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ENGL220 Iliad Books XXI-XXIV


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ENGL220 Iliad Books XXI-XXIV

  1. 1. Book XXI The aristeia of Achilles continues. He captures twelve young men to be used as sacrifices at Patroclus’ funeral. He kills the unarmed boy Lykaon, whom he had previously captured and accepted ransom. He kills many Trojans and dumps their bodies in the river, which angers the river god.
  2. 2. Achilles fights the river
  3. 3. The river god Skamandros attacks Achilles, and battle rages Hephaestus is sent to set the river on fire and rescue Achilles.
  4. 4. The gods continue fighting
  5. 5. The fight comes to the very gates of Troy
  6. 6. The Trojan Agenor stands firm. He faces Achilles, fights and dies, but this diversion allows the rest of the Trojans to escape into their city.
  7. 7. Book XXII
  8. 8. Priam opens the gates, and the Trojans retreat inside the city
  9. 9. Although his parents plead with him not to go, Hector decides to face Achilles outside the wall of the city
  10. 10. Achilles and Hector Fight
  11. 11. Achilles chases Hector around the walls of Troy
  12. 12. Apollo encourages Hector to fight
  13. 13. Athena helps Achilles
  14. 14. Apollo abandons Hector
  15. 15. Achilles kills Hector
  16. 16. Priam and Hekuba beg Achilles to respect their son’s body
  17. 17. Before Hector dies, he begs to have his body returned to his family. Achilles refuses, instead dragging Hector’s body behind his chariot
  18. 18. Priam, Hekuba, and Andromache lament the death of Hector.
  19. 19. Book XXIII Achilles still mourns for Patroclus, who comes to him in a dream and asked to be buried. The pyre is assembled and lit. Achilles drags Hector’s body around the pyre many times.
  20. 20. Finally, the spirit of Patroclos comes to Achilles, asking for his funeral. He wants his bones in the same urn as Achilles’
  21. 21. Achilles holds funeral games in honor of Patroclus
  22. 22. First is the chariot race, won by Diomedes
  23. 23. Though there is some squabbling about the prizes, Achilles soothes everyone, and even awards a wisdom prize to Nestor
  24. 24. Epeios wins at boxing
  25. 25. Odysseus and Ajax wrestle to a draw
  26. 26. Odysseus wins the foot race
  27. 27. Diomedes and Ajax battle to a draw with spears
  28. 28. Polypoitus wins the shot put
  29. 29. Meriones wins the archery contest
  30. 30. Achilles names Agamemnon best at the javelin without a contest
  31. 31. Book XXIV Nine days pass. On each of those days Achilles continues to drag Hector’s body.
  32. 32. Iris is sent to Priam to encourage him to ransom Hector’s body
  33. 33. Priam prepares for this dangerous mission
  34. 34. Hermes is watching over him
  35. 35. Priam supplicates Achilles
  36. 36. Although Achilles is a respected warrior, Priam’s lineage is longer and more impressive
  37. 37. Note Hector’s body under the couch.
  38. 38. Achilles finally agrees to return Hector’s body
  39. 39. A truce is called for Hector’s funeral
  40. 40. Elegiac speeches are given by Andromache, Hekuba
  41. 41. And Helen
  42. 42. The poem ends with the funeral of Hector and the mourning of the Trojans