Shang dynasty


Published on

Published in: Technology
1 Like
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Shang dynasty

  1. 1. Shang Dynasty The Gem of Chinese Civilization
  2. 2. • The Shang were the first literate culture in East Asia and are well known for crafting ornate bronze ritual vessels. They were also China's first administrators, developing a coherent bureaucracy for their empire, and were able to marshall the human labor required to build rammed earth walls such as those found at the Huanbei Shang City.
  3. 3. Where did Shang Civilization took place?
  4. 4. The heartland of the civilization was the Huang(Yellow) River that was also the settlement of the proceeding dynasties.
  5. 5. When was the civilization founded?
  6. 6. • Traditionally, the Shang state dates from 1766 B.C.E. and ended with its defeat at the hands of the Zhou at the BATTLE OF MUYE in 1045 B.C.E.
  7. 7. Who founded the Shang Dynasty?
  8. 8. • According to legend, the Shang Dynasty was founded sometime around 1600 BCE by a virtuous man named Cheng Tang, who overthrew the evil king of the legendary Xia. • Tang’s given name is Lu. One of his ancestors is identified as Yilu, who was married to Jiandi, the daughter of Gaoxin. Yilu had a son called Yao Situ, who was appointed as vassel by the Xia King for his contribution to the people. Thirteen generations later, Tang’s father was born. He was named Zhugui.
  9. 9. Who ruled the Shang Dynasty?
  10. 10. • Cheng Tang • Wài Bǐng • Wò Jiǎ • Zǔ Xīn • Zǔ Yǐ •Jiān Jiǎ •Wài Rén •Zhòng Dīng •Tài Wù •Yōng Jǐ •Xiǎo Jiǎ •Tài Gēng •Wò Dīng •Tài Jiǎ •Zhòng Rén The Shang Dynasty was a monarchy governed by a series of kings, 29 or 30 in total, over the course of almost 600 years.
  11. 11. • Zǔ Dīng • Nán Gēng • Yáng Jiǎ • Pán Gēng • Xiǎo Xīn • Xiǎo Yǐ • Wǔ Dīng •Zǔ Gēng •Zǔ Jiǎ •Lǐn Xīn •Kāng Dīng •Wǔ Yǐ •Wén Dīng •Di Xin •Dì Yǐ
  12. 12. Why was the Shang Dynasty nicknamed The Lost City?
  13. 13. • The largest walled city of the Shang Dynasty, possibly one of the capitals of the empire, has been unearthed at Anyang in northern China. The city dates to the Middle Shang period (ca. 1450-1250 B.C.), a little understood time in the study of Shang culture. • Four rammed earth walls that enclosed 1,160 acres of area. Now named the Huanbei Shang City (Huanbei means north of the Huan River).
  14. 14. What is The Oracle Bones?
  15. 15. • The oracle bones are flat bones, preferably turtle shells or cattle ribs and shoulder blades, that were used by the Shang rulers for divining the future.
  16. 16. • It is known that the Shāng people also wrote with brush and ink, as brush-written graphs have been found on a small number of pottery, shell and bone, and jade and other stone items, and there is evidence that they also wrote on bamboo (or wooden) books just like those found from the late Zhōu to Hàn periods, because the graphs for a writing brush and bamboo book (冊 cè, a book of thin vertical slats or slips with horizontal string binding, like a Venetian blind turned 90 degrees) are present in the oracle bone script.
  17. 17. Shang Lifestyle
  18. 18. • There were mainly agriculture, hunting and animal husbandry as the economic forms in Shang dynasty. A number of ceremonial bronze vessels with inscriptions date from the Shang period; the workmanship on the bronzes attests to a high level of civilization.
  19. 19. Wooden Harrow
  20. 20. Why was it one of the greatest Asian Civilization?
  21. 21. • Shang Yang was not only a political but also a military leader. He led victorious Qin forces against Wei at the Battle of Maling in 341 B.C.E. • The following year, he showed a distinct Machiavellian touch when he persuaded the duke Xiao that the state of Wei should be the prime target for a military campaign because of its proximity and potential danger. • The duke agreed and sent Shang Yang with an army to attack Wei. Shang Yang persuaded Ang, the Wei commander, to parley a truce. • Having agreed to a covenant of peace, he then had his guards capture Ang and launched a successful onslaught against the Wei army. This led to their retreat, the abandonment of Anyi, and the ceding of land.
  22. 22. • One site of the Shang capitals, later historically called the Ruins of Yin (殷墟), is near modern day Anyang. Archaeological work there uncovered 11 major Yin royal tombs and the foundations of palaces and ritual sites, containing weapons of war and remains of animal and human sacrifices. • Tens of thousands of bronze, jade, stone, bone and ceramic artifacts have been obtained; the workmanship on the bronzes attests to a high level of civilization. In terms of inscribed oracle bones alone, more than 20,000 were discovered in the initial scientific excavations in the 1920s to 1930s, and over four times as many have since been found.
  23. 23. The Bronze Dynasty Xia, Shang and Zhou
  24. 24. • Xia, Shang and Zhou dynasties has been called bronze dynasty in China's history. The production technique of Shand was the most advanced in the same age among other parts of the world. The bronze of Shang was not only an intruments of drinking or keeping, it was also a kind of culture, which can reflect many aspects of the age.
  25. 25. • The products of bronze was mainly used by the noble families and the emperors and loyal members. They seemed the bronze as a sign that have higher social position. It was said that a 830 kilograms of bronze pot was made by two to three hundred workers.
  26. 26. What was the Religion of the Shangs?
  27. 27. • The Shang worshipped the “Shang Di,” who was the supreme god that ruled over the lesser gods of the sun, the moon, the wind, the rain, and other natural forces and places. • They also worshipped their ancestors because they believed that although their ancestors lived in heaven after their death, they were still actively involved in the affairs of family and descendants.
  28. 28. • The kings communicated with their ancestors using oracle bones and made frequent sacrifices to them. • As in many other societies, they sacrificed animals to royal ancestors and to various nature gods, using human and animal sacrifices to ask the ancestors or gods for help and to feed the ancestors or gods to keep them strong.
  29. 29. Battle of Muye The Fall of the Shangs
  30. 30. • The Battle of Muye is a decisive battle in the course of King Wu’s punitive expedition against the despotic King Zhou. At that time, the Shang Dynasty was under the rule of King Zhou who implemented tyranny and resulted in corruptive politics, sufferings of common people, intra- aristocrat conflict, and turbulence of the whole society. In the meantime, Zhou, a principality of Shang was increasingly powerful. King Wen of the Western Zhou Dynasty and his son King Wu then launched a battle of “Expedition against Zhou“ in the name of King Zhou’s cruelty. Under this circumstance, King Zhou had no choice but to head for Muye in person to meet enemies from the neighboring principalities
  31. 31. • . Before the battle, the army of Zhou went into camps in Muye and took a mass pledge which is called “Mu Pledge“ in history. During the battle, slaves and prisoners of war in the army of Shang supported King Wu inwardly and turned around their daggers and spears successively to assist the army of Zhou. Under their joint effort, over ten thousand soldiers in the army of Shang had fallen apart. Realizing that nothing could be done to save the situation, King Zhou escaped in a panic to the capital Chaoge on the same night and mounted onto the hathpace, burning himself to death.
  32. 32. • The Shang Dynasty thus came to an end and the Zhou Dynasty was officially established, with its capital located in Gaojing in the Weihe River basin.
  33. 33. Importance of The Lost City
  34. 34. • The rulers of Shang Dynasty attached great importance to agriculture. Fishing began to grow as an industry as the people fished in the fresh waters. • In the handicraft industry, the work was subtly allotted to many different workers and crafts were made in large quantities and varieties, showcasing the different techniques used during this time. The bronze wares in particular reached a high level of artistry that signified the advanced civilization of Shang Dynasty. The most famous bronze work from this time is the Simuwu Quadripod, weighing 832.84 kg (about 1836 pounds) it is the largest and heaviest Chinese bronze vessel. Porcelain wares were also invented during this time, the jade carving techniques were of the highest quality and the woven silk fabrics displayed the great skill and capabilities of the artisans. • With the grown of the agriculture and handicraft industries, the commodity exchange was promoted and the role of the commodity exchange dealer began to appear in the late Shang Dynasty.
  35. 35. Culture and Arts • In the field of music, there was also great progress. The improvements in the bronze casting techniques allowed for delicate musical instruments to be made. In Yin Xu (Yin Yuins) in Xiao Tun Village of Anyang City, archeologists discovered musical instruments of the Shang Dynasty including: Xun (Ocarina made of baked clay), drums, and copper cymbals. • Great advancements can also be seen in the written characters of Shang Dynasty which are considered the oldest Chinese written form for communication. The characters were usually carved on tortoise shells, animal bones, bronze wares or some other utensils. Many Oracle Script pieces that have been found in the Yin Ruins offer us many important events happened during that period.
  36. 36. • The sculpture produced during this time was also superb. Various kinds of patterns were carved on bronze, jade, and pottery wares. On other goods, like stones, animal bones, and horns, fine pictures can also be seen. • In terms of beliefs, the people of the Shang Dynasty believed that God dominates the world. They also worshipped their ancestors, the sun, the moon, the river, and the earth and sacrifice ceremonies were typically grand events. In addition, the art of fortune telling was popular during this time.
  37. 37. Science • The Oracle Scripts contain records about solar and lunar eclipses, stars and other celestial happenings. The records clearly demonstrate great advancements in astronomy. During this time, the calendar system continued to advance and in the area of math, people performed elementary accounting distinctions between odd and even numbers appeared.