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ENGL220 Iliad Books XXI-XXIV
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ENGL220 Iliad Books XXI-XXIV


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  • 1. Book XXI The aristeia of Achilles continues. He captures twelve young men to be used as sacrifices at Patroclus’ funeral. He kills the unarmed boy Lykaon, whom he had previously captured and accepted ransom. He kills many Trojans and dumps their bodies in the river, which angers the river god.
  • 2. Achilles fights the river
  • 3. The river god Skamandros attacks Achilles, and battle rages Hephaestus is sent to set the river on fire and rescue Achilles.
  • 4. The gods continue fighting
  • 5. The fight comes to the very gates of Troy
  • 6. The Trojan Agenor stands firm. He faces Achilles, fights and dies, but this diversion allows the rest of the Trojans to escape into their city.
  • 7. Book XXII
  • 8. Priam opens the gates, and the Trojans retreat inside the city
  • 9. Although his parents plead with him not to go, Hector decides to face Achilles outside the wall of the city
  • 10. Achilles and Hector Fight
  • 11. Achilles chases Hector around the walls of Troy
  • 12. Apollo encourages Hector to fight
  • 13. Athena helps Achilles
  • 14. Apollo abandons Hector
  • 15. Achilles kills Hector
  • 16. Priam and Hekuba beg Achilles to respect their son’s body
  • 17. Before Hector dies, he begs to have his body returned to his family. Achilles refuses, instead dragging Hector’s body behind his chariot
  • 18. Priam, Hekuba, and Andromache lament the death of Hector.
  • 19. Book XXIII Achilles still mourns for Patroclus, who comes to him in a dream and asked to be buried. The pyre is assembled and lit. Achilles drags Hector’s body around the pyre many times.
  • 20. Finally, the spirit of Patroclos comes to Achilles, asking for his funeral. He wants his bones in the same urn as Achilles’
  • 21. Achilles holds funeral games in honor of Patroclus
  • 22. First is the chariot race, won by Diomedes
  • 23. Though there is some squabbling about the prizes, Achilles soothes everyone, and even awards a wisdom prize to Nestor
  • 24. Epeios wins at boxing
  • 25. Odysseus and Ajax wrestle to a draw
  • 26. Odysseus wins the foot race
  • 27. Diomedes and Ajax battle to a draw with spears
  • 28. Polypoitus wins the shot put
  • 29. Meriones wins the archery contest
  • 30. Achilles names Agamemnon best at the javelin without a contest
  • 31. Book XXIV Nine days pass. On each of those days Achilles continues to drag Hector’s body.
  • 32. Iris is sent to Priam to encourage him to ransom Hector’s body
  • 33. Priam prepares for this dangerous mission
  • 34. Hermes is watching over him
  • 35. Priam supplicates Achilles
  • 36. Although Achilles is a respected warrior, Priam’s lineage is longer and more impressive
  • 37. Note Hector’s body under the couch.
  • 38. Achilles finally agrees to return Hector’s body
  • 39. A truce is called for Hector’s funeral
  • 40. Elegiac speeches are given by Andromache, Hekuba
  • 41. And Helen
  • 42. The poem ends with the funeral of Hector and the mourning of the Trojans