Marzano Summarizing and Note Taking

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Marzano Summarizing and Note Taking

  1. 1. Summarizing and Note Taking
  2. 2. Classroom Instruction That Works Questions, cues and organizers Generating and testing hypotheses Setting objectives and providing feedback Cooperative learning Nonlinguistic representations Homework and practice Reinforcing effort and providing recognition Summarizing and note taking Identifying similarities and differences
  3. 3. Following Best Practices <ul><li>Based on current research </li></ul><ul><ul><li>meta-analysis of 2,455 studies pertaining to instructional practices </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Includes latest knowledge, technology and procedures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Research continues through McRel </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Successful across student populations </li></ul><ul><li>Applies across content areas and grade levels </li></ul>
  4. 4. Classroom Instruction That Works – Effect Size 1251 22 .59 Questions, cues and organizers 63 23 .61 Generating and testing hypotheses 408 23 .61 Setting objectives and providing feedback 122 27 .73 Cooperative learning 246 27 .75 Nonlinguistic representations 134 28 .77 Homework and practice 21 29 .80 Reinforcing effort and providing recognition 179 34 1.00 Summarizing and note taking 31 45 1.61 Identifying similarities and differences # of Studies Percentile Gain Ave. Effect Size Category
  5. 5. Effect Size and the Normal Curve 2% 16% 50% 84% 98% 99.9%
  6. 6. <ul><li>Effect Size is a unit of measure used with meta-analysis that expresses the increase or decrease in student achievement </li></ul><ul><li>Cohen simplified the range of effect sizes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Small: 0.20 to 0.49 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Medium: 0.50 to 0.79 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Large: 0.80 and above </li></ul></ul>Classroom Instruction That Works Effect Size
  7. 7. The Instructional Strategy Focus for the Day <ul><li>Summarizing and Note taking </li></ul><ul><li>(ES 1.00) </li></ul>
  8. 8. Summarizing and Notetaking <ul><li>Requires that students distill information into a concise, synthesized form and focus on important points. </li></ul><ul><li>Research emphasizes the importance of breaking down the process of summarizing into a structure that can be easily understood by students. </li></ul><ul><li>Verbatim note taking is the least effective note-taking technique </li></ul><ul><li>Students should be encouraged to revisit and revise their notes after initial recording them. </li></ul><ul><li>They should use different formats and make notes as complete as possible. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Summarizing and Note Taking <ul><li>Both require students to distill information into a concise, synthesized form. </li></ul><ul><li>Effective learners are able to sift through a great deal of information, identify what is important and then synthesize and restate the information. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Summarizing
  11. 11. Warm-up <ul><li>Reflect on your current summarizing beliefs using page 59 in handbook </li></ul>
  12. 12. Three modes of summarizing <ul><li>Rule-based </li></ul><ul><li>Frames </li></ul><ul><li>Reciprocal Teaching </li></ul>
  13. 13. Rule-Based Summarizing <ul><li>Steps for Rule-Based Summarizing </li></ul><ul><li>Delete trivial material that is unnecessary to understanding. </li></ul><ul><li>Delete redundant material. </li></ul><ul><li>Substitute super-ordinate terms for more specific terms (e.g., use fish for rainbow trout, salmon, and halibut). </li></ul><ul><li>Select a topic sentence or invent one if it is missing. </li></ul><ul><li>Steps in Rule-Based Summarizing for Younger Students </li></ul><ul><li>Take out material that is not important to your understanding. </li></ul><ul><li>Take out words that repeat information </li></ul><ul><li>Replace a list of things with a word that describes the things in the list (e.g., use trees for elm, oak, and maple). </li></ul><ul><li>Find a topic sentence. If you cannot find a topic sentence, make one up. </li></ul>
  14. 14. The word photography comes from the Greek word meaning “drawing with light”….Light is the most essential ingredient in photography. Nearly all forms of photography are based on the fact that certain chemicals are photosensitive- that is, they change in some way when exposed to light. Photosensitive materials abound in nature; plants that close their blooms at night are one example. The films used in photography depend on a limited number of chemical compounds that darken when exposed to light. The compounds most widely used today are called halogens (usually bromine, chlorine, or iodine. Microsoft Encarta Encyclopedia
  15. 15. The word photography comes from the Greek word meaning “drawing with light”….Light is the most essential ingredient in photography. Nearly all forms of photography are based on the fact that certain chemicals are photosensitive- that is, they change in some way when exposed to light. Photosensitive materials abound in nature; plants that close their blooms at night are one example. The films used in photography depend on a limited number of chemical compounds that darken when exposed to light. The compounds most widely used today are called halogens (usually bromine, chlorine, or iodine. Microsoft Encarta Encyclopedia
  16. 16. Research generalizations on summarizing <ul><li>Students must delete some information, substitute some information, and keep some information. </li></ul><ul><li>To effectively delete, substitute, and keep information, students must analyze the information at a fairly deep level. </li></ul><ul><li>Being aware of the explicit structure of information is an aid to summarizing information. Summary Frames </li></ul>
  17. 17. The Six Summary Frames <ul><li>Narrative Frame </li></ul><ul><li>Topic-Restriction-Illustration Frame </li></ul><ul><li>Definition Frame </li></ul><ul><li>Argumentation Frame </li></ul><ul><li>Problem/Solution Frame </li></ul><ul><li>Conversation Frame </li></ul>
  18. 18. Narrative or Story Frame <ul><li>Characters: the characteristics of the main characters in the story; </li></ul><ul><li>Setting: the time, place, and context in which the story took place; </li></ul><ul><li>Initiating event: the event that starts the action rolling in the story; </li></ul><ul><li>Internal response: how the main characters feel about and react to the initiating event; </li></ul><ul><li>Goal: what the main characters decide to do as a reaction to the initiating event — the goal they set; </li></ul><ul><li>Consequence: how the main characters try to accomplish the goal; </li></ul><ul><li>Resolution: how the story turns out. </li></ul><ul><li>(Components 3-7 are sometimes repeated to create what is called an “episode.”) </li></ul>
  19. 19. Narrative or Story Frame <ul><li>Frame Questions: </li></ul><ul><li>Who are the main characters? What makes them different from others? </li></ul><ul><li>When and where did the story take place? What was the situation at the time? </li></ul><ul><li>What starts the action rolling in the story? </li></ul><ul><li>How did the characters express their feelings? </li></ul><ul><li>What did the main characters decide to do? Did they set a goal? What was it? </li></ul><ul><li>How did the main characters try to accomplish their goal? </li></ul><ul><li>How does the story turn out? Did the main characters accomplish their goal? </li></ul>
  20. 20. Example Narrative Frame (handout)
  21. 21. T-R-I Frame for Expository Material <ul><li>Topic (T): a general statement about the information to be discussed; </li></ul><ul><li>Restriction (R): statements that limit the information in some way; </li></ul><ul><li>Illustration (I): statements that exemplify the topic or illustrations. </li></ul>
  22. 22. T-R-I Frame Frame Questions: T: What is the general topic? R: What information does the author give that narrows or restricts the general topic? I: What examples does the author present to illustrate the topic or restriction?
  23. 23. Example T-R-I Frame (handout)
  24. 24. Definition Frame 1.Term: the subject to be defined (e.g., car); 2. Set: the general category to which the term belongs (e.g., vehicles for transportation); 3. Gross (general) characteristics: those characteristics that separate the term from other elements in the set (e.g., runs on the ground, has four wheels); 4. Minute differences: those different classes of objects that fall directly beneath the term (e.g., sedans, convertibles).
  25. 25. Definition Frame <ul><li>Frame Questions: </li></ul><ul><li>What is being defined here? </li></ul><ul><li>To what general category does the item being defined belong? </li></ul><ul><li>What characteristics of the item being defined separate it from other items in the general category? </li></ul><ul><li>What are some different types or classes of the item being defined? </li></ul>
  26. 26. Example Definition Frame (handout)
  27. 27. A summary is … <ul><ul><li>An essential condensation in your own words. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Answers the question “what is the author really saying?” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is the result of careful “listening” to the author. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Remains faithful to the author’s emphasis and interpretation. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Does not disagree with or critique the author’s opinion. </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. A summary is … <ul><li>A summary is a comprehensive but brief statement of what has been stated previously in a longer form. </li></ul><ul><li>A summary is a wrap-up----a general picture of the information--- much like TV networks produce at the end of a year. </li></ul><ul><li>Summaries provide a quick overview of a subject without having the reader wade through a lot of facts and details. Summaries help readers and writers boil information down to its most basic elements. </li></ul><ul><li>Encyclopedias, almanacs, and digests provide good examples of summaries. </li></ul>
  29. 29. Procedural Knowledge Summarizing is “procedural knowledge.” If students are expected to become proficient in procedural knowledge, they need to be able to “practice.” Mastering a skill or process requires a fair amount of focused practice. Practice sessions initially should be spaced very closely together. Over time, the intervals between sessions can be increased. Students also need feedback on their efforts. While practicing, students should adapt and shape what they have learned.
  30. 30. A Rubric for Summarizing Not enough information to make a judgment. 0 The student does not address the main pattern running through the information. 1 The student addresses some of the features of the main pattern running through the information but excludes some critical aspects. 2 The student identifies the main pattern running through the information. 3 The student identifies the main pattern running through the information along with minor patterns. 4
  31. 31. Planning for Summarizing <ul><li>What specific information will students need to summarize? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>film or video </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>chapter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>lecture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>story </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>article </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>event </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>other_______________ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What strategy will I ask students to use? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rule-based Summarizing Strategy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Summary Frames </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Narrative or Story </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>TRI </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Definition </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Argumentation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Problem/Solution </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Conversation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Group Enhanced Summary Strategy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other ___________ </li></ul></ul>Do I need to set aside time to teach them the strategy? When and how? How much guidance will I provide them? How will I monitor how well students are doing? What knowledge will students be learning?
  32. 32. Independent Practice <ul><li>Read pg 74 in your handbook </li></ul><ul><li>Take up to 10 minutes to read and summarize using pages 75-76 </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss in your table group </li></ul>
  33. 33. Reflection <ul><li>Fill out reflection form on page 81 </li></ul>
  34. 34. Note Taking
  35. 35. Goals <ul><li>Introduce a formal approach for informal outlines </li></ul><ul><li>Highlight other graphical strategies </li></ul>
  36. 36. Cornell Notes
  37. 37. History of Cornell Notes <ul><li>Developed in 1949 at Cornell University by Walter Pauk. </li></ul><ul><li>Designed in response to frustration over student test scores. </li></ul><ul><li>Meant to be easily used as a test study guide . </li></ul><ul><li>Adopted by most major law schools as the preferred note taking method. </li></ul>
  38. 38. First & Last Name Class Title Period Date Topic Questions, Subtitles, Headings, Etc. Class Notes 2 1/2” 3 to 4 sentence summary across the bottom of the last page of the day’s notes
  39. 39. Subject: Why take Cornell notes? Date: 11/20/01 P P R R O O C C E E S S S S ( ( o o u u t t p p u u t t ) ) M M a a i i n n I I d d e e a a s s ( ( i i n n p p u u t t ) ) How can Cornell notes help me organize my ideas? Which side for diagrams? Why use concept maps? What are the benefits to me? Can be used to provide an outline of chapter or lecture. Organized by main ideas and details. Can be as detailed as necessary. Sequential -- take notes as they are given by instructor or text in an orderly fashion. After class, write a summary of what you learned to clarify and reinforce learning and to assist retention. Can be used as study tool: 1. Define terms or explain concepts listed on left side. 2. Identify the concept or term on the right side. Can be used to provide a &quot;big picture&quot; of the chapter or lecture. Organized by main ideas and sub-topics Limited in how much detail you can represent. Simultaneous - you can use this method for instructors who jump around from topic to topic. After class, you can add questions to the left side Can be used as a study tool -- to get a quick overview and to determine whether you need more information or need to concentrate your study on specific topics.
  40. 40. <ul><li>Summary is added at the end of ALL note pages on the subject (not page) </li></ul><ul><li>Summary added AFTER questions </li></ul><ul><li>are finished </li></ul><ul><li>Summary should answer the problem stated in the subject. </li></ul>
  41. 42. Rubric for Feedback
  42. 43. Other Note taking ideas <ul><li>Concept webs </li></ul><ul><li>Flow charts </li></ul><ul><li>Venn Diagrams </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher-prepared guided notes </li></ul><ul><li>Cloze notes </li></ul>
  43. 44. Reflection <ul><li>Please complete page 93 in workbook </li></ul><ul><li>Share with table </li></ul>

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