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  • Ruby Lavin
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    • 1. 中國 China Benjamin Arno, O’Reggio Bennet, and Ruby Lavin Ms. Reginer Pr. 7
    • 2. Introduction
        • China has been one of the most prosperous ancient civilizations
        • known to man. China was generous enough to share their ideas
        • throughout the rest of the world.
        • Through cultural diffusion China most efficiently publicized their
        • concepts to the rest of the world, in ancient times up to today.
        • China’s geography greatly contributed to their success as an
        • empire. their natural resources and the physical features of their
        • land allowed them to become powerful militaristically and in trade.
        • For over thousands of years China was defined by the rise and fall
        • of dynasties. Each dynasty brought new tenets about power and
        • authority, science and technology, and culture to the Chinese
        • civilization.
    • 3. Geography
      • In Eastern Asia. Between the East China Sea, Korean Bay, South China Sea, and Yellow Sea.
      • Tibetan plateau -- large, flat land. Other plateaus as well.
      • Mountains -- Himalayas create natural barrier.
      • Many rivers, Huang He and Yangtze biggest.
      • Climate ranges from subtropical to sub arctic.
      • Included Mount Everest, the world’s tallest mountain.
      • Natural resources include aluminum, antimony, coal, iron ore, lead, magnetite, manganese, mercury, molybdenum, natural gas, petroleum, tin, tungsten, uranium, vanadium, and zinc.
    • 4. SHANG DYNASTY 1600-1100 B.C.
      • Power and Authority
      • Line of hereditary kings rule -- 31 kings in 17 generations
      • Frequent wars with neighboring settlements and nomadic herdsmen
      • Walled cities
      • Sharp divisions between nobles and peasants
      • Science and Technology
      • Development of writing system
      • Bronze technology required centralized coordination of large labor force and technically skilled artisans
      • Silk cloth weaving
      • Horse-drawn war chariots
      • Culture
      • Worshiped supreme god, Shang Di, and many lesser gods
      • Kings consulted gods through oracle bones, animal bones, tortoise shells
    • 5. Zhou Dynasty 1100-256 B.C.
    • 6. ZHOU DYNASTY 1100-256 B.C.
      • Power and Authority
      • Overthrew the Shang Dynasty
      • Hierarchical political and social system: aristocratic families are lords of domains or principalities (analogous to European feudalism)
      • Longest dynasty. Divided into two periods: Western and Eastern Zhou
      • Mandate of Heaven
      • Create new ways of wars. Competition for power between rival semi-autonomous states
      • New class of civil servants , the Mandarins
      • Science and Technology
      • Produce cast iron and create weapons and agricultural tools
      • Coin money
      • Build roads, canals and bridges
      • Culture
      • Share language and culture of Shang and extend it through much of China Proper north of Chang Jiang (Yangtze River)
      • Classical age of philosophy: Confucianism, Taoism, and Legalism
      • Confucius develops a system of moral values and responsible behavior that influenced China for more than 2,000 years.
    • 7. Mandate of Heaven
      • Zhou rulers claimed that the gods had become livid with the Shang cruelty.
      • Over time, this justification became a belief that royal authority came from heaven.
      • A ruler with divine approval was known as the Mandate of Heaven.
      • A nefarious king could lose the Mandate of Heaven.
      • Floods, riots or other disasters could be signs that spirits were upset with a king’s rule. This might cause the Mandate of Heaven to pass onto another noble family.
      • Nobles might claim in bad times that they have claimed the Mandate of Heaven, and try to over throw the king.
    • 8. Dynastic Cycle
      • The pattern of the rise, fall, and replacement of dynasties is called the Dynastic Cycle by historians,
      • New dynasty begins with strong ruler, the dynasty expands and makes contributions to the culture and technology.
      • In later years, rulers may be corrupt and/or inefficient which weakens dynasty, leads to social unrest and rebellion.
      • The old dynasty loses the Mandate of Heaven and the new dynasty claims it.
    • 9. Period of the Warring States 戰國時代 475-271 B.C.
      • Power and Authority:
      • Seven main States: Zhao, Zei, Han, Wei, Chu, Qi, Yan.
      • Barbaric State of Qin conquers all.
      • Nobles change from
      • warriors to scholars.
      • Science and Technology:
      • Iron replaces bronze in weaponry.
      • Infantry replaces chariots.
    • 10. Qin Dynasty 秦朝 221 - 206 B.C.
      • Power and Authority:
      • Most notable emperor Qin Shi Huangdi, the first emperor of China.
      • Palaces the size of Manhattan.
      • Science and Technology:
      • Standardized coins, writing, axle widths.
      • Burned books, buried Confucian scholars alive.
      • Arts and Culture:
      • Famous Terracotta Army made to guard Qin Shi Huangdi in the afterlife.
    • 11. Han Dynasty 漢朝 206 B.C.-220 A.D.
      • Power and Authority:
      • Ruled using the Civil Service System -- a combination of Legalism and Confucianism.
      • The Silk Road
      • encourages trade.
      • Science and Technology:
      • Many advances
      • in earth science.
      • Invention of
      • paper.
      • Arts and Culture:
      • The making of silk and glazing of ceramics was perfected.
    • 12. PERIOD OF DISUNITY 220-589 A.D
      • Power and Authority
      • Empire fragmented. Almost four centuries of rule by warlords
      • North dominated by invaders from the steppes and borderland.
      • South ruled by successive “Chinese” dynasties
      • Era of three kingdoms Wei, Shu, and Wu
      • Science and Technology
      • Invention of gunpowder used in fireworks
      • Invention of wheel barrel
      • Advances in medicine, astronomy and cartography
      • Culture
      • Buddhism spread
    • 13. SUI DYNASTY 589-618 A.D.
      • Power and Authority
      • China reunited after almost 400 years of division
      • Short by dynastic standards
      • Heavy taxes and compulsory labor
      • Civil service strengthened
      • Unsuccessful military campaigns against Northern Korea and A Southern Manchurian kingdom contributed to demise
      • Science and Technology
      • Completion of Grand Canal, major engineering accomplishment, linked Yangtze Valley with Northern China
      • Reconstruction of Great Wall
      • Culture
      • Yang Jian, Sui founder, called Wendi, the ‘Cultivated Emperor’
      • Administrative reform begins modeled after Han institutions
    • 14. Tang Dynasty (618-907)
      • Tang's first ruler was Tang Taizang. He managed to expand China by conquering northern and western lands of China.
      • During the Tang Dynasty China experienced it's Gold Age.
      • Tang lowered taxes for peasants and gave them land. He promoted foreign trade and made improvements in agriculture.
      • They also started the civil service. They opened schools around the country to teach them Confucianism. For exams. Those who passed the exams became known as scholar officials.
    • 15. Tang's Decline
      • By the mid 700s the Tang Dynasty was beginning to weaken.
      • They brought back taxes, and peasants left the villages and became bandits. The Tang had lost control of the great Empire they built.
      • A group of Arabs attacked China at its Western Frontier .
      • They murdered Tang's last ruler who was a child.
      During the Tang upper class women had to tie 10 feet of bandages around their feet. This process called foot binding left them paralyzed for the rest of their lives.
    • 16. Song Dynasty (960-1276)
      • Zhao Kuangyin united China after the decline of the Tang Dynasty.
      • Although strong, the Song Dynasty weren't as prosperous as the Tang Dynasty. They were not able to win back the western frontier lost in the Tang.
      • In the Early 1100s people called the Jerchen conquered northern China and forced Song to retreat south.
      • The Song Dynasty was now broken up into North and South.
      • Southern China had the best economy. Merchant became rich, and their population grew to as much as 1 million people in each of the ten cities.
      • The Song Dynasty was weakened by invaders named the Mongols.
    • 17. Technology of the Song Dynasty
      • The Song Dynasty came up with the idea of rice cultivation . They were able to plant two rice crops a year. They had a surplus of food.
      • Artisan of the Song Dynasty made porcelain and calligraphy for writing.
      • The also came up with the spinning wheel to make thread, and movable type printing machines.
      • They also created the magnetic compass to help with navigation on the seas.
      • All these inventions later spread to Korea, Japan, and Europe. All except porcelain that remain China's personal secret.
    • 18. Chinese Social Structure
      • During the Tang and Song Dynasties they had a strict social structure.
      • On top were the gentry. They were wealth landowners, who were scholarly. They valued Confucianism.
      • Under them are the Peasants. Most Chinese were peasants. They farmed and lived off their crops. They also sold crafts .
      • Merchants held a lower social structure because their wealth came from the labor of others. Merchants strove to rank to gentry.
      • Women held great authority in the Tang and Song Dynasties. They managed family finances, disciplined children, and watched over servants.
      • However, they still were ranked under the men.
    • 19. Cultural Diffusion Among China
      • Japanese culture is greatly based on the adaptation of Chinese culture.
      • Korea acted as a bridge between China and Japan.
      • Around 600BC Japan sent nobles, to study in China, who brought back Chinese traditions.
      • Around 500BC Korea brought the Chinese writing system to Japan, who made it their own.
      • Koreans also brought Buddhism from China.
      • European traveler Marco Polo brought Chinese noodles back to Italy.
    • 20. The Yuan Dynasty(1279-1368 A.D.)
      • One of the most militaristic groups of foreigners, The Mongols, evaded and later took over China.
      • With help from Kublai Khan, the Yuan Dynasty was founded, and conquered China for the first time as foreigners.
      • Kublai Khan, in order to establish the respect as a foreigner, built a strong central government during his reign.
      • Kublai Khan also, founded the capital Beijing. As a job well done he built the most beautiful palace in Beijing for himself, Forbidden City.
      • The forbidden city contained Arabic, Mongolian, western Asian, and Chinese elements.
    • 21. Troubles Bubble in the Yuan
      • Since the beginning of their rule the Mongols were simple unable to understand the Chinese language, which made it pretty hard to rule them.
      • The Chinese never really found the respect for the Mongols they still looked at them as bandits.
      • As a result of lack of respect, Chinese scholars refused to teach in schools, to educate the foreigners.
      • The Mongols also traded strangely. They gave more than they took. This brought down the Chinese economy drastically.
      • Mongols tried to wage war on japan, but were highly unstable in their reign, so japan ruin many Chinese warships that could have been used for trade.
      • Trade was made very difficult since the Chinese were able to communicate with the other nations.
      • As China depleted more and more, The Mongols lost interest in conquering them and left China in poverty.
      • A mighty China was reduced to a poor China from the time of the Tang to the Yuan.
    • 22. Ming Dynasty 明朝 1368-1644 A.D.
      • Power and Authority:
      • Powerful navy, a million soldiers.
      • Science and Technology:
      • Laid basis for trigonometry.
      • Smallpox inoculation becomes common.
      • Arts and Culture:
      • Novel becomes a viable form of writing.
      • Current version of the Great Wall of China finished.
      • Known for their vases.
    • 23. QING DYNASTY 1644-1911 A.D.
      • Power and Authority
      • Manchu conquers from north and establish last dynasty. Rule for 300 years.
      • Rapidly incorporates substantial new territories
      • Rules through existing Chinese bureaucracy
      • Confucian civil service system continues
      • Culture
      • Prosperity and complacency
      • Population boom
      • Famous novel: Dream of the Red Chamber
      • Authoritarian structure eventually not able to meet cultural and political challenges of the West.
    • 24. People's Republic Of China
      • The People's Republic of China is China today.
      • China today is broken up into two parts, regular China, and Taiwan.
      • Effort were made to untied the two, but Taiwan prefers to be independent.
      • The republic of China is in the mainland of China, and is a communist state.
      • Established in 1949, the People's Republic of China is the most populated in the world.
      • Under the leader Mao Zedong Communists rose to power in China during the cultural revolution.
      • Communists overcame because of their appeal to peasants and women, and experienced military ability.
    • 25. Works Consulted
      • “ Ancient China :Timeline of Chinese Dyansties.”19 Nov. 2008 < http:// www.mnsu.edu/emuseun/prehistory/china/timeline.html >
      • Beck, Roger B., Linda Black, Larry S. Krieger, Phillip C. Naylor, and Dahia Ibo Shabaka. World History: Patterns of Interaction. 2001
      • “ Chinese History- Timeline.”19 Nov. 2008 < http:// www.chinavoc.com/history/index.asp >
      • “ Chinese History- The Qin Dynasty (221-207 B.C.).” 20 Nov. 2008 < http:// www.chinavoc.com/history/timeline.htm >
      • “ Chinese History- The Qing Dynasty (AD 1644-1911).” 20 Nov. 2008 < http:// www.chinavoc.com/history/qing.htm >
      • Dynastic Cycle Diagram. 23 Nov. 2008 < http://regentsprep.org/Regents/global/themes/goldenages/IMAGES/dynasticcycle.gif >
      • “ Exploring Chinese History :: History :: Ancient Chinese History :: Outline.” 20 Nov. 2008< http://www.ibiblio.org/chinesehistory/contents/01his/c01s02.html >
      • “ History of China: Table of Contents.” 19 Nov. 2008 < http://www- chaos.umd.edu/history/toc.html >
      • “ History Timeline” 19 Nov. 2008 < http://www- chaos.umd.edu/history/time_line.html >
    • 26. Works Consulted
      • Goldberg, Steven , and Judith C. Dupre. Global History and Geography Regents Review Book. Boston: Prentice Hall, 2007.
      • Mandate of Heaven Diagram. 23 Nov. 2008 < http://www.mckinnonsc.vic.edu.au/projects/asia/asiaunits/china/cyclicpattern.gifs >
      • Period of Disunity Map. 24 Nov. 2008
      • < http://www.kidspast.com/images/shang-dynasty.gif >
      • Qing Dynasty Map. 24 Nov. 2008
      • < http:// www.chinatownconnection.com/images/qingdynastymap.gif >
      • Shang Dynasty Map. 24 Nov. 2008
      • < http://images.encarta.msn.com/xrefmedia/aencmed/targets/maps/mhi/T028709A.gif >
      • Sui Dynasty Map. 24 Nov. 2008 http://www.chinatownconnection.com/images/suidynastymap.gif >
      • “ Timeline of Chinese History” 19 Nov. 2008 < http://afe.easia.columbia.edu/webcourse/key_points/china_timeline.htm >
      • World Book Encyclopedia . 2006 edition.
      • Zhou Dynasty Map. 24 Nov. 2008
      • < http://www.mnsu.edu/emuseum/prehistory/china/images/threekingdomsmap.gif
    • 27. Works Consulted
      • &quot;Ancient China: The Mongolian Empire: The Yuan Dynasty, 1279-1368 .&quot; Washington State University - Pullman, Washington. 16 Nov. 2008 <http://www.wsu.edu/~dee/CHEMPIRE/YUAN.HTM>.
      • Beck, Roger B., Linda Black, Larry S. Krieger, Phillip C. Naylor, and Dahia Ibo Shabaka. World History: Patterns of Interaction . Evanston, Illinois: McDougal Littel, 1987.
      • &quot;China & Japan COMPLETE.&quot; Williams History. 25 Nov. 2008 <http://williamshistory.net/Homework/Review3ChinaJapanCOMPLETE.htm>
      • Chinese Social Structure .Chart.16.Nov.2008
      • <http://regentsprep.org/Regents/global/themes/goldenages/IMAGES/classtriangle.gif>
      • Cultural Diffussion In China, Korea, and Japan. Chart.16. Nov. 2008 <http://williamshistory.net/Homework/Review3ChinaJapanCOMPLETE.htm>
      • >.
      • Yuan Dynasty . Map. 16.Nov.2008 <http://www.mnsu.edu/emuseum/prehistory/china/later_imperial_china/yuan.html>
      • Foot Binding Shoe. Photo.16.Nov.2008 < http://www.naz.edu:9000/~bio226w/cultural/cultures/shoe.jpg>
    • 28. Works Consulted
      • Goldberg, Steven , and Judith C. Dupre. Global History and Geography Regents Review Book. Boston: Prentice Hall, 2007.
      • Leinwand, Gerald. The Pageant of World History. Boston: Allyn And Bacon Inc., 1977.
      • Song Dynasty. Map.16.Nov.2008 <http://www.mnsu.edu/emuseum/prehistory/china/classical_imperial_china/song.html>
      • Song Pottery. Photo.16.Nov.2008 <http://www.mnsu.edu/emuseum/prehistory/china/classical_imperial_china/song.html>
      • &quot;T'ang Dynasty.&quot; Minnesota State University, Mankato. 14 Nov. 2008 <http://www.mnsu.edu/emuseum/prehistory/china/classical_imperial_china/tang.html>.
      • Tang Dynasty. Map. 16.Nov. 2008 <http://www.mnsu.edu/emuseum/prehistory/china/classical_imperial_china/tang.html>.
      • &quot;The Northern and Southern Song dynasties. &quot; Minnesota State University, Mankato . 14 Nov. 2008
      • <http://www.mnsu.edu/emuseum/prehistory/china/classical_imperial_china/song.html>.
      • &quot;Yuan.&quot; Minnesota State University, Mankato. 16 Nov. 2008 <http://www.mnsu.edu/emuseum/prehistory/china/later_imperial_china/yuan.html
    • 29. Works Consulted http://news.thomasnet.com/IMT/archives/fireworks%20materials.jpg http://www.sjsu.edu/faculty/watkins/warringstates.htm http://mnsu.edu/emuseum/prehistory/china/early_imperial_china/qin.html http://mnsu.edu/emuseum/prehistory/china/early_imperial_china/han.html http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/ming/hd_ming.htm http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=D5KbloCv4UQ http://www.murrayhudson.com/antique_maps/continent_maps/04737m.jpg http://www.wuhan.com/cmarter/files/20051205-HHOn-44Hu-vdel.JPG?id=22288,1495952606 http://www.abc.net.au/reslib/200804/r242836_987334.jpg http://www.chinareview.com/images/attractions-great-wall.jpg https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/print/ch.html .