Chapter 3 Section 3
The Yellow River,
aka China’s sorrow
North China Plain
Plain between two
major rivers. Most
populated area of
10% of the land
is good for
Plateau of Tibet
High plateau N. of
First Dynasty Xia Dynasty c.2070 BC–1600 BC
It was during this period that Chinese civilization
developed a ruling structure that had civilian
government and harsh punishment for breaking the
law. From this the earliest forms of Chinese legal
codes came into being.
Second: Shang 1750-1122 B.C.
Aristocracy: Rich upper-class land owners, ruled.
Economy was based on agriculture.
The Aristocracy was constantly at war.
It is thought that they moved their capital
several times, finally establishing their capital
at Anyang, north of the Huang He.
Shang Bronze Mask
The Shang were
master bronze makers.
Political and Social Structure
The Shang King ruled from his palace at Anyang.
He split his territory up among different generals.
He could appoint and remove these generals.
The Shang frequently waged war on the fringes of their kingdom.
When a Shang king died, the servants were buried in the tomb
with the king. The tomb was also filled with riches for the
Religion and Culture
Possessed a very strong belief in life
The Shang practiced human sacrifice to
win the favor of the gods or give the king
company in the afterlife.
The ancestors were seen as a link between the present world
and the spiritual world. They could bring good or bad fortune
to a family. Offerings of food and drink were offered to them
A way to communicate with
the ancestors. Animal bonds
were carved with questions,
then heated or broken. A
priest then interpreted the
Zhou Dynasty 1045-256 B.C.
Lasted for almost 900 years, longest
lasting dynasty in Chinese History.
Head was a king who ruled over an imperial bureaucracy. The
king was seen as the link between heaven and earth and had
The rulers of the different provinces were aristocrats, similar
to the way it was in the Shang dynasty.
The Mandate of Heaven/Dynastic Cycle
Mandate of Heaven:
The Zhou used the Mandate of Heaven to justify their rule.
Heaven, the law of nature, kept order in the universe by
choosing the king. The king was responsible for being a good
Dao: The Way
The King was responsible to rule by the Dao, he had to keep the
gods happy to protect people from natural disaster, or bad
If he didn’t do this he would lose power.
The mandate of heaven was used to explain the rise and fall of
different dynasties. When a ruler took over they claimed they
had earned the mandate of heaven, or they would not have been
able to win. This was closely tied to the Dynastic Cycle
The Dynastic Cycle
New Ruler Gains the
Mandate of Heaven
Dynasty founded by
Period of Rebellion
Ruler loses the
Mandate of Heaven
Period of Decline and
Period of Great Power
Decline of the Zhou
Later Zhou rulers began to become corrupt.
Civil war broke out between the kingdoms
This is called the “Warring States Period”
Changes in Warfare
Iron Weapons were developed.
Infantry (foot soldiers) and Cavalry (soldiers on horseback)
became more prevalent.
Began to use the crossbow
Life under the Zhou
Economic and Technological Growth
Made major advancements during this period that improved life
for the people.
Irrigation and Water Projects
Began to control the flow of rivers to water crops. Farming could
be more reliable without dependence on rains.
Iron plows, increase arable land.
An agricultural surplus led to an increase in
The most important trade item was silk.
It’s secret was closely guarded.
Sharing the secret of silk was punishable by
An agricultural surplus led to an increase in trade.
The most important trade item was silk.
It’s secret was closely guarded.
Sharing the secret of silk was punishable by death.
Silk is made from the cocoons of silkworms
These worms feed on Mulberry leaves.
The cocoons are boiled to kill the silkworm
Then the cocoons are unwound and combined to make silk thread
In an agricultural society families had to work together to
survive. Family, and extended families, were very important.
Family members were responsible to obey the needs and wants
of the male head of the family.
Everyone had to know their place.
Children were expected to provide for their parents in old age.
Role of Women
Ancient China was a patriarchal, or male dominated, society.
Some women had power, but this was generally looked down upon.
Women were expected to raise children and work in the home.
Written Chinese is made up of pictograms, or characters.
These are symbols that represent things.
Two or more characters arranged to represent an idea.
Pictograms for mountain,
sun, and moon
Ideogram for East, all the
pictograms are combined.
Qin (Chin) Dynasty (221 BC - 206 BC)
The fall of the Zhou dynasty led to a period of
Chaos called the “Warring States Period”, at
the end of this the emperor Qin Shihuangdi
unified China under a single leader, becoming
the first Emperor of China.
First Emperor came to power in 221 B.C.
Shi Huangdi (Shihuangdi) First Emperor of
He came to power at the age of 13.
He dramatically changed life in China.
Chapter 3 Section 4
Qin adopted Legalism to rule his regime (government in power)
Style of Rule
Centralized power to avoid another civil war.
Treatment of People
People who opposed his rule were punished or executed.
He held mass book burnings to get rid of ideas contrary to what
Shi Huangdi made many reforms
He unified written Chinese, having a common written language
allowed for easier communication.
He created a single currency to make trade easier
He built roads throughout his empire to make travel easier.
He dug the Grand Canal from the Yangtze to Central China to
make trade and travel easier.
Dealt with issues
Answered to the
Nomadic warriors to the north of China.
They kept invading along the northern borders.
Mastered the art of fighting on horseback,
using horse archers to attack.
Construction of The Great Wall
Shihuangdi ordered that a wall be built across the northern
border of the empire.
There were already some walls along the borders, he had them
This was a massive construction project, many people died
during construction and are allegedly buried inside the wall
The Great Wall is the
world's longest man-made
structure, stretching over
Fall of the Qin Dynasty
The harsh rule of Shihuangdi angered many in his Empire
After his death there was another period of civil war
The next dynasty to arise was one of the greatest and
longest lasting in Chinese History.
The Han Dynasty (206 BC–AD 220)
Liu Bang: A man of peasant origin, was the founder
of the Han Dynasty.
The Han Dynasty
The Han adopted Confucianism as their ruling philosophy
Choosing of rulers
Officials and rulers were chosen by merit, rather than by birth.
That way they were better qualified to rule.
Civil Service Exam
The Han set up schools to train people for government work.
Students had to learn Chinese history, law, and the teachings of
They had to pass an exam to be able to work in the government.
Expansion of Empire
Han rulers added territory to the north and out
to the South China sea into what is today Vietnam.
The Han Emperor Wudi, forced the Xiongnu back
north through war and diplomacy, and brought
peace to the empire for 150 years.
The Silk Road expanded during the Han Empire under Wudi, it
was said he heard of Heavenly Horses that were very powerful
Culture under the Han
Confucian schools were established during this time.
Life of Peasants
Peasant life was not good during this time.
A growth in population reduced the amount of available farm
land, forcing many farmers out of business.
Many were forced to sell their land and become tenant farmers.
Wealthy land-owners gained much of the land.
Rudder and Fore and Aft Rigging
The rudder allowed for the steering of ships.
The rigging and shape of the sails allowed
ships to use wind coming from different
A Chinese Junk (Ship)
Began to weave cotton cloth
Writing on paper began about 100 A.D.
Paper was made with hemp/linen and Bamboo.
The Chinese also invented the
Magnetic Compass and gunpowder
Iron Casting: Steel
The Chinese were able to invent steel.
This led to stronger, and more durable,
tools and weapons.
Decline of the Han
Han rulers became corrupt over
Power of the Central
government declines and
aristocrats began to fight over
China fell into another period of
a Han style
Culture of Han
Became the basis of education in China for many years to come.
Culture of Qin
Terra Cotta Army
Was created to guard the emperor Qin Shihuangdi in the
Each soldier is unique.
The army, dressed in uniforms, with weapons, is made to scale.
There are horses, wooden chariots, and several thousand bronze
They were originally painted with bright colors, but this has
faded over time.
Founded by Laozi, the “Old Master”
It was said that he lived without leaving any
Holy Text: Tao Te Ching
Way of Life
He believed a person's conduct should be governed by instinct
and conscience. He believed "simplicity" to be the key to truth
and freedom. Lao Tzu encouraged his followers to observe, and
seek to understand the laws of nature; to develop intuition and
build up personal power; and to wield power with love, not force.
View of Government
Daoism views government as being unnatural.
“The universe is sacred, You cannot improve it. If you try to change it,
you will ruin it. If you try to hold it, you will lose it.”
Yin and Yang
Yin is the darker element; it is passive, dark, feminine,
downward-seeking, and corresponds to the night. Often
symbolized by water or earth
Yang is the brighter element; it is active, light,
masculine, upward-seeking and corresponds to the
day. Often symbolized by fire or wind.
These are complementary opposites rather than absolutes.
They do not represent good and evil, one force is not seen
as morally superior to the other.
Yin and Yang do not exclude each other.
Everything has its opposite: although this is never
absolute, only relative
Yin and Yang are interdependent.
One cannot exist without the other
Yin and Yang can be further subdivided into Yin and Yang.
Any Yin or Yang aspect can be further subdivided into Yin and
Yin and Yang consume and support each other.
Yin and Yang are usually held in balance: as one increases, the
Yin and Yang can transform into one another.
At a particular stage, Yin can transform into Yang and vice
versa. For example, night changes into day
rt of Yin is in Yang and part of Yang is in Yin.
The dots in each serve:
as a reminder that there are always traces of one in the other
Chinese philosophers were less concerned with the
afterlife, and more concerned with how to improve
life presently on earth.
famous Chinese thinker and social philosopher, whose teachings
and philosophy have deeply influenced Chinese, Korean,
Vietnamese, and Japanese life and thought.
Is known to the Chinese as the first teacher, his name was
Was born in 551 B.C.
Wanted to be
Confucius originally wanted to be a political advisor.
He traveled around the country trying to persuade political
leaders to listen to him.
He was rejected and so he decided to become a teacher
Confucius developed a great following of
These students collected his teachings
after his death.
This teachings are collected in The
A collection of sayings and advice.
"In teaching, there should be no distinction of classes.“
Thought that people were:
Confucius taught that people were born good and that bad
behavior, or evil was learned behavior.
Treatment of Others
Confucius taught that you should be respectful of others.
Confucius believed that personal interests were subordinate to
the needs of the family and community.
In order to govern others one must first govern oneself.
Leaders should practice self control and be moral.
Merit: Leaders should rule by example. If a ruler is fair and
just then his people will follow and do the same.
To govern by virtue, let us compare it to the North Star: it stays in its
place, while the myriad stars wait upon it." (Analects II, 1)
Confucius taught that people should have Filial Piety, respect
for your elders and superiors.
Confucius taught that order in the universe would only exist
if people followed their role. He established five key
relationships which brought about an orderly society.
Ruler to Subject
Father to Son
Husband to Wife
Older Brother to Younger Brother
Friend to Friend
The only equal relationship was friend to
Specific duties were prescribed to each of the
participants in these sets of relationships. Such
duties were also extended to the dead, where the
living stood as sons to their deceased family. This
led to the veneration of ancestors.
In time, filial piety was also built into the Chinese
legal system: a criminal would be punished more
harshly if the culprit had committed the crime
against a parent, while fathers exercised enormous
power over their children.
Founded by: Han Feizi
Nature of Man
Legalism believed that man was born bad and
had to learn to be good.
The state is more important than the individual
Rulers should be strong and rule with absolute power.
Legalists believed that if the punishments were heavy and the
law equally applied, neither the powerful nor the weak would be
able to escape state control