Chapter 13 everything


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  • Just map of Japan.
  • Mastered Confucian ways, worshipped at temples, and admired Buddhist arts
  • Idk, ask Heng
  • Taika reforms were aimed at creating a bureaucracy with an all-powerful emperor and a peasant conscript army, which aris. and monasteries didn’t accept
  • ONLY NOTES ON 1ST BULLET (picture of peasant conscript army to organize forces)
  • NOTES ON BOLD. Picture of tea ceremony
  • NOTES ON 1ST BULLET. Pictures of verses on scroll (?) and a fan
  • Red butterfly – Taira. Blue bamboo leaves – Minamoto NOTES ON MINAMOTO VS TAIRA
  • Pictures: (top)Minamoto is weaker than Taira (bottom) Taira is weaker than Minamoto
  • Pictures: (left to right) no centralization, no heavenly mandate, Tang political chaos
  • Picture: Emperor exists and politically above Minamoto, but real power lies in Minamoto
  • Mina =Minamoto. Fear of betrayal led to murder/exile of his relatives who were the main cause of Mina’s victory -> Kamakura weaken Picture: Emperor “ruled” Kyoto, Minamoto “ruled” Kamakuro, while real power lies with the Hojo
  • NOTES ON EVERYTHING. Vietnam traded pearls, ivory, peacock feathers, aromatic woods, and tortoise shells for China’s silk
  • NO NOTES. Picture of betel nuts and ai do :D
  • IMPORTANT DATE. Reason is Vietnam put up no resistance and cooperated
  • Picture of “no Chinese dominance” and geographic advantages (mountains and great distances)
  • Dragon = LY (not le) family dragon. Admin system = secretariats, 6 main ministries, and a bureau of censors to keep corruption in check.
  • Scholars’ power limited by educated Buddhist monks who were favored by the peasants
  • Picture of Mekong Delta
  • Picture of Hanoi and Hue
  • Chapter 13 everything

    1. 1. Chapter 13: The Spread of Chinese Civilization: Japan, Korea, and Vietnam<br />Vivian Lin<br />Colin Lu<br />Jasmine Nguyen<br />BasheerRydhan<br />Heng Li<br />Bethany Luu<br />Christine Nguyen<br />Joey Thai<br />
    2. 2. Japan<br />
    3. 3. Japan: The Imperial Age<br />
    4. 4. NOTESJapan: The Imperial Age<br />Japan borrowed from China peaked in:<br />Taika period (645-710)<br />Nara period (710-784)<br />Heian period (794-857)<br /><ul><li>TaikaReforms (646): or “The Great Reform”
    5. 5. Aimed at fixing administration along Chinese lines.</li></li></ul><li>Japan: The Imperial Age<br />Affected both aristocrats and peasants<br /><ul><li>Aristocrats:
    6. 6. Confucian ways (characters)
    7. 7. Chinese-style temples
    8. 8. Buddhist arts
    9. 9. Peasants
    10. 10. Turned to Buddhist monks for help
    11. 11. Combined Buddhist gods with kami</li></li></ul><li>Japan: The Imperial Age<br />The spread of Buddhism<br />
    12. 12. Crisis at Nara and the Shift of Heian (Kyoto)<br />Taika reforms were disrupted by aristocratic families and Buddhist monastic orders<br />
    13. 13. Crisis at Nara and the Shift of Heian (Kyoto)<br /><ul><li>A cent. after introduction of Taika reforms: Buddhist monks grew powerful </li></ul>Aristocracy feared power<br />760s: their influence threatened the throne<br /><ul><li>A Buddhist prelate got into empress Koken’s inner circle
    14. 14. schemed to marry her and become emperor before his plans were foiled</li></li></ul><li>NOTES<br />Crisis at Nara and the Shift of Heian (Kyoto)<br /><ul><li>Emperor fled and established a new capital city at Heian (Kyoto)</li></ul>Buddhist monasteries were not allowed to be built inside city -> built around city -> reemerged as royal advisors<br />
    15. 15. Crisisat Nara and the Shift of Heian (Kyoto)<br />Emperor abandoned Taika reforms<br />NO limited power on aristocrats -> restored aristocrat families, who took over gov. positions<br />NO rank by birth -> little mobility <br />NO peasant conscript army -> local leaders organize forces<br />
    16. 16. NOTESUltracivilized: Court Life in the Heian Era<br />Court culture – refined <br />Cent. during Heian era – lived in a world of luxury and aesthetic* delights<br />Social status = everything<br />Affairs such as dating and marrying were a very important thing!<br />*Aesthetic = the nature of beauty, art, and taste<br />
    17. 17. Ultracivilized: Court Life in the Heian Era<br />Imperial household and aristocratic lived in palaces with gardens<br />Wood buildings<br />Sliding panels<br />Matted floors<br />
    18. 18. Ultracivilized: Court Life in the Heian Era<br />Chinese characters simplified -> outpouring of poetic and literary works<br />Poetry was used to express feelings such as happiness, pleasure, love, etc.<br />Verse poems – most valued art at court<br />
    19. 19. Ultracivilized: Court Life in the Heian Era<br />The Tale of Genji<br />The Tale of Genji:written by Lady Mutasaki<br />The first novel in any language<br />According to the novel:<br />Women were seen as equally dignified as men.<br />Usually taught to play musical instruments and write poetry<br />ALSO had power struggles like everywhere else.<br />
    20. 20. The Decline of Imperial Power<br />
    21. 21. Era of warrior dominance<br />
    22. 22. NOTES: The Era of Warrior Dominance<br />Power of provincial lords increase – power of imperial and court decline<br />Powerful families… <br />depend on alliances + take positions in bureaucracy + competing for power -> open feud<br />VS<br />Minamoto<br />Taira<br />
    23. 23. Era of Warrior Dominance<br />At first:<br />Around 1180s<br /><ul><li>Controlled emperor
    24. 24. Dominate court
    25. 25. Powerful network of alliances
    26. 26. Links to rural notables who sided with them
    27. 27. Power-grabbing efforts</li></li></ul><li>The Declining Influence of China<br />Power of imperial house weakened -> relied less on Chinese culture and custom<br />No more political influence<br />Buddhism changed into a Japanese religion<br />Declining Tang dynasty -> no reliable model<br />Tang Dynasty<br />
    28. 28. NOTESThe Declining Influence of China<br />Gempei Wars: raged in main island of Honshu<br />1185: Manamoto established bakufu<br />Bakufu: military government or “tent”<br />Capital at Kamakura<br />
    29. 29. The Breakdown of Bakufu Dominance and the Age of the Warlords<br />Yorimoto, leader of Mina., weaken Kamakura<br />Fear of betrayal in family <br />Shoguns: military leaders of bakufu<br />Yorimoto’s obsessive fear -> no heir-> Hojo dominated Kamakura regime<br />Hojo: closely allied warrior family<br />Kyoto<br />Kamakura<br />
    30. 30. The Breakdown of Bakufu Dominance and the Age of the Warlords<br />Early 14th cent: Ashikaga Takuajiled revolt and overthrew Kamakura regime<br />Established Ashikaga Shogunate(1336-1573)<br />Emperor refused to acknowledge their power-> tried reviving imperial power -> exiled<br />
    31. 31.
    32. 32. Korea<br />
    33. 33. Korea: Between China and Japan<br />
    34. 34. Korea: Between China and Japan<br />Influenced for the longest time<br />Heavily influenced –able to make a “different” culture.<br />
    35. 35. Korea: Between China and Japan<br />Descended from hunting and herding people of the E Siberia and Manchuria.<br /><ul><li>4th cent: acquired farming and metal working techniques from the Chinese</li></li></ul><li>Korea: Between China and Japan<br />109 BCE: Choson, earliest Korean kingdom, was conquered by Han emperor Wudi<br />Parts of Korea were colonized by China and became a channel for Chinese influences to affect the Korean culture <br />
    36. 36. Korea: Between China and Japan<br />The tribal peoples of the peninsula – mainly the Koguryo in N – resisted Chinese rule<br />Koguryo established a N independent state<br /><ul><li>At war with its S rivals – Silla and Paekche</li></li></ul><li>Korea: Between China and Japan<br />Sinification: the extensive adoption of Chinese culture<br />Buddhism – key link between Korea and the N China- Han dynasty successors<br />Korean rulers patronized Buddhist artist and financed the monasteries and pagodas<br />
    37. 37. NOTES<br />Korea: Between China and Japan<br />Adapted Chinese writing <br />Korean language was not suited for characters<br />Koguryo’s ruler forced a unified law code based after the Han’s<br />Established universities <br />Build a Chinese-style bureaucracy<br />China<br />Followers (copiers)<br />
    38. 38. Tang Alliances and the Conquest of Korea <br />3 Korean kingdoms fought and weakened each other -> Korea vulnerable to outside attacks<br />Silla<br />Paekche<br />Koguryo<br />
    39. 39. NOTESTang Alliances and the Conquest of Korea <br />The Tang dynasty attacked Koguryo however the Koguryo fought back<br />Silla<br />Tang<br />Paekche<br />Silla<br />Tang<br />Koguryo<br />
    40. 40. Tang Alliances and the Conquest of Korea <br />The Tang conquerors fought the Silla over spoils<br />Silla strong enough to resist<br />Revolts in Paekche and Koguryo<br />Tang makes deal with Silla<br />Tribute payments<br />Silla = vassal of Tang <br />668 – Tang withdraws armies<br />Silla became the independent rulers of united Korea<br />
    41. 41. Sinification: The Tributary Link<br />Under Silla rulers and Koryodynasty<br />Chinese influences peaked <br />Korean culture flourished<br />Silla tried to become a miniature Tang empire<br />They regularly sent the Tang embassies and tribute<br />
    42. 42. Sinification: The Tributary Link<br />Tribute System<br />Neighboring places offered tribute to China<br />Korea was most committed to the Tribute System<br />Emissaries offered tribute in forms of splendid gifts and acknowledgement of the Son of Heaven<br />
    43. 43. Sinification: The Tributary Link<br />Effects of the tribute system<br />Guaranteed peace with China<br />Access to Chinese learning, art, and manufactured goods<br />Merchants and trading depended on China<br />Scholars studied at china and bought scrolls for Korea<br />Intercultural exchange<br />
    44. 44. Vietnam<br />
    45. 45. Between China and Southeast Asia: The Making of Vietnam<br />220 BCE: record of “southern barbarians”<br />Kingdom called Nam Viet<br />“People in the south”<br />
    46. 46. NOTESBetween China and Southeast Asia: The Making of Vietnam<br />Qin raids -> Vietnamese traded with China<br />
    47. 47. NOTESBetween China and Southeast Asia: The Making of Vietnam<br />Defeated feudal lords<br />Took control of Red River valley<br /><ul><li>Blended with Mon-Kmer- and Tai-speaking peoples: crucial part of distinct ethnic group
    48. 48. Kmers = today’s Cambodians</li></li></ul><li>Between China and Southeast Asia: The Making of Vietnam<br />Viets had their own culture<br />Own spoken language<br />Strong village autonomy<br />Nuclear family<br />Women had more freedom and influence<br />
    49. 49. Between China and Southeast Asia: The Making of Vietnam<br />Viets had their own culture<br />Different clothing style<br />Cockfights<br />Chewed betel nut<br />
    50. 50. Conquest and Sinification<br />Han empire accepted and satisfied with Viet tributes<br />111 BCE: Han conquers Nam Viet<br />Viets saw they could learn from China<br />No resistance<br />
    51. 51. NOTESConquest and Sinification: Education<br />Viets attended Chinese schools<br />Studied Confucian classics<br />Wrote Chinese<br />Exams for administrative posts<br />
    52. 52. NOTESConquest and Sinification: Agriculture<br />Chinese introduced cropping techniques and irrigation tehcniques<br />Better agriculture -> more food -> support bigger population<br />+<br />=<br />
    53. 53. NOTESConquest and Sinification: Military<br />Learned from Chinese military organization<br />Advantage over Indianized* people (W and S)<br />*Indianized people = people who adopted Indian way of kinship and warfare<br />
    54. 54. Roots of Resistance<br />Viets did not like Chinese rule<br />Chinese looked down on Vietnamese customs<br />Sporadic aristocratic revolts<br />Writing showed self-doubt and resistance to Chinese dominance<br />
    55. 55. Roots of Resistance<br />Less rights and independence for women<br />Confined to home<br />Controlled by men<br />
    56. 56. Roots of Resistance<br />Women participated in revolts<br />39 CE: famous uprising by Trung Sisters<br />Daughters of deposed local leader<br />
    57. 57. NOTES: Winning Independence and Continuing Chinese Influences<br />939 CE: Nam Viet won political independence from China<br />Geographic advantages<br />Rebelled during fall of Tang<br />
    58. 58. NOTESWinning Independence and Continuing Chinese Influences<br />Le dynasty (980 - 1009 CE)<br />First Vietnamese dynasty<br />Bureaucracy <br />Copy of Chinese administrative system<br />Civil service exams<br />Learning Confucian classics in school<br />Deference from lower people<br />
    59. 59. Winning Independence and Continuing Chinese Influences <br />Local leaders identify with peasants<br />Local interests<br />Leaders in peasant uprisings<br />VS<br />
    60. 60. The Vietnamese Drive to the South<br />Viets did not want to settle near malarial highlands -> fought Chams and Kmers<br />People living S of Nam Viet<br />
    61. 61. NOTESThe Vietnamese Drive to the South<br />11th – 18th cent: fought Chams and Kmers<br />Drove Chams to highlands<br />Defeated Kmerswho were moving into Mekong Delta Region<br />
    62. 62. NOTES: Expansion and Division<br />Move farther away from Hanoi (capital)<br />Marry and adopt customs of Chams and Kmers<br />Dynasties have less power over southern part -> Nguyen (Hue, S) vs. Trinh (Hanoi, N)<br />
    63. 63. Global Connections: In the Orbit of China<br />The East Asian Corner of the Globe<br />
    64. 64. Japan<br />Japan showed that women CAN accomplish things such as writing and poetry<br />“The Tale of Genji”<br />:D They grew the new crop soy beans!<br />Zen Buddhism influenced the quality in “rough” things (According to the book)<br />