Language a system of communication through speech written language - an attempt to represent the spoken language by visual symbols.
English Language English is not a phonographic language, i.e. spelling generally does not give a clear indication of pronunciation Necessary for Indian students to make a systematic study of the English sound system.
Vowels Air comes out freely through the mouth No closure of the air passage No narrowing of the passage that would cause audible friction.
Consonants the closure or narrowing takes place
Classification of consonants Place of articulation Manner of articulation
Place of articulation Bilabial Labio-dental Dental Alveolar Post-alveolar Palato-alveolar Palatal Velar Glottal
Place of articulation Lips Teeth Teeth ridge Tip of the tongue Blade of the tongue Front of the tongue Back of the tongue Hard palate Soft palate
Bilabial Plosives / p, b / The air passage in the mouth is closed by the two lips Soft palate is raised The lips are separated and the air is released with explosion
Alveolar Plosives / t, d / The air passage is closed by the tip of the tongue against the teeth ridge Soft palate is raised The tip of the tongue is suddenly removed from the teeth ridge The air escapes with explosion
Velar Plosives / k, g / The air passage is closed by the back of the tongue making a contact with the soft palate Tongue is suddenly removed Air escapes with explosion
Affricates Air passage is completely closed by a contact between the tip and blade of the tongue and the teeth ridge The rims of the tongue making a contact with the upper side teeth The front of the tongue and the soft palate also raised The air is released slowly
Labio-dental Fricatives / f,v / Lower lip very close to the edge of upper teeth, making a light contact Soft palate is raised The air comes out between the lower lip and upper teeth with friction
Dental Fricatives The tip of the tongue is brought very close to the edge of the upper teeth to make a light touch Soft palate is raised The air passes between the tip and blade of the tongue and the upper teeth
Alveolar Fricatives / s, z / The tip and the blade of the tongue are brought very near the teeth ridge The air comes out through a narrow groove The soft palate is raised
Palato- alveolar Fricatives The tip and blade of the tongue are brought very near the teeth ridge The front of the tongue is also raised towards the hard palate The air passes through the narrow passage with audible friction The soft palate is raised
Glottal Fricative / h / Produced by the air coming through a narrow glottis with audible friction The sound can also be regarded as a voiceless beginning of the following vowel It does not occur finally
Bilabial Nasal /m/ The mouth passage is completely closed by the lips The soft palate is lowered The air comes out through the nose
Alveolar Nasal /n/ The tip of the tongue makes a closure against the teeth ridge and the rims of the tongue are against the upper side teeth The soft palate is lowered The air comes out through the nose
Velar Nasal The back of the tongue makes a closure with the soft palate The soft palate is lowered and the air escapes through the nose
Lateral /l/ There is a closure in the middle Air comes out through the sides
Vowel sounds 12 as in these as in bit as in bed as in bad
as in busas in cardas in hot as in all force horse
as in bookas in ruleas in tubeas in serveas in accountas in drama
DIPTHONGAL GLIDES (8) Mixture of two vowel sounds
Prosodic characteristics of speech speech is more than a sequence of sounds suprasegmental properties: length stress and accent intonation (pitch movement across utterances and texts)
Length vowel length tense/lax (more and less effort) sit seat
What is Word Stress? Take 3 words: photograph, photographer and photographic, for example. Do they sound the same when spoken? No!They sound different, because *one* syllable in each word is "stressed" (stronger than the others). PHOtograph phoTOgrapher photoGRAPHic
accent = Distinctive manner of oral expression, "he couldnt suppress his south indian accent” word stress, phrase stress, sentence stress, delay green house green house I went to the zoo yesterday
Here’s an example… A: The mice will go to the moon tomorrow to take over the world. B: Who? A: The mice will go to the moon tomorrow to take over the world. C: Where? A: The mice will go to the moon tomorrow to take over the world. D: When? A: The mice will go to the moon tomorrow to take over the world. B: To do what? A: The mice will go to the moon tomorrow to take over the world!