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Ancient China

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Ancient China

  1. 1. Ancient China <ul><ul><li>From ancient times to now, China has always been prominent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>and greatly influential civilization. It is one of the most advanced civilizations in the world. </li></ul></ul>
  2. 2. China's ancient civilization locations had been based on the geography of China. The civilizations were located along the Yellow, Yangtze and Xi rivers where a supply of water is available to blooming or already set civilizations. An advantage from the rivers of China is a way of trading. You wouldn’t find a civilization in the Gobi Desert because of the geographical features of it. There is no way of getting water or any way of trading from the desert because of no transportation of a river. The river has many obstacles too, so it would be very hard to build a good civilization off of the Gobi desert. The geography affected where the many great dynasties was like the Shang, Zhou, Quin, Han, Sui and many other major dynasties.
  3. 3. Geography and Climate <ul><ul><li>China’s ancient civilization locations have been based on the geography of China. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The civilizations were located along the Yellow, Yangtze and Xi rivers where a supply of water is available to blooming or already set civilizations. An advantage from the rivers of China is a way of trading. You wouldn’t find a civilization in the Gobi Desert because of the geographical features of it. There is no way of getting water or any way of trading from the desert because of no transportation of a river. The river has many obstacles too, so it would be very hard to build a good civilization off of the Gobi desert. The geography affected where the many great dynasties was like the Shang, Zhou, Quin, Han, Sui and many other major dynasties. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>-Chinas geographical features are often referred to as a “staircase with three steps”. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>-The top step are the Himalayan Mountains, where to the west of </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>them is India. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>-The second step of “the staircase” is the middle of China, which is mostly the Gobi desert </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>-The third (bottom) step of “the staircase” is Eastern China. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>-There are rivers that run down to the Pacific Ocean, which are the Yangtze, Yellow and Xi Rivers. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>-Sometimes typhoons and hurricanes occur because of the different kind of climate and where rainforests are located, near the southeast waters. </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. The Shang Dynasty Society <ul><li>The Chinese learned how to make bronze out of tin and copper, this period of time in which people started learning to do this was called the Bronze Age. </li></ul><ul><li>The Chinese then started to use horse chariots. </li></ul><ul><li>The people of the Shang dynasty started making weapons, “fittings for chariots and harnesses” that were made of bronze. </li></ul><ul><li>During the start of the Bronze Age, writing developed and what Chinese used to carve or write on were oracle bones or tortoise shells. </li></ul><ul><li>The writing system was based on pictures that were ideas. </li></ul><ul><li>The Shang Dynasty (1766-1050 b.c.) came about around the Bronze Age (around 2000 b.c.). </li></ul><ul><li>The Shang dynasty was the first to be ruled under one ruler. </li></ul><ul><li>The dynasty lasted for 700 years then was overthrown by the Chou in about 1100 b.c. </li></ul><ul><li>The king had made AnYang the capital of the Shang dynasty, which was located in northern China. </li></ul><ul><li>Farmers would use hoes made of wood and a stone instead of a plough. </li></ul><ul><li>Farmers grew rice, millet and wheat and when they farmed those crops they used sickles. </li></ul>
  5. 5. The Shang Dynasty Society (Continued) <ul><li>The most important part of technology in Shang dynasty was the writing system and the Shang was the first place where the evidence of a writing system was found in China. </li></ul><ul><li>The people of the Shang had worshipped the “Shang Ti” who was a god that was of way higher of status than the sun, moon, wind and rain. </li></ul><ul><li>The Shang would worship their ancestors and sacrificing themselves was very important part of the Shang religion. </li></ul><ul><li>When a king would die, hundreds of the slaves of the Shang would be sacrificed in honor of the kings death. </li></ul><ul><li>Even when a temple or an important religious building was found, many would sacrifice themselves also in honor of the establishment of the temple. </li></ul>
  6. 6. The Start of the Zhou Dynasty <ul><li>The Zhou had started out as nomads living west of the Shang. </li></ul><ul><li>Since the Zhou were nomads, they interacted with many different cultures and had become used to people with different religions. </li></ul><ul><li>When the Zhou moved to live in the Wei river valley, they became vassals of the Shang dynasty. *[The vassals were to protect the king in return of land from the king]* </li></ul><ul><li>Around 1040 b.c., the Zhou became stronger than the Shang and won in warfare between the two dynasties. </li></ul><ul><li>The Shang lost because of warfare with others in northern China. </li></ul><ul><li>The Zhous capital was in Xi’an. </li></ul><ul><li>The Zhou kept a lot of the Shangs ways like their writing system, and sacrifice rituals. </li></ul><ul><li>The Zhou became dictator that had slaves working. </li></ul><ul><li>Many people of the Zhou became landowners by becoming vassals of the Zhou. </li></ul><ul><li>After awhile, the Zhou had banned sacrifices (humans) and began worshipping the heaven-god. </li></ul><ul><li>The Heaven-god became of a higher status than the stars, moon, sun, and wind. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Qin Dynasty (221 B.C.-206 B.C.) <ul><li>-The Qin Dyansty was the shortest dynasty to last. </li></ul><ul><li>-Shih Huang Ti conquered the warring-states of the Chou dynasty that had just fell. </li></ul><ul><li>-The Quin dynasty region became the largest so far between the dynasties before the Qin. </li></ul><ul><li>-The Qin region added on what Korea and Vietnam are today. </li></ul><ul><li>-Since the warring-states Hang Ti had conquered, had different methods of measurement. So he established just one form of measuring and weighing to be used in all of the Qin region. </li></ul><ul><li>-All books in the school of thought schools were burned but the books in the Qin imperial library. </li></ul><ul><li>-The Qin Dynasty’s biggest accomplishment was the making of the Great wall of China. </li></ul><ul><li>-The making of the Great Wall of China had had lives lost and money lost from the Qin dynasty. </li></ul><ul><li>-From this burden on the Qin, people were not happy with Huang Ti. </li></ul><ul><li>-Shih Huang Ti died and the kingdom rule fell in 206 B.C. </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><ul><li>In the Han and Sui dynasty , the Chinese had greatly expanded their territory and built the world's first and longest canal system. At that time, the Chinese had started their golden age of technology and art . </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Han Dynasty 汉朝 <ul><li>The Han empire began in 206 B.C. after the death of Qin Shihuangdi. </li></ul><ul><li>Liu bang was the first emperor of the Han dynasty. </li></ul><ul><li>The Han empire was divided into two periods of time, the Westerm Han(206 B.C.–9 A.D.) and the Eastern Han(25–220 A.D.). </li></ul><ul><li>Wudi established Confucianism as the basis for correct official, individual conduct and education. </li></ul><ul><li>Poetry, literature, and philosophy flourished during the reign of Emperor Wudi (141–86 B.C.). </li></ul><ul><li>Western Han's capital, Chang'an, was one of the two largest cities in the ancient world . </li></ul><ul><li>The Shiji(Historical Records) written by Sima Qian (145–80 B.C.) recorded information about the peoples and the government. </li></ul><ul><li>China regained control of territories in southern China and the northern part of Vietnam during Wudi's time. </li></ul><ul><li>Under Wudi, China took control of the trade routes running north and south of the Taklamakan Desert. </li></ul><ul><li>Crop rotation was practiced from 85 B.C.Iron & salt were two biggest sectors of the economy.Silk and copper work were important too. </li></ul><ul><li>Disputes within the imperial palace contributed to the downfall of the Western Han empire. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Eastern Han Dynasty 西汉 <ul><li>Second dynasty was founded by a member of the former Han dynasty. </li></ul><ul><li>Wang Mang(45 B.C.-23A.D oct 6),was the emperor of the Hsing(New) dynasty. His rise to power was because he gained much public support. </li></ul><ul><li>Liu Hsiu(6 B.C.- 57 A.D.) Liu Hsiu was the founder of the eastern Han dynasty. As a emperor, he was called Kuang-wu di. </li></ul><ul><li>The second Han Dynasty had much success with their foreign policy. </li></ul><ul><li>The most dangerous enemies of the Chinese were defeated by Hsien-pi and the Wu-huan. </li></ul><ul><li>Half of the Hsiung nu moved south, and became part of the Chinese empire. </li></ul><ul><li>The Hsiung nu tried to reunite. Thus, in 73 A.D. the Chinese began a campaign in Turkestan. </li></ul><ul><li>In 89 A.D., a new emperor came to power with a renewed interest in holding Turkestan. Economic and political struggles arose within China because of millitary success. </li></ul><ul><li>Internal struggles for power taxed the peasants, until in 184 A.D. when another peasant uprising occurred. This movement was begun by the Yellow Turbans. After that ,China did not return to a united state. Han dynasty came to an end. </li></ul><ul><li>China falls into a war era after the Han dynasty. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Sui Dynasty 隋朝 <ul><li>- The Sui Dynasty lasted from 580 to 618 A.D. </li></ul><ul><li>- It was e stablished by Yang Chien who had been an official of the Northern Zhou. </li></ul><ul><li>- The Sui Dynasty had two emperors, Yang Chien (Wen Ti) and his son Yang. </li></ul><ul><li>- Besides re-establishment of the government, there was a re-establishment of religion. Buddhism flourished during this period of time. </li></ul><ul><li>- The Sui rulers were interested in expanding borders,so they began costly military campaigns. </li></ul><ul><li>- Sui were successful with their efforts at territorial expansion. However,they did not achieve much in the north. </li></ul><ul><li>- The Grand Canal was built during the Sui dynasty. It stretched from Beijing,which is in the north, to Hangzhou in the south. </li></ul><ul><li>-The Great Wall was also repaired under Yang Di's control, but many lives were lost during the process of repairing. </li></ul><ul><li>- Yang di,the last emperor, was killed in 618 A.D because of his despotism . </li></ul>
  12. 12. Tang Dynasty 唐 ( A.D . 618 - 907) <ul><li>After the fall of the Sui Dynasty, the Tang Dynasty was founded by Li Yuan. Under the Tang and the empires that followed, China was able to reach prosperity and innovative achievements; an era called the Golden Age. </li></ul><ul><li>Tang Taizong, Li Yuan's son formerly known as Li Shimin, reigned from 627 to 649. Under his rule and through military campaign, lands that were previously lost were re-conquered and reunited, and the empire’s borders were expanded further north and west. </li></ul><ul><li>Bureaucracy and the civil service system were restored by the Tang and resulted in well educated reliable government officials. </li></ul><ul><li>The dynasty reached it's peak under Emperor Xuanzong (r.713-755) where different forms of art and poetry flourished. </li></ul><ul><li>The empire also started falling apart under Xuanzong. It faced various waves of border attacks and rebellions, such as the An Lushan rebellion from 755 to 763, causing the exodus of Xuangzong. </li></ul><ul><li>After the capital Chang’an was burned down, the last emperor was killed, marking the end of the Tang Dynasty. </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><ul><li>The ideas, the technology, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the belief systems, and the achievements that were developed, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>introduced and shared by the ancient Chinese influenced </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>and effected everyone around them. </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Technology <ul><li>Movable type was invented by Pi Sheng around 1045A.D..It did not significantly impact Chinese society,because there are too many characters in the Chinese language. </li></ul><ul><li>Papermaking; a new invention of paper was presented to the Emperor in the year 105 AD by Cai Lun. Papermaking relied upon bamboo fibers to produce a fine quality paper. </li></ul><ul><li>By the third century AD, Chinese scientists studied and learned about magnetism. They used the magnet and created the first compass in the world. </li></ul><ul><li>The mathematicians Tsu Ch'ung-Chih and Tsu Keng-Chih found an 'accurate' value of pi,as 3.1415929203. </li></ul><ul><li>Chinese scientists invented Gunpowder with a mixture of sulfur, charcoal,& saltpeter (potassium nitrate) in eighth century AD . </li></ul><ul><li>By the second century BC, Chinese had invented rotary winnowing fan. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Art <ul><li>Chinese art had began more than 4,000 years ago. </li></ul><ul><li>Calligraphy,the art of writing, was the visual art form prized above all others in traditional China. Brush and ink was used.Calligraphy was not stated as fine arts until the Song dynasty,when it closely allied with aim, form, and technique. </li></ul><ul><li>The period of the Bronze Age in China began around 2000 B.C..Chinese bronzes were made by the method known as piece-mold casting, which is different from the lost-wax method. </li></ul><ul><li>Chinese papercuts were created around the first century in A.D. People then hang them up to decorate windows, houses, clothes and ladies hair. </li></ul><ul><li>From the Neolithic period, Chinese started making pottery with special designs. During the Ming dynasty, the Chinese ceramics were widely known through sea trading. </li></ul><ul><li>Chinese arts are influenced by religions and nature. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Beliefs and Philosophies <ul><li>During the earlier ages the Chinese were a polytheistic people who worshipped many gods and spirits of nature, as well as the spirits of their ancestors. As time passed and civilizations grew, new beliefs and philosophies were introduced and adopted by the people. </li></ul><ul><li>Buddhism: originally founded in India by Siddhartha Gautama, Buddhism was introduced to China during 1 st century A.D. but manifested around 500AD. Budhism teaches that one must overcome desires and reach enlightenment (Nirvana) by following the Four Noble Truths and the Eightfold Path. </li></ul><ul><li>Daoism (Taoism): a philosophy founded by Laozi in 6 th century B.C. is based on a belief of balance in nature and teaches that all things are guided by a universal force. The two forces that maintain balance for harmony to exist are: Yin, the female element associated with darkness and Yang, the male equivalent associated with light. </li></ul><ul><li>“ In the ancient Chinese creation myth, yin and yang were held inside the cosmic egg until the struggle of the opposing forces cracked the shell.” (Storm 24) </li></ul><ul><li>Confucianism: founded by the influential scholar Kong Qiu, who was known as Kongfusi(westernized as Confucius), during the Zhou Dynasty. His teachings were about proper conduct and filial piety; the repect for parents and elders. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Fun Facts <ul><li>Foot binding was introduced during the Song Dynasty in 1100AD.It reflected their status and was the only way to marry into money(Lim). At a young age girls had their feet bounded with tight bandages, where their arch was broken and toes bent under the foot. </li></ul><ul><li>The image to the left shows the x-ray of a bounded foot in comparison to a normal foot. </li></ul><ul><li>An ancient tradition started around 8th century bc was the the servitude of eunuchs under China's emperors. Eunuchs were sexually impotent or castrated males, and they were kept as palace servants or harem guards (Anderson). </li></ul>
  18. 18. Fun Facts (continued) <ul><li>Go, a strategical board game was invented and played by the wealthy and powerful in 2000BC, during the Shang Dynasty (Carr). A simpler board game similar to Go is known as Reversi or Othello. </li></ul><ul><li>Daoist alchemists believed that mercury was a crucial ingredient for the elixir of immortality, which was a red cinnabar pill. It ended up poisining the people who believed it would work. </li></ul><ul><li>Tai chi chuan is a form of exercise composed of 128 body movements developed from Daoism. The goal of this exercise is balance and requires a great amount of muscle control (Kalman 30). </li></ul>A painting of Guan Yu, a Han Dynasty general, playing a game of Go.
  19. 19. <ul><ul><li>As centuries passed and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>dynasties rose and fell, ideas introduced and developed, and as the unforeseen was achieved, what began as a river valley civilization expanded into a vast and paramount empire. </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Bibliography <ul><ul><li>Anderson, Mary M. . Hidden Power: The Palace Eunuchs of Imperial China . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> Buffalo : Prometheus, 1990. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Beck, Roger B., Linda Black, Larry S. Krieger, Phillip C. Naylor, and Dahia Ibo Shabaka. World History: Patterns of Interaction. Evanston, IL: McDougal Littel Inc., 1999. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Carr, Karen. “Ancient Chinese Games&quot; Kidipede - History for Kids. 2007. November 19, 2008. http://www.historyforkids.org/learn/china/./ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>&quot;Daoism,&quot; Microsoft® Encarta® Online Encyclopedia 2008 http://uk.encarta.msn.com © 1997-2008 Microsoft Corporation. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kalman, Bobbie. China: the people . New York: Crabtree Publishing, 2001. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>LaFleur, Robert Andre. A Global Studies Handbook . Santa Barbara: ABC-CLIO, Inc, 2003. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lim, Louisa. &quot;Painful Memories for China's Footbinding Survivors.&quot; 19 3 2007 19 Nov 2008 <http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=8966942>. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Storm, Rachel . Asian Mythology . New York: Anness Publishing Inc. , 2000. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Willaims, Brian. Ancient China . New York: Penguin Group, 1996. </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Bibliography (continued) <ul><ul><li>Images: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hon Gong, Zhou Ye Bai. Tang Dynasty. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li><http://library.thinkquest.org/C005742/PaintHist_3pictgallery_2.htm> </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lin Li, Bamboo Painting. Ink. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li><http://onfinite.com/libraries/1139855/7e6.jpg> </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Zhang Cuiying, Confucius asking Lao Zi about etiquette. January 16th, 2003. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li><http://www.asianresearch.org/news_images/2003-1-15-laozi_confucius.jpg> </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(Artist unknown) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li><http://www.historyforkids.org/learn/china/games/pictures/guanyu.jpg> </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(Artist unkown) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li><http://www.historyforkids.org/learn/china/clothing/pictures/footbinding.gif> </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Bibliography 目 录 (continued) <ul><li>Department of Asian Art. &quot;Han Dynasty (206 B.C.–220 A.D.)&quot;. Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History . Oct. 2000. 21 Nov.2008 <http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/hand/hd_hand.htm>. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Han Dynasty”. Minnesota State University. 21 Nov.2008 <http://www.mnsu.edu/emuseum/prehistory/china/early_imperial_china/han.html>. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Sui Dynasty.” Minnesota State University. 21 Nov.2008 <http://www.mnsu.edu/emuseum/prehistory/china/classical_imperial_china/sui.html>. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Sui Dynasty 589 AD - 618 AD .” Think Quest . 21 Nov.2008 <http://library.thinkquest.org/12255/library/dynasty/sui.html>. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Chinese Inventions.” Franklin Institute . 21 Nov,2008 <http://sln.fi.edu/tfi/info/current/inventions.html>. </li></ul><ul><li>Cynthia. “The Art of China.” Kyrene.org .21 Nov,2008 <http://www.kyrene.org/schools/brisas/sunda/arthistory/china.htm>. </li></ul><ul><li>Delbanco, Dawn. &quot;Chinese Calligraphy&quot;. Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History .Nov.2008. 21 Nov.2008 < http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/chcl/hd_chcl.htm >. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Ancient Chinese technology.” Think Quest. 21 Nov,2008 <http://library.thinkquest.org/23062/frameset.html> </li></ul>
  23. 23. Bibliography (Continued) <ul><li>Xiao Feng , Traditional Home in Summer Print http://www.scrollsfromchina.com/print_0021.htm </li></ul><ul><li>(Artist Unknown) </li></ul><ul><li><  http://www.luopan.com/t/en_US/321000L000001 > </li></ul><ul><li>Qin dynasty: </li></ul><ul><li>< http ://library.thinkquest.org/12255/library/dynasty/qin.html > </li></ul><ul><li>Shang Dynasty: </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.mnsu.edu/emuseum/prehistory/ancient_china/shang.html </li></ul><ul><li>Zhou dynasty: </li></ul><ul><li>http://mnsu.edu/emuseum/prehistory/china/ancient_china/zhou/html </li></ul><ul><li>Geography: </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.historyforkids.org/learn/china/environment/index.html </li></ul>

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