Phonetics: Consonants

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Phonetics: Consonants

  1. 1. Consonants 26/2/2557
  2. 2. Egressive Pulmonic Consonantal Sound • Most speech sounds, and all normal English sounds, are made with egressive lung air.
  3. 3. Initiation • To produce any kind of sound, there must be movement of air. • To produce sounds that people today can interpret as words, the movement of air must pass through the vocal chords, up through the throat and, into the mouth or nose to then leave the body. • Different sounds are formed by different positions of the mouth—or, as linguists call it, "the oral cavity" (to distinguish it from the nasal cavity).
  4. 4. The two classes of sounds • Sounds of all languages fall under two categories: Consonants and Vowels.
  5. 5. Consonants • Consonants are produced with some form of restriction or closing in the vocal tract that hinders the air flow from the lungs. • Consonants are classified according to where in the vocal tract the airflow has been restricted. • This is also known as places of articulation.
  6. 6. Consonants
  7. 7. Places of articulation • Movement of the tongue and lips can create these constrictions and by forming the oral cavity in different ways, different sounds can be produced.
  8. 8. Places of articulation
  9. 9. Places of articulation
  10. 10. Places of articulation
  11. 11. Bilabial • When producing a [b], [p] or [m], articulation is done by bringing both lips together.
  12. 12. Bilabial
  13. 13. Bilabial
  14. 14. Bilabial
  15. 15. Bilabial
  16. 16. Labiodental • [f] and [v] are also used with the lips. • They, however, are also articulated by touching the bottom lip to the upper teeth.
  17. 17. Labiodental
  18. 18. Labiodental
  19. 19. Labiodental
  20. 20. Labiodental
  21. 21. Interdental • [θ] and [ð] are both spelled as "th". • They are pronounced by inserting the tip of the tongue between the teeth. • (θ as in think) • (ð as in the)
  22. 22. Interdental
  23. 23. Interdental
  24. 24. Interdental
  25. 25. Alveolar • [t][d][n][s][z][l][r] are produced in many ways where the tongue is raised towards the alveolar ridge.
  26. 26. Alveolar
  27. 27. Alveolar
  28. 28. Alveolar
  29. 29. Alveolar
  30. 30. Alveolar
  31. 31. Alveolar
  32. 32. Alveolar
  33. 33. Alveolar
  34. 34. Alveolar
  35. 35. Palatal • [ ʃ ] [ ʒ ] [ tʃ ] [ dʒ ] [ j ] are produced by raising the front part of the tongue to the palate.
  36. 36. Palatal
  37. 37. Palatal
  38. 38. Palatal
  39. 39. Palatal
  40. 40. Velar • [k][g][ŋ] are produced by raising the back part of the tongue to the soft palate or the velum.
  41. 41. Palatal
  42. 42. Uvular • [ʀ][q][ԍ] these sounds are produced by raising the back of the tongue to the uvula. The 'r' in French is often a uvular trill (symbolized by [ʀ]). The uvular sounds [q] and [ԍ] occur in Arabic. These do not normally occur in English.
  43. 43. Uvular
  44. 44. Uvular
  45. 45. Uvular
  46. 46. Uvular
  47. 47. Glottal • [h][ʔ] the sound [h] is from the flow of air coming from an open glottis, past the tongue and lips as they prepare to pronounce a vowel sound, which always follows [h]. • if the air is stopped completely at the glottis by tightly closed vocal chords the sound upon release of the chords is called a glottal stop [ʔ].
  48. 48. Glottal
  49. 49. Glottal
  50. 50. Glottal
  51. 51. Glottal
  52. 52. Glottal
  53. 53. Glottal

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