS Convention was required to seek treaty ratification from the U.S. Congress. Countries that ratify a convention must implement its requirements. This is significant because it requires all vessels flagged in that country to comply with the established international regulations. What Does the IMO Do?
  14. 14. LYCEUM OF THE PHILIPPINES UNIVERSITY College of International Tourism and Hospitality Management What are the IMO requirements for vessel’s safety? The SOLAS Convention addresses a wide range of measures to enhance vessel safety including: 1.standards for ship design and construction 2.stability 3.fire protection 4.lifesaving 5.communications 6.navigation 7.safety management 8.certification
  15. 15. LYCEUM OF THE PHILIPPINES UNIVERSITY College of International Tourism and Hospitality Management Recent SOLAS amendments enacted in 1992 called for comprehensive fire safety improvements on all passenger vessels. These amendments, which apply to both new and existing passenger vessels, are: 1.require vessels to upgrade fire protection and lifesaving equipment 2.install low-level lighting, smoke detectors and automatic sprinklers.
  16. 16. LYCEUM OF THE PHILIPPINES UNIVERSITY College of International Tourism and Hospitality Management What are the IMO requirements for crew training? The International Convention on Standards of Training, Certification and Watchkeeping, the STCW Convention, and its Amendments - sets minimum standards for the training and certification of crew members onboard all vessels engaged in international voyages.
  17. 17. LYCEUM OF THE PHILIPPINES UNIVERSITY College of International Tourism and Hospitality Management In 1995, the international shipping industry adopted sweeping amendments to the STCW Convention. They establish requirements for basic safety training for all crew members, and advanced training requirements for crew members with assigned safety or pollution prevention duties. What are the IMO requirements for vessel’s safety?
  18. 18. LYCEUM OF THE PHILIPPINES UNIVERSITY College of International Tourism and Hospitality Management The STCW amendments also specify minimum standards for crew competence and set criteria for evaluation of crew training by the flag administration. In addition, the STCW amendments provide for IMO oversight of flag state implementation requirements that went into effect on February 1, 1997. What are the IMO requirements for vessel’s safety?
  19. 19. LYCEUM OF THE PHILIPPINES UNIVERSITY College of International Tourism and Hospitality Management What are the IMO requirements for the prevention of pollution? The MARPOL Convention - The International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (MARPOL) sets strict regulatory guidelines for the protection of the marine environment. Regulations covering the various sources of ship-generated pollution are contained in five annexes of the Convention. The annexes that govern cruise industry operations set standards to prevent pollution by oil, garbage and waste.
  20. 20. LYCEUM OF THE PHILIPPINES UNIVERSITY College of International Tourism and Hospitality Management MARPOL and its annexes have been widely adopted by the maritime nations. All CLIA member lines have embraced the principles set forth in this international Convention and have comprehensive environmental programs in place, which deal with onboard procedures and practices to eliminate ship-generated pollution. The cruise industry has been very proactive in its effort to maintain the beauty and pristine condition of the waters on which we are privileged to operate. What are the IMO requirements for the prevention of pollution?
  21. 21. LYCEUM OF THE PHILIPPINES UNIVERSITY College of International Tourism and Hospitality Management MARPOL 73/78 TECHNICAL ANNEXES ANNEX I – Regulations for the Prevention of Pollution by Oil- enforced October 2, 1983 ANNEX II – Regulation for the Control of Pollution by Noxious Liquid Substances carried in bulk – enforced April 6, 1987 ANNEX III – Regulations for the Preventions of Harmful Substances carried in Packaged Forms – enforced July 1, 1992 ANNEX IV – Regulations for the Preventions of Pollution by Sewage – not yet enforced/optional ANNEX V – Regulation for the Preventions of Pollution by Garbage – enforced December 31, 1998
  22. 22. LYCEUM OF THE PHILIPPINES UNIVERSITY College of International Tourism and Hospitality Management Pollution Prevention of the Maritime Environment POLLUTION – is an inconvenience or damaged caused by natural phenomena and human activities to human, animals, plants and to our environment as a whole by spreading compounds to land, air and sea.
  23. 23. LYCEUM OF THE PHILIPPINES UNIVERSITY College of International Tourism and Hospitality Management Main Sources of Marine Pollution: • Shipping and marine activities • Oil exploration and exploitation activities • Domestic Waste • Industrial Waste • Run off from agricultural pesticide and herbicide
  24. 24. LYCEUM OF THE PHILIPPINES UNIVERSITY College of International Tourism and Hospitality Management Origin of Marine Pollution 1. Operational discharges from tankers during tank cleaning 2. Bilge discharges from all vessel 3. Spills due to marine accident – collision, grounding, explosion, etc.
  25. 25. LYCEUM OF THE PHILIPPINES UNIVERSITY College of International Tourism and Hospitality Management What are the IMO requirements for Shipboard and Shoreside Safety Management? The ISM Code - The recently enacted International Safety Management (ISM) code focuses on the important role which onboard crew management and shoreside management plays in maritime safety. In order to obtain ISM Code certification, cruise lines were required to establish a comprehensive safety management system that was reviewed and certified by maritime experts from the flag administration.
  26. 26. LYCEUM OF THE PHILIPPINES UNIVERSITY College of International Tourism and Hospitality Management The ISM code requires both ship board and shoreside cruise line management to carefully document standards of practice relating to safety and environmental operations. These standards of practice will be subject to an ongoing internal and external audit and review by maritime experts familiar with vessel safety and required procedures. What are the IMO requirements for Shipboard and Shoreside Safety Management?
  27. 27. LYCEUM OF THE PHILIPPINES UNIVERSITY College of International Tourism and Hospitality Management Vessel Sanitation The cruise industry is committed to providing a safe, healthful environment for all passengers at sea. The cruise industry voluntarily works with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), a division of the U.S. Public Health Service, which oversees health and sanitary conditions on all passenger vessels visiting U.S. ports.
  28. 28. LYCEUM OF THE PHILIPPINES UNIVERSITY College of International Tourism and Hospitality Management The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) established the Vessel Sanitation Program (VSP) in the early 1970s as a cooperative activity with the cruise industry. The program assists the cruise industry in fulfilling its responsibility for developing and implementing comprehensive sanitation programs in order to minimize the risk for gastrointestinal diseases. CLIA cruise lines maintain frequent communication with the CDC and proactively report any communicable illness. Vessel Sanitation
  29. 29. LYCEUM OF THE PHILIPPINES UNIVERSITY College of International Tourism and Hospitality Management Cruise lines and the CDC work closely together during the entire life of a ship. The CDC provides guidelines, reviews plans and conducts on-site inspections on all new ship builds or newly renovated. Cruise lines continue to work with the CDC to maintain the ship through regular inspections, crew training and passenger education. Vessel Sanitation
  30. 30. LYCEUM OF THE PHILIPPINES UNIVERSITY College of International Tourism and Hospitality Management Every vessel that has a foreign itinerary, carries 13 or more passengers and calls on a U.S. port is subject to unannounced, twice- yearly inspections and, when necessary, to re- inspection by VSP staff. The vessel owner pays a fee, based on tonnage, for all inspections. Routine Inspections
  31. 31. LYCEUM OF THE PHILIPPINES UNIVERSITY College of International Tourism and Hospitality Management The ships must meet the criteria established by VSP in the "Vessel Sanitation Program Operations Manual." The ship is given a score based on a 100 point scale. To pass the inspection, a ship must score 86 or above. If the ship fails an inspection, it will be re-inspected, usually within 30 to 45 days. Routine Inspections
  32. 32. LYCEUM OF THE PHILIPPINES UNIVERSITY College of International Tourism and Hospitality Management The inspections are conducted by Environmental Health Officers (EHO) of the VSP, and take place only in U.S. ports. Depending on the size of the ship, an inspection may take from one to four EHO’s, but typically two are assigned to conduct the inspection. The inspection may take from five to eight hours to complete, depending on the size and complexity of the vessel. Routine Inspections
  33. 33. LYCEUM OF THE PHILIPPINES UNIVERSITY College of International Tourism and Hospitality Management • The ship's water supply—to determine how water is stored, distributed, protected and disinfected. • The ship's spas and pools—to ensure adequate filtration and disinfection. • The ship's food—to determine how it is protected during storage, preparation and service. • The potential for contamination of food and water—to determine what interventions are needed for protection. Routine Inspections
  34. 34. LYCEUM OF THE PHILIPPINES UNIVERSITY College of International Tourism and Hospitality Management • The practices and personal hygiene of employees—to ensure cleanliness and the use of appropriate hygienic practices. • The general cleanliness and physical condition of the ship—to ensure cleanliness and the absence of insects and rodents. • The ship's training programs in general environmental and public health practices— to determine the scope and effectiveness of such training. Routine Inspections
  35. 35. LYCEUM OF THE PHILIPPINES UNIVERSITY College of International Tourism and Hospitality Management Inspection scores and reports are published on the VSP Web site. In addition, scores are published every month in the "Summary of Sanitation Inspections of Internationa commonly referred to as the "green sheet." This sheet is distributed to more than 3,000 travel-related services around the world. Routine Inspections
  36. 36. LYCEUM OF THE PHILIPPINES UNIVERSITY College of International Tourism and Hospitality Management In general, the lower the score, the lower the level of sanitation; however, a low score does not necessarily imply an imminent risk for gastrointestinal disease. Since the program began, the number of disease outbreaks on ships has declined despite significant growth in the number of ships sailing and the number of passengers carried. Routine Inspections
  37. 37. LYCEUM OF THE PHILIPPINES UNIVERSITY College of International Tourism and Hospitality Management CDC Requirements Under the authority of the Public Health Service Act to take measures necessary to prevent the introduction, transmission or spread of communicable diseases in the United States from a foreign country [42 United States Code Section 264(a)], a surveillance system for gastrointestinal illnesses on board passenger ships carrying 13 or more passengers has been maintained by the VSP. Routine Inspections
  38. 38. LYCEUM OF THE PHILIPPINES UNIVERSITY College of International Tourism and Hospitality Management This reporting system, along with a rigorous VSP sanitation inspection program and the industry's commitment to provide safe and healthy cruises, has been instrumental in significantly reducing the number of incidents of gastrointestinal illness aboard cruise ships. However, with a rapidly growing cruise industry that now serves more travelers in a more extensive itinerary than ever before, we face new patterns of old diseases or newly recognized causes of diseases as we attempt to ensure a safe passage for the traveling public. Routine Inspections
  39. 39. LYCEUM OF THE PHILIPPINES UNIVERSITY College of International Tourism and Hospitality Management Cruise ships are required to maintain a standardized gastrointestinal illness incidence report for each cruise. It contains information on the total numbers of passengers and crew members and on the passengers and crew members who reported gastrointestinal illness, including the number of cases of gastrointestinal illness by dates of onset. Routine Inspections
  40. 40. LYCEUM OF THE PHILIPPINES UNIVERSITY College of International Tourism and Hospitality Management If increased incidents of gastrointestinal illness such as norovirus occur, cruise lines take every precaution to contain the spread of this illness through aggressive measures and open communications with their guests before they board and while onboard the ship. CLIA cruise lines identify the safety and health of their passengers and crew as their highest priority and proactively report any communicable illness on board to the CDC immediately as participants in the VSP program. Routine Inspections
  41. 41. LYCEUM OF THE PHILIPPINES UNIVERSITY College of International Tourism and Hospitality Management STCW Convention International Convention on Standards of Training, Certification and Watchkeeping for Certifications, 1978 STCW Code ’95 Seafarer’s Training, Certification & Watchkeeping Code
  42. 42. LYCEUM OF THE PHILIPPINES UNIVERSITY College of International Tourism and Hospitality Management Why the STCW Convention was Revised? The 1978 International Convention on Standards of Training, Certification and Watchkeeping for Seafarers (STCW Convention) – the principal international treaty regulating seafarer’s training, certification and watchkeeping arrangements, formed the basis of national standards worldwide. The 1978 STCW Convention reflected the highest practicable standards which could be globally agreed at the time of its adoption.
  43. 43. LYCEUM OF THE PHILIPPINES UNIVERSITY College of International Tourism and Hospitality Management Despite its global acceptance, it was realized in the late 1980’s that the Convention was not achieving its purpose. The following were three particular concerns about the 1978 STCW Convention which the 1995 amendments intend to address: Why the STCW Convention was Revised?
  44. 44. LYCEUM OF THE PHILIPPINES UNIVERSITY College of International Tourism and Hospitality Management 1. The 1978 STCW did not in fact contain precise standards of competence relating to the abilities needed to perform shipboard functions safely and effectively – it only stipulated minimum knowledge requirements for the issue of certificates. Why the STCW Convention was Revised?
  45. 45. LYCEUM OF THE PHILIPPINES UNIVERSITY College of International Tourism and Hospitality Management 2. Neither the process by which countries have ratified the Convention, nor the provisions of the Convention itself, have been sufficient guarantees to ensure that STCW requirements have been implemented worldwide or sufficiently enforced resulting to loss of confidence in the reliability of STCW certificates issued by certain governments as an indicator of seafarer’s competence. Why the STCW Convention was Revised?
  46. 46. LYCEUM OF THE PHILIPPINES UNIVERSITY College of International Tourism and Hospitality Management 2. The 1978 Convention has failed to accommodate modern developments in training and shipboard organization. The 1978 Convention lacked the flexibility to meet the industry’s anticipated needs in the 21st century. Why the STCW Convention was Revised?
  47. 47. LYCEUM OF THE PHILIPPINES UNIVERSITY College of International Tourism and Hospitality Management The 1995 amendments to the STCW Convention represents a comprehensive package of interrelated measures, the main features of which covers three essential areas: 1.New responsibilities for shipping companies  ensures that seafarers meet minimum international standards of competence.  ships are manned in accordance with flag state requirements.  detailed records are maintained of all seafarers. Why the STCW Convention was Revised?
  48. 48. LYCEUM OF THE PHILIPPINES UNIVERSITY College of International Tourism and Hospitality Management 2. New uniform standards of competence The revised Convention contains specific criteria detailing the standards of knowledge, understanding and proficiency to be achieved in each element of competence by candidates for certification, and the criteria for evaluating them. Why the STCW Convention was Revised?
  49. 49. LYCEUM OF THE PHILIPPINES UNIVERSITY College of International Tourism and Hospitality Management 3. New measures to ensure implementation by governments  ensure that governments that are Parties to the Convention implement STCW requirements.  ensure that certificates are only issued to seafarers that meet the minimum competency standards. Why the STCW Convention was Revised?
  50. 50. LYCEUM OF THE PHILIPPINES UNIVERSITY College of International Tourism and Hospitality Management 3 - continued  clarifies the responsibility of flag state regarding the competence of seafarers serving on their ship.  the use of simulators in training.  the qualifications of training instructors and assessors.  measures to prevent fatigue.  principles governing alternative arrangements for issuing certificates. Why the STCW Convention was Revised?
  51. 51. LYCEUM OF THE PHILIPPINES UNIVERSITY College of International Tourism and Hospitality Management 1 February 1997 – the 1995 amendments to the STCW Convention will enter into force. 1 August 1998 – New entrants commencing training will be required to do so according to the newly adopted standards. 1 February 2002 – Transitional measures will end. IMPLEMENTATION DATES
  52. 52. LYCEUM OF THE PHILIPPINES UNIVERSITY College of International Tourism and Hospitality Management International Maritime Organization (IMO) • A specialized agency of the United Nation responsible for technical matters that affect the maritime industry. • The only UN agency which is based in London • Has about 171 member states
  53. 53. LYCEUM OF THE PHILIPPINES UNIVERSITY College of International Tourism and Hospitality Management IMO - Purpose • To promote cooperation of the regulation and practice the highest standards of safety and navigation. • The prevention and control of the marine environment.
  54. 54. LYCEUM OF THE PHILIPPINES UNIVERSITY College of International Tourism and Hospitality Management IMO - Function • Develop treaties and other legislations concerning safety an pollution prevention. • Keep legislation up to date and ratified by the majority of the member states. • Ensure that convention and treaties are properly implemented.
  55. 55. LYCEUM OF THE PHILIPPINES UNIVERSITY College of International Tourism and Hospitality Management BASIC SAFETY TRAINING (BST)
  56. 56. LYCEUM OF THE PHILIPPINES UNIVERSITY College of International Tourism and Hospitality Management BASIC SAFETY TRAINING (BST) 4 - Elements of Basic Safety Training 1. Elementary First Aid 2. Personal Survival Technique (PST) 3. Personal Safety & Social Responsibility (PSSR) 4. Basic Firefighting (BFF) This course has to be renewed every 5 years.
  57. 57. LYCEUM OF THE PHILIPPINES UNIVERSITY College of International Tourism and Hospitality Management Elementary First Aid FIRST AID An immediate care given to a person who has been injured or suddenly taken ill until medical assistance is available. OBJECTIVES • To alleviate pain, suffering • To prevent added further injury and danger • To prolong and save life
  58. 58. LYCEUM OF THE PHILIPPINES UNIVERSITY College of International Tourism and Hospitality Management ROLES  It is the bridge that fills the gap between the victim and the physician.  It is not intended to compete with, nor take the place of the services of the physician.  It ends when the services of a physician begins. Elementary First Aid
  59. 59. LYCEUM OF THE PHILIPPINES UNIVERSITY College of International Tourism and Hospitality Management Characteristics of a Good First Aider: • Observant – should notice all signs • Resourceful – should make the best use of things at hand • Gentle – should not cause pain • Tactful – should not alarm the victim • Sympathetic – should be comforting
  60. 60. LYCEUM OF THE PHILIPPINES UNIVERSITY College of International Tourism and Hospitality Management Transmission of Diseases and the First Aider • Direct Contact- occurs when a person touches an infected person’s body fluid • Indirect Contact- occurs when person touches object that have been contaminated by the blood or another body fluid of an infected person • Airborne Contact- through inhalation • Vector Transmission- occurs when animals transmit pathogen into the body through a bite.
  61. 61. LYCEUM OF THE PHILIPPINES UNIVERSITY College of International Tourism and Hospitality Management Disease That Cause Concern: • Herpes- viral infection that causes eruption of the skin and mucous membranes • Meningitis- is an inflammation of the brain or spinal cord caused by viral or bacterial infection. • Tuberculosis- a respiratory disease caused by bacteria. • Hepatitis – viral infection of the liver • HIV- virus that destroy the body’s ability to fight infection.
  62. 62. LYCEUM OF THE PHILIPPINES UNIVERSITY College of International Tourism and Hospitality Management Body Substance Isolation • An infection control concept and practice that is designed to approach all body fluids as being potentially infectious.
  63. 63. LYCEUM OF THE PHILIPPINES UNIVERSITY College of International Tourism and Hospitality Management Body Structure and Functions Terms of Position: • Anatomical Position- patient stands erect with arms down at sides. • Supine- the patient is lying on his back • Prone- patient is lying face down on his stomach. • Lateral Recumbent Position- the patient is lying on his right or left side; also known as recovery position
  64. 64. LYCEUM OF THE PHILIPPINES UNIVERSITY College of International Tourism and Hospitality Management The ABC of Life • Airway- open the airway by gently lifting the chin, which moves the jaw forward and tilts the head backward. • Breathing- Look for the person’s chest to rise and fall. Listen for the sounds of inhaled or exhaled air. • Circulation- feel for a pulse, by gently pressing two fingers on the persons neck between the Adam’s apple.
  65. 65. LYCEUM OF THE PHILIPPINES UNIVERSITY College of International Tourism and Hospitality Management Vital Signs • Pulse Rate (60-90 beats/min) • Respiratory Rate ( 12-20 breaths/min) • Body Temperature ( 36.5-37.5) • Blood Pressure ( 90/60-140/90)
  66. 66. LYCEUM OF THE PHILIPPINES UNIVERSITY College of International Tourism and Hospitality Management Questioning the Victim • Ask the SAMPLE History S- signs and symptoms A- allergy M- medication P- past illnesses L- last oral/ meal intake E- event prior to incident
  67. 67. LYCEUM OF THE PHILIPPINES UNIVERSITY College of International Tourism and Hospitality Management Rules in Giving Medical Care • Obtain consent, when possible • Remember to identify yourself to the victim • Provide comfort and emotional support • Respect the victims modesty and physical privacy • Be as calm and direct as possible • Care for the most serious case first • Keep onlookers away from the injured victim • Handle the victim to a minimum • Loosen all tight clothing
  68. 68. LYCEUM OF THE PHILIPPINES UNIVERSITY College of International Tourism and Hospitality Management Do not: • Let the victim see his own injury • Leave the victim alone except to get help • Assume that the victims obvious injuries are the only ones • Make unrealistic promises • Trust the judgment of a confused victim and require them to make decision.
  69. 69. LYCEUM OF THE PHILIPPINES UNIVERSITY College of International Tourism and Hospitality Management Wounds and Bleeding Wound- a break in the continuity of a tissue in the body Classification of Wound: 1. Close Wound- involves underlying tissue without break/damage in the skin or mucous membrane. Cause: blunt object result in contusion or bruises or application of external forces such as fall
  70. 70. LYCEUM OF THE PHILIPPINES UNIVERSITY College of International Tourism and Hospitality Management First Aid Management for Close Wound 1. Ice Application 2. Compression 3. Elevation 4. Splinting Open Wound- a break in the skin or mucus membrane; or the protective skin layer is damaged.
  71. 71. LYCEUM OF THE PHILIPPINES UNIVERSITY College of International Tourism and Hospitality Management Kinds of Bleeding • Arterial- occurs when an artery is severed or opened • Venous- darker in color and flows steadily • Capillary- expected in minor cuts, scratches and abrasion
  72. 72. LYCEUM OF THE PHILIPPINES UNIVERSITY College of International Tourism and Hospitality Management Emergency Action Principle (EAP): 1. Survey the scene – should observe the following: is the scene safe?; what happened?; how many people are injured?; are there bystanders who can help?; check the condition of the victim; and identify yourself as a trained first aider. 2. Do a primary survey of the victim – a procedure of identifying immediate life threatening conditions of the victim. Take the ABC steps. 3. Activate medical assistance/ transfer facility – inform bridge for medical assistance. 4. Do a secondary survey of the victim – a procedure done to identify other injuries of the victim to the other parts of the body.
  73. 73. LYCEUM OF THE PHILIPPINES UNIVERSITY College of International Tourism and Hospitality Management PERSONAL SURVIVAL TECHNIQUE (PST) SURVIVAL – an action, ability or effort exerted by a person or a group of person in order to continue to live in the midst of a disastrous situation. - a struggle for existence.
  74. 74. LYCEUM OF THE PHILIPPINES UNIVERSITY College of International Tourism and Hospitality Management Survival in General Proper preparation and knowledge can give a person a strong psychological edge to overcome a survival situation. While no one expects to be in such situation, one can anticipate certain conditions that dramatically increase the possibility. The moment you board a vessel, either as a passenger or a crew member, the odds of finding your life in danger are increased.
  75. 75. LYCEUM OF THE PHILIPPINES UNIVERSITY College of International Tourism and Hospitality Management It will not be a sound advice but strong psychological support under survival conditions to remember the letters keyed to the words SURVIVAL S – Size up the Situation U – Undue Haste Makes Waste R – Remember where you are V – Vanquish Fear and Panic I – Improvise V – Value Living A – Act Wisely and Properly L – Learn Basic Skills
  76. 76. LYCEUM OF THE PHILIPPINES UNIVERSITY College of International Tourism and Hospitality Management Seven Steps to Survival “In a survival situation, the decisions you make will be more important than the equipment you carry.” 1. RECOGNITION - Admit that your life is in danger, ACT! 2.INVENTORY - Decide what can help and hurt. DO FIRST AID!
  77. 77. LYCEUM OF THE PHILIPPINES UNIVERSITY College of International Tourism and Hospitality Management 3. SHELTER - Preserve body heat with insulating materials. 4. SIGNALS - Conveys message, attract attention. 5. WATER - Find a source of water. 6. FOOD - If you don’t have water, don’t eat! 7. PLAY - Keep a positive mental attitude. Seven Steps to Survival
  78. 78. LYCEUM OF THE PHILIPPINES UNIVERSITY College of International Tourism and Hospitality Management The Psychology of Survival No one can ever be fully prepared for a survival situation. You may be lucky or smart, but no matter how lucky or skillful you might be, to find yourself suddenly dislocated is a shock to the entire human system – emotionally and mentally, as well as physically. It is important to understand the psychology of survival.
  79. 79. LYCEUM OF THE PHILIPPINES UNIVERSITY College of International Tourism and Hospitality Management HAZARDS OF SURVIVAL  Health Hazards  Immersion Foot  Hypothermia  Seasickness  Constipation  Frost BiteFrost Bite  Salt Water Burns or BoilsSalt Water Burns or Boils  Sore EyesSore Eyes  Bad WeatherBad Weather  Sea Creatures (sharks)Sea Creatures (sharks)
  80. 80. LYCEUM OF THE PHILIPPINES UNIVERSITY College of International Tourism and Hospitality Management Priorities During Survival Crises • PROTECTION • DETECTION • SUSTENANCE • MEDICAL TREATMENT • GENERAL HEALTH • TRAINING AND PREPARATION
  81. 81. LYCEUM OF THE PHILIPPINES UNIVERSITY College of International Tourism and Hospitality Management VALUE OF TRAINING AND DRILLS • Training and drills are conducted on board to make sure that all crew members constantly know their duties in an emergency. • It is during drills that defective equipment are detected, or those possibly not functioning according to its purpose are found.
  82. 82. LYCEUM OF THE PHILIPPINES UNIVERSITY College of International Tourism and Hospitality Management • Drills are to be held at intervals of at least not more than one month. Whenever, more than a quarter (25%) of the crew are changed at port, a drill shall be held within 24 hours from living a port. • On passenger vessels, drills are conducted depending on the voyage of the vessel. VALUE OF TRAINING AND DRILLS
  83. 83. LYCEUM OF THE PHILIPPINES UNIVERSITY College of International Tourism and Hospitality Management Success of any drill depends on: “The people involved, as much as it does on the people in charge”
  84. 84. LYCEUM OF THE PHILIPPINES UNIVERSITY College of International Tourism and Hospitality Management EMERGENCY SITUATIONS Various types of accidents may occurs at sea. Some of the most common causes are: 1.Carelessness 2.Deliberate disregard of safety rules and notices 3.Lack of knowledge (Ignorance) of the person’s duties and responsibilities 4.Lack of awareness of existing hazards of the profession
  85. 85. LYCEUM OF THE PHILIPPINES UNIVERSITY College of International Tourism and Hospitality Management THE GENERAL RULES The general rules in these situations are: 1.Know your duties in an emergency. 2.Be prepared. Emergencies can arise anytime. 3.Knowledge and training give you the best chances to cope with an emergency.
  86. 86. LYCEUM OF THE PHILIPPINES UNIVERSITY College of International Tourism and Hospitality Management Remember, it is not important not to expose yourself or others to dangers by your CARELESSNESS, CLUMSINESS OR MEDIOCRITY, otherwise generally known as SLOPPINESS. THE GENERAL RULES
  87. 87. LYCEUM OF THE PHILIPPINES UNIVERSITY College of International Tourism and Hospitality Management FIRE PREVENTION & FIRE FIGHTING Aims: 1.Instructing all seafarers of the dangers of fire in ships. 2.Training seafarers, preferably before they take up employment on a sea-going ship, in the prevention and extinguishing of fires. 3.Training all seafarers in the theoretical and practical aspects of fir fighting.
  88. 88. LYCEUM OF THE PHILIPPINES UNIVERSITY College of International Tourism and Hospitality Management FIRE PREVENTION CAUSES OF FIRE ABOARD SHIP A. CARELESS SMOKING They usually occurs in instances such as: 1. Disposing of butts and matches 2. Smoking in bed 3. Smoking and alcohol 4. No smoking areas such as: cargo holds and weather decks; engine and boiler rooms; stowage and work spaces.
  89. 89. LYCEUM OF THE PHILIPPINES UNIVERSITY College of International Tourism and Hospitality Management B. SPONTANEOUS IGNITION An example of spontaneous ignition that could easily occur aboard a vessel might be a rag soaked with vegetable oil or paint that has been discarded in the corner of a work-shop storage area or engine room. CAUSES OF FIRE ABOARD SHIP FIRE PREVENTION
  90. 90. LYCEUM OF THE PHILIPPINES UNIVERSITY College of International Tourism and Hospitality Management C. FAULTY ELECT. CIRCUITS & EQUIPMENT The following causes are: 1. improper replacement of parts & equipment 2. wiring and fuses 3. jury rigging 4. exposed light bulbs 5. vapor tight fixtures 6. electric motors 7. engine room 8. charging storage batteries CAUSES OF FIRE ABOARD SHIP FIRE PREVENTION
  91. 91. LYCEUM OF THE PHILIPPINES UNIVERSITY College of International Tourism and Hospitality Management D. UNAUTHORIZED CONSTRUCTION Space for stowage is always at a premium aboard ship. There should be “a place for everything, and everything in its place.” This is itself a fire prevention measure, provided the stowage is safe to start with. But fires have resulted when stowed materials came loose and fell or slid across a deck in rough weather. CAUSES OF FIRE ABOARD SHIP FIRE PREVENTION
  92. 92. LYCEUM OF THE PHILIPPINES UNIVERSITY College of International Tourism and Hospitality Management E. CARGO STOWAGE F. GALLEY OPERATIONS It is extremely important that the galley never be left unattended when it is use: 1. Energy Sources 2. Ranges 3. Deep Fryers 4. Housekeeping CAUSES OF FIRE ABOARD SHIP FIRE PREVENTION
  93. 93. LYCEUM OF THE PHILIPPINES UNIVERSITY College of International Tourism and Hospitality Management G. FUEL OIL TRANSFER AND SERVICE OPERATIONS H. WELDING AND BURNING OPERATIONS I. SHORESIDE WORKERS, ABOARD FOR CARGO MOVEMENT, REPAIR AND MAINTENANCE J. SHIPYARD OPERATIONS CAUSES OF FIRE ABOARD SHIP FIRE PREVENTION
  94. 94. LYCEUM OF THE PHILIPPINES UNIVERSITY College of International Tourism and Hospitality Management ELEMENTS OF EFFECTIVE FIRE PREVENTION PROGRAMME 1. TRAINING - includes formal and informal training. It should be focused primarily on the prevention of fires, a secondary goal should be to teach the crew how to isolate and then extinguish small fires. 2. GOOD HOUSEKEEPING - Cleanliness! - Elimination of sources of fuel for fires. - Elimination of “fire breeding grounds”.
  95. 95. LYCEUM OF THE PHILIPPINES UNIVERSITY College of International Tourism and Hospitality Management ELEMENTS OF EFFECTIVE FIRE PREVENTION PROGRAMME 3. ELIMINATION AND CONTROL OF IGNITION SOURCES Source of heat or ignition:  smoking in restricted areas; discarding ashes, butts and matches.  overloading electrical circuits.  keeping flammable materials clear of steam pipes, light bulbs and other source of ignition.  Not cleaning cargo holds before any cargo is loaded and others.
  96. 96. LYCEUM OF THE PHILIPPINES UNIVERSITY College of International Tourism and Hospitality Management ELEMENTS OF EFFECTIVE FIRE PREVENTION PROGRAMME 4. SAFE WORKING PROCEDURES a) working in confined spaces b) performing hot work c) working on oil pipes d) working on machines e) working on propulsion engine and shaft f) working on boilers, steam machinery and steam pipes g) working on refrigeration machinery h) working at heights i) work completion
  97. 97. LYCEUM OF THE PHILIPPINES UNIVERSITY College of International Tourism and Hospitality Management ELEMENTS OF EFFECTIVE FIRE PREVENTION PROGRAMME 5. PERIODIC INSPECTIONS The most important part of the shipboard fire prevention program. Purpose – to find and eliminate fuels and ignition sources that could cause fires.
  98. 98. LYCEUM OF THE PHILIPPINES UNIVERSITY College of International Tourism and Hospitality Management ELEMENTS OF EFFECTIVE FIRE PREVENTION PROGRAMME 6. PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE AND REPAIR Elements of preventive maintenance: 1. lubricating and care 2. testing and inspection 3. repair or replacement 4. record keeping
  99. 99. LYCEUM OF THE PHILIPPINES UNIVERSITY College of International Tourism and Hospitality Management ELEMENTS OF EFFECTIVE FIRE PREVENTION PROGRAMME 7. RECOGNITION OF EFFORT Vessel owners and operators must demonstrate interest in the fire prevention program to show concern so all crew will show the same interests.
  100. 100. LYCEUM OF THE PHILIPPINES UNIVERSITY College of International Tourism and Hospitality Management THEORY OF FIRE The Start of a Fire  Three states of matter – solid, liquid and gas.  Atoms or molecules of a vapor are not packed loosely and are not packed together at all – which allows them to move freely.  In order for a substance to oxidize, its molecules must be pretty well surrounded by oxygen molecules. “ONLY VAPORS CAN BURN.”  When a solid or liquid is heated with enough heat, some molecules break away and form vapor that mix with oxygen; when there is enough heat to raise the vapor to its ignition temperature, and there is enough oxygen present, the vapor will oxidize and will start to burn.
  101. 101. LYCEUM OF THE PHILIPPINES UNIVERSITY College of International Tourism and Hospitality Management THE FIRE TRIANGLE Three elements required for combustion: 1.fuel – solid fuels such as wood, paper and cloth 2.oxygen - the oxygen content of the surrounding air  16% oxygen is needed to support flaming combustion.  smoldering combustion can take place with 3% oxygen 1.heat – the third side of the fire triangle, sufficient heat, fuel and oxygen completes the fire triangle, hence fire exists with the 3complete elements of fire.
  102. 102. LYCEUM OF THE PHILIPPINES UNIVERSITY College of International Tourism and Hospitality Management Two important facts in preventing and extinguishing fires: 1.if any side of the fire triangle is missing, a fire cannot start 2.if any side of the fire triangle is removed, the fire will go out. THE FIRE TRIANGLE
  103. 103. LYCEUM OF THE PHILIPPINES UNIVERSITY College of International Tourism and Hospitality Management CONDITIONS OF FIRE The conditions required for fire to occur are: 1.a combustible substance 2.a sufficient amount of oxygen 3.a sufficient/high enough temperature 4.an unbroken chain reaction
  104. 104. LYCEUM OF THE PHILIPPINES UNIVERSITY College of International Tourism and Hospitality Management CHEMICAL CHAIN REACTION The burning vapors produces heat which releases and ignites more vapor. The additional vapor burns, producing more heat, which release and ignites still more vapor. These produces more heat, vapor and combustion. As long as there is plenty of fuel available, the fire continues to grow, and more flame is produced.
  105. 105. LYCEUM OF THE PHILIPPINES UNIVERSITY College of International Tourism and Hospitality Management MUSTER LIST/STATION BILL • It is a plan of action before an emergency situation would arise. • Are notices required by the SOLAS Convention to be placed on board ships. • It also contain information as to when alarm signals are used and how they sound. • Its main purpose is to give instruction to each crew members on what to do in case of an emergency.
  106. 106. LYCEUM OF THE PHILIPPINES UNIVERSITY College of International Tourism and Hospitality Management GENERAL ALARM • 7 short blasts + 1 long blast + P. A, (code call for passenger vessel) * On hearing the alarm:  all personnel must proceed immediately to their designated muster station.  perform respective duties and responsibilities.  team leaders must muster and report readiness to the bridge.
  107. 107. LYCEUM OF THE PHILIPPINES UNIVERSITY College of International Tourism and Hospitality Management EMERGENCY • Any condition situation that endangers or threatens the loss of life injury to individual, loss and damage to ship’s property and as well as damage to environment.
  108. 108. LYCEUM OF THE PHILIPPINES UNIVERSITY College of International Tourism and Hospitality Management CAUSES of EMERGENCY: • INTERNAL – these are caused by “man-made” - due to “Human Error” • EXTERNAL – these are caused by natural calamities/disasters - due to “Force Majeure”
  109. 109. LYCEUM OF THE PHILIPPINES UNIVERSITY College of International Tourism and Hospitality Management TYPES OF EMERGENCIES: • Abandon ship • Collision • Emergency Training • Fire • Flooding • Stranding • Helicopter Operations • Heavy Weather Damage
  110. 110. LYCEUM OF THE PHILIPPINES UNIVERSITY College of International Tourism and Hospitality Management TYPES OF EMERGENCIES: • Man Overboard • Piracy/Armed Robberies • Pollution • Electrical Power Failure • Main Engine Failure • Structural Failure at Sea • Structural Failure at Port • Terrorism
  111. 111. LYCEUM OF THE PHILIPPINES UNIVERSITY College of International Tourism and Hospitality Management ABANDON SHIP • Order for abandoning • Inform as many particles as possible before abandoning the vessel • Take EPIRB onboard lifeboats • Lead the operation and attempt to avoid crew panic • Take care of injured personnel • Consider weather conditions and weather forecast
  112. 112. LYCEUM OF THE PHILIPPINES UNIVERSITY College of International Tourism and Hospitality Management ABANDON SHIP • Maintain communication with survivors • Transmit distress signals through radio station and EPIRBs. Be prepared to use other emergency signals or equipment such as walkie talkies, emergency radios and rockets, etc. • Steer survival crafts at a safe distance from the vessel
  113. 113. LYCEUM OF THE PHILIPPINES UNIVERSITY College of International Tourism and Hospitality Management ABANDON SHIP • Release distress message • If time allows, release message to the nearest station indicating abandonment.
  114. 114. LYCEUM OF THE PHILIPPINES UNIVERSITY College of International Tourism and Hospitality Management FIRE ON BOARD • Sound the alarm • Activate fire plan • Remove casualties and consider safety of personnel • Isolate compartment • Use the right extinguishing media according to the type of fire • Control fire, reduce chain reaction and explosion risks.
  115. 115. LYCEUM OF THE PHILIPPINES UNIVERSITY College of International Tourism and Hospitality Management FIRE ON BOARD • Consider toxicity risks for personnel. • Transmit the initial emergency report. • Consider possible expansion to adjacent flammable compartments. • Prepare for the next action (abandoning), if the fire is beyond control. • Assess the damage and check remobilization of the vessel.
  116. 116. LYCEUM OF THE PHILIPPINES UNIVERSITY College of International Tourism and Hospitality Management FLOODING • Notify master and navigation bridge verbally. • Slowdown and stop engines. • Identify compartment flooded. • Take soundings of all compartments and monitor tightness. • Check draft marks, trim and justify flooding rate. • Initiate pumping system to control and reduce flooding.
  117. 117. LYCEUM OF THE PHILIPPINES UNIVERSITY College of International Tourism and Hospitality Management FLOODING • Evaluate stability and seaworthiness. • Take action to improve the stability and seaworthiness of the vessel. • Evaluate pollution risks. • Prepare to deal with pollution prevention according to relevant Contingency Plan. • Order salvage or rescue operations if situation is not under control. Prepare for the next possible scenario.
  118. 118. LYCEUM OF THE PHILIPPINES UNIVERSITY College of International Tourism and Hospitality Management FLOODING • Consider weather conditions and weather forecast. • Establish communication with managers and coastal state transmitting initial emergency report if flooding is beyond control. • Regain control of situation.

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