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English Phonetics
English Phonetics
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  1. 1. 7.1 Phonetics
  2. 2. Introduction
  3. 3. Pronunciation  How do you explain “good pronunciation?  What sounds exist in your LS and English?  What sounds exist in one language but not the other?  What sounds are similar but a little different?  How do native English speakers (sometimes) mispronounce sounds sounds in your LS?  How do native LS speakers (sometimes) mispronounce sounds in English?
  4. 4. What is phonetics?  Phonetics is the science describing the sounds of speech.
  5. 5. Positive/negative (interference) language transfer  What do these terms mean?  Similar traits in L1 and L2 result in positive transfer.  Traits that are *different in L2 and L2 result in negative transfer.  similar, but different in form, function, frequency, or distribution  trait that doesn’t exist  corresponds with different trait
  6. 6. Articulatory phonetics
  7. 7. What is articulatory phonetics?  Articulatory phonetics = physiological aspects of speech production:  How do we produce speech using our bodies?  What parts of our bodies are involved in making different speech sounds?
  8. 8. Organs of articulation upper teeth
  9. 9. Voicing
  10. 10. Consonants
  11. 11. Places of articulation  bilabial consonant  both lips touching  /p/, /b/, /m/ in pit, bit and mit  What words have bilabial consonants in your LS?
  12. 12. Places of articulation  labiodental consonants  the bottom lip and the upper teeth as articulators  /f/ and /v/ fan and van  What words have labiodental consonants in your LS?
  13. 13. Places of articulation  dental consonants  the tongue tip being inserted between (or just touching) the top and bottom teeth in the sounds  /θ/ and /ð/ teeth and teethe  What words have dental consonants in your LS?
  14. 14. Places of articulation  alveolar consonants  different types of contact between the tongue and alveolar ridge  /t/, /d/, /s/, /z/, /n/, /l/ in tip, dip, sip, zip, nip and lip.  What words have alveolar consonants in your LS?
  15. 15. Places of articulation  postalveolar (or palato-alveolar) consonants  the tongue blade and the palate (behind the alveolar ridge)  /ʃ/ in fish, /ʒ/ in pleasure, /tʃ/ in church, and /dʒ/ in judge  What words have postalveolar consonants in your LS?
  16. 16. Places of articulation  palatal consonant  the central part of the tongue makes contact with the hard palate  /j/ in young and yesterday  What words have palatal consonants in your LS?
  17. 17. Places of articulation  velar consonants  the back part of the tongue lifts to make contact with the velum (soft palate)  /k/, /g/, /ŋ/ in the words cat, got and tongue are produced when.  What words have velar consonants in your LS?
  18. 18. Places of articulation  uvular consonants  the rear-most portion of the tongue is raised to touch the uvula (not characteristic of English)  [R] is the symbol used to represent the trilled uvular r sound of standard German that English speakers often struggle to master, while [q] and [G] are found in Arabic.  What words have uvular consonants in your LS?
  19. 19. Places of articulation  glottals do not use the tongue, lips or teeth and are thus less ‘consonant- like’ When the vocal folds are completely shut, the airstream is blocked and the glottis produces what is known as a glottal ‘stop’ (actually a short moment of silence, rather than a sound). [ʔ] Familiar examples of glottal stops exist in some English accents (for example, Cockney), in a word like met where the word-final /t/ is glottalised rather than pronounced (transcribed as /beʔ/). Although /h/ does not involve constriction or contact between articulators at any point – the vocal folds are open and the mouth is in the shape it will need for the following vowel – it is also conventionally included in the set of glottals.
  20. 20. Manner of articulation  The manner of articulation refers to the ways air is restricted as is passes out of the body.  Voiced/voiceless  Another basic manner distinction can be made between oral and nasal sounds.  Nine nimble noblemen nibbled nuts  When you block your nose and say this tongue twister – what happens?
  21. 21. Define the terms  Stops  Fricatives  Affricates  Approximates
  22. 22. Manner of articulation Manner Description Representation Stops a complete block of the airflow Manner diagram for nasal stops in English Fricatives a narrow constriction of the airway that causes friction between the articulators Manner diagram for a fricative Source: Knight (2012) © Rachael-Anne Knight 2012. Reproduced with permission.
  23. 23. Manner of articulation Manner Description Representation Affricates combine characteristic features of both stops and fricatives, beginning with a complete closure of the airway with a gradual, fricative release Manner diagram for an affricate Approximants closure in the oral cavity is leaves plenty of room for the air to move through the articulators Manner diagram for an approximant Source: Knight (2012) © Rachael-Anne Knight 2012. Reproduced with permission.
  24. 24. International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) Source: © 2015 International Phonetic Association. Reproduced under CC BY-SA 3.0.
  25. 25. The Language Sounds That Could Exist, But Don't 
  26. 26. 
  27. 27. Wikkipedia (I know 🙄 )  Google the term  voiced retroflex plosive
  28. 28. Vowels
  29. 29. Vowels  Vowels are produced by changing the shape of the oral cavity.  Vowels involve much less restriction of the airstream than with consonants.  Vowels in English and the case study languages are voiced but some languages have voiceless vowels (Cheyenne, Japanese).  Many languages contrast oral and nasal vowels.
  30. 30. Vowels
  31. 31. IPA vowels Source: © 2015 International Phonetic Association. Reproduced under CC BY-SA 3.0.
  32. 32. Diphthongs  The tongue ‘glides’ from one position (or target) to another:  Front-rising diphthongs say, sigh and soy  Back-rising diphthong sow  Falling or centring diphthongs stair, steer and sewer
  33. 33. Australian and New Zealand English diphthongs Figure 7.14 The dipthongs of Australian English Figure 7.15 The dipthongs of New Zealand English Source: Cox, F. & Palethorphe, S. (2007). Reproduced with permission. Source: Adapted from Bauer, L. et al. (2007). Reproduced with permission.
  34. 34. Vowels and dipthongs 
  35. 35. Quiz each other  Organs of articulation  Places of articulation  sounds produced in English and LS  Voiced and voiceless consonants  Manner of articulation  sounds produced in English and LS
  36. 36. For Monday  Short reading  Reading Questions  Monday in class - analyze phonetic system of LS, explain negative transfer from English in terms of point and mode of articulation.