Epic Long, narrative poems that tell of the adventures of heroes who in some way embody the values of their civilizations Impressive hero Involves physical world and sometimes the land of the dead as well Quest or journey taken in search of something of value
The Iliad The prequel to The Odyssey Story of the Trojan War of 1200 BC Odysseus was a war hero of this war He devised the plan of the Trojan Horse that led to the fall of Troy The Gods favored Troy, so they cursed him for this idea and cursed his voyage back home from the Trojan War (story of The Odyssey)
Terms for the Odyssey Myths: Stories that use fantasy to express ideas about life that cannot be expressed easily in realistic terms Alter Ego: A reflection of a hero’s best or worst qualities Rhapsodes: “Singers of tales” were the historians and entertainers as well as the myth- makers of their time Homeric or heroic similes: Extended comparisons that compare heroic or epic events to simple and easily understandable everyday events - events the audience would recognize instantly
The Plot and Virtues VIRTUES PLOT -love of homePlot 1- Ten years have passedsince the fall of Troy and -loyaltyOdysseus is unable to get home -hospitalitybecause of the gods -courage -braveryPlot 2 - Suitors try to convincehis wife he is dead and try tomarry her This is a story of all people who look for peace and a place to belong but who must overcomePlot 3- Odysseus returns home a series of external and internaland must seek revenge on the obstacles to reach thatsuitors contentment.
Characters and Places of The Odyssey Aeaea - Home of Circe, the witch-goddess Alcinous - King of Phaeacia Calypso - Beautiful goddess-nymph who keeps Odysseus on her island for seven years Charybdis - Female monster who sucks in water three times a day to form a deadly whirlpool Cicones - People living on the southwestern coast of Thrace, who battled Odysseus and his men on their journey home Circe - Witch-goddess who turns Odysseus’s men into swine
Characters, cont’d Cyclops - Polyphemus Erebus - Dark area of the underworld where the dead reside Eurylochus - One of Odysseus’s loyal crew Lotus Eaters - People who feed Odysseus’s men with the lotus plants Phaeacia - Island kingdom ruled by Alcinous Polyphemus - The Cyclops; he is the son of the sea god Poseidon Scylla - Female monster with six serpent heads, each with a triple row of fangs Sirens - Sea nymphs whose beautiful and mysterious music lures sailors to steer ships towards sharp rocks Teiresias - Famous blind prophet from city of Thebes Thrinakia - Island where the sun god Helios keeps his cattle
Characters, cont’d Ithaca - Odysseus’s homeland Antinous - One of Penelope’s leading suitors; arrogant and mean Eumaeus - Swineherd, one of Odysseus’s loyal servants Eurycleia - Odysseus’s old nurse Eurymachus - Suitor of Penelope Eurynome - Penelope’s housekeeper Penelope - Odysseus’s faithful wife Philoetus - Cowherd, one of Odysseus’s loyal servants Telemachus - Odysseus’s son
Gods and Goddesses Athena - Favorite daughter of Zeus; the great goddess of wisdom and the arts of war/peace; she favored the Greeks and helped Odysseus Helios - Sun god Hermes - Messenger god Poseidon - The god of the sea; brother of Zeus; enemy of Odysseus Zeus - Most powerful god