AP WH Chapter 10 PPT


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AP WH Chapter 10 PPT

  1. 1. I. Inner and Eastern Asia 400 – 1200 C.E.
  2. 2. The Sui and Tang Empires 581 – 755 C.E.
  3. 3. Sui Empire
  4. 4. Reunification Under The Sui <ul><li>Sui Empire reunified China </li></ul><ul><li>Established a government based on Confucianism, but heavily influenced by Buddhism </li></ul><ul><li>Sui’s rapid decline and fall may have been due to large amounts of resources spent on: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Construction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Canal and irrigation projects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Military </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Grand Canal
  6. 6. A. The Tang Empire 618 – 907 C.E.
  7. 7. Tang Empire
  8. 8. 1. Tang Empire - Introduction <ul><li>Established in 618. </li></ul><ul><li>Carried out a program of territorial expansion </li></ul><ul><li>Avoided over-centralization </li></ul><ul><li>Combined Turkic influence with Chinese Confucian traditions </li></ul>
  9. 9. 2. Buddhism and the Tang Empire <ul><li>Tang legitimized control by using Buddhist idea that kings are spiritual agents who bring subjects into Buddhist realm. </li></ul><ul><li>Buddhist monasteries were important allies of early Tang emperors. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Received tax exemptions, land, and gifts for cooperation. </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. 3. Mahayana Buddhism <ul><li>Most important school of Buddhism in Central and East Asia. </li></ul><ul><li>Beliefs were flexible </li></ul><ul><li>Encouraged adoption of local deities into Mahayana pantheon </li></ul><ul><li>Encouraged translation of Buddhist texts into local languages. </li></ul>
  11. 11. 4. Spread of Buddhism <ul><li>Spread through trade routes that converged on Chang’an. </li></ul><ul><li>Trade routes brought other peoples and cultural influences to Chang’an </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This made it a cosmopolitan city. </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. 5. Chang’an – Capital City <ul><li>Destination of ambassadors from other states sent to China under the tributary system. </li></ul><ul><li>City had over 1,000,000 residents </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most lived outside city walls </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Foreigners lived in special compounds </li></ul><ul><li>Residents in walled, gated quarters </li></ul>
  13. 13. 6. Land and Sea <ul><li>Roads and canals brought people and goods to city. </li></ul><ul><li>Islamic and Jewish merchants from Western Asia came to China via the Indian Ocean trade routes. </li></ul><ul><li>Chinese commercial ships carried goods and the Bubonic Plague . </li></ul>
  14. 14. 7. Trade and Cultural Exchange <ul><li>Exports </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Polo </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Grape wine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tea </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spices </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In trade, China lost monopoly on silk, but began to make its own cotton, tea, and sugar . </li></ul>
  15. 15. B. Rivals for Power in Inner Asia and China 600-907
  16. 16. 1. Uigur Empire <ul><li>Built empire in Central Asia in mid-eighth century. </li></ul><ul><li>Known as merchants and scribes. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Developed own script. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Strong ties to Islam and China. </li></ul><ul><li>Lasted for about 50 years. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Uigur Script
  18. 18. 2. Tibetan Empire <ul><li>Large empire with access to Southeast Asia, China, South and Central Asia,/ </li></ul><ul><li>Open to Indian, Chinese, Islamic, and Greek culture. </li></ul><ul><li>In early Tang, China and Tibet were friendly. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tibetan king received a Chinese princess and Mahayana Buddhism brought to Tibet. </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. 3. Discontent <ul><li>Late 600s </li></ul><ul><ul><li>friendly relations had given way to military rivalry in which Tibet allied with the southwestern kingdom of Nanchao against the Tang. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ninth century </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tibetan king attempted to eliminate Buddhism, but failed. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tibet enters a long period of monastic rule and isolation. </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. 4. Upheavals <ul><li>Late ninth century </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tang Empire broke power of Buddhist monasteries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Confucian ideology was reasserted </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reason for crackdown: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Buddhism was seen as undermining the family system and eroding the tax base </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. 5. Women and Buddhism <ul><li>Buddhism used to legitimize women’s participation in politics. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wu Zhao took control of government and made herself emperor with the backing of Buddhism. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>When Buddhism was suppressed, Confucian scholars were very critical of women with power. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Also destroyed many Buddhist cultural artifacts. </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Wu Zhao
  23. 23. 6. End of Tang Empire <ul><li>As territory expanded and faced internal rebellions, Tang dynasty depended on powerful military governors to maintain peace. </li></ul><ul><li>907 – Tang state ended and military governors established own kingdoms. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No kingdoms were able to integrate territory on the scale of the Tang. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>East Asia was cut off from rest of world. </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. II. The Emergence of East Asia To 1200 C.E.
  25. 25. A. New States <ul><li>After fall of Tang, new states emerge: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Liao </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Jin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chinese Song </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Liao and Jin cut the Chinese off from Central Asia </li></ul><ul><li>Song strengthened contacts with Korea, Japan, and Southeast Asia. </li></ul>
  26. 26. Liao State <ul><li>Included nomads and settled agriculturalists. </li></ul><ul><li>Liao kings presented themselves as: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Confucian rulers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Buddhist monarchs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nomadic leaders </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Liao rulers were of the Kitan ethnic group. </li></ul>
  27. 27. B. Liao Empire <ul><li>Lasted from 916-1121. </li></ul><ul><li>Liao had strong military. </li></ul><ul><li>Forced Song to give annual tribute of cash and silk in return for peace. </li></ul>
  28. 28. III. The Song Empire 960 To 1129 C.E.
  29. 29. A. The Song Empire <ul><li>Song helped Jurchens of northeast Asia to defeat the Liao. </li></ul><ul><li>Jurchens established Jin Empire, turned on Song, and drove them out of north and central Asia in 1127. </li></ul><ul><li>Song reigned in South Asia as the Southern Song Empire (1127-1279). </li></ul>
  30. 30. Song Empire
  31. 31. 1. Song Industries <ul><li>Made a number of technological inventions. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mathematics, astronomy, calendar making. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1088 – Su Song constructed a mechanical clock that told time, day of month, and indicated movements of the moon, some stars, and planets. </li></ul>
  32. 32. Recreation of Su Song’s Clock
  33. 33. 2. Shipbuilding <ul><li>Song introduced: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sternpost rudder </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Watertight bulkheads </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Improved compass for seafaring </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Made possible for building larger ships </li></ul></ul>
  34. 34. Sternpost Rudder I have no idea who this chick is.
  35. 35. 3. Military <ul><li>Had standing professionally trained and paid military. </li></ul><ul><li>Iron and coal were important strategic resource for Song military. </li></ul><ul><li>Song produced large amounts of high-grade iron and steel for: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Weapons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Armor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Defensive works </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Developed gunpowder weapons </li></ul>
  36. 36. Chinese Cannon
  37. 37. 4. Society in Song China <ul><li>Dominated by civilian officials </li></ul><ul><li>Put higher value on civil pursuits than on military affairs </li></ul><ul><li>Song thinkers developed a Neo-Confucian philosophy. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Zen Buddhism continued to be popular. </li></ul></ul>
  38. 38. 5. Civil Service Examination System <ul><li>Introduced in the Tang </li></ul><ul><li>Broke domination of the hereditary aristocracy by allowing men to be chosen for service based on merit. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Men from poor families were unlikely to devote time and resources to studying for the exam. </li></ul></ul>
  39. 39. 6. Moveable Type <ul><li>Allowed Song government to mass-produce authorized preparation texts for examination-takers. </li></ul><ul><li>Printing also allowed for the spread of new agricultural technology . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Helped to increase agricultural production. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spurred population growth. </li></ul></ul>
  40. 40. Earliest Printed Book
  41. 41. 7. Population Growth <ul><li>During Song period, population rose to 100 million. </li></ul><ul><li>Population and economic growth fed the large, crowded, but well-managed cities like Hangzhou. </li></ul>
  42. 42. 8. Money <ul><li>Created Interregional Credit System called “flying money.” </li></ul><ul><li>Introduced government-issued paper money. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Caused inflation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Later withdrawn </li></ul></ul>
  43. 43. 9. Market Economy <ul><li>Song not able to control it as previous governments did. </li></ul><ul><li>Tax collection was privatized </li></ul><ul><li>New merchant elite thrived in cities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wealth was derived from trade, not land </li></ul></ul>
  44. 44. 10. Women in the Song Period <ul><li>Entirely subordinated to men </li></ul><ul><li>Lost rights to own and manage property </li></ul><ul><li>Remarriage was forbidden </li></ul><ul><li>Bound feet became status symbol for elite women </li></ul><ul><li>Working class women and women from non-Han peoples did not bind feet and had more independence. </li></ul>
  45. 45. Bound Feet
  46. 46. III. New Kingdoms in East China
  47. 47. Chinese Influences <ul><li>Korea, Japan, and Vietnam were all rice-cultivating economies. </li></ul><ul><li>Labor needs fit well with Confucian concepts of hierarchy, obedience, and discipline. </li></ul><ul><li>All adapted aspects of Chinese culture, but political ideologies remained different </li></ul><ul><li>Valued literacy in Chinese and read Chinese classics. </li></ul>
  48. 48. Korea <ul><li>Hereditary elite absorbed Confucianism and Buddhism from China and passed them to Japan. </li></ul><ul><li>Several small Korean kingdoms were united first by </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Silla in 668 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Koryo in early 900s </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Korea used woodblock printing as early as the 700s </li></ul><ul><li>Later invented moveable type, which it passed to Song China. </li></ul>
  49. 49. Korean Buddhist Woodblock
  50. 50. Japanese Unification <ul><li>Mountainous terrain was home to hundreds of small states that were unified in the fourth or fifth century. </li></ul><ul><li>Unified state established its government at Yamato on Honshu Island. </li></ul>
  51. 51. Political Reforms <ul><li>Mid-seventh century – rulers of Japan implemented a series of political reforms to establish: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Centralized government </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Legal code </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>National histories </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Architecture and City planning similar to Tang China </li></ul></ul>
  52. 52. Not the same as Tang… <ul><li>Adopted Tang concepts as needed to Japanese life. </li></ul><ul><li>Maintained own concept of emperorship. </li></ul><ul><li>Native religion of Shinto survived alongside imported Buddhist religion. </li></ul>
  53. 53. Heian Period <ul><li>794-1185 </li></ul><ul><li>Fujiwara clan dominated government </li></ul><ul><li>Period known for aesthetic refinement of its aristocracy and for the elevation of civil officials above warriors. </li></ul>
  54. 54. Heian Temple
  55. 55. Warrior Clans <ul><li>Late 1000s – some warrior clans became wealthy and powerful </li></ul><ul><li>After years of fighting, one warrior clan took control of Japan </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Established the Kamakura Shogunate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Had capital at Kamakura in eastern Honshu. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  56. 56. Kamakura Warrior
  57. 57. Northern Vietnam <ul><li>Vietnam was suitable for irrigation with Southern China. </li></ul><ul><li>Economic and cultural assimilation took place in Tang and Song times. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Elite of Annam modeled high culture on that of the Chinese at this time. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>When Tang Empire fell, Annam established itself as an independent state under the name Dai Viet. </li></ul>
  58. 58. Southern Vietnam <ul><li>Kingdom of Champa was influenced by Malay and Indian as well as by Chinese culture. </li></ul><ul><li>When Dai Viet was established, Champa cultivated a relationship with the Song state and exported rice to China. </li></ul>
  59. 59. Confucianism <ul><li>East Asian countries shared a common Confucian interest in hierarchy, but the status of women varied from country to country. </li></ul><ul><li>Before Confucianism was introduced to Annam, women had a higher status than women in Confucius China. </li></ul>