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Chapter 2 notes
 

Chapter 2 notes

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biochemistry

biochemistry

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    Chapter 2 notes Chapter 2 notes Presentation Transcript

    • BIOLOGY NOTES CHAPTER 2 “ THE CHEMISTRY OF LIFE”
    • I. pH Scale
      • A. Measures how acidic or basic a solution is.
      • B. Scale ranges from
      • 0 – 14
      • 1. below 7 acid
      • 2. above 7 base
      • 3. at 7 neutral
      • C. Many chemical processes in living organisms require a certain pH level to function.
        • Ex: hydrochloric acid in stomach used in the process of digestion has a pH of about 2.
    • II. Compounds of Life
      • A. Inorganic Compounds – do not contain carbon . Come from nonliving sources.
      • ex: water – a polar molecule with a +(positive) charge on one end and a – (negative) charge on the other.
      • B. Water is POLAR ! (has a + end and a – end) Which causes it to have unique properties:
      • adhesion, cohesion, surface tension, capillary action
    • 1. Cohesion -water attracting to water 2. Adhesion – water attracting to other substances causes a meniscus in a graduated cylinder 3. Surface Tension – allows the surface of water to resist an external force 4. Capillary Action – water is able to creep up thin tubes due to adhesion
      • C. Organic Compounds – contain carbon and come from living things.
      • 1. most organic molecules are polymers , which are large molecules made from small individual molecules called monomers .
      • D. There are 4 major organic compounds (macromolecules)
      • 1. Carbohydrates – include sugars and starches.
      • Elements of carbon , hydrogen , and oxygen . (1:2:1 ratio) Source of energy .
      • Made of monomers called monosacharides . (simple sugars)
      • C 6 H 12 O 6 chemical formula for the simple
      • sugar glucose made by plants.
      • 2. Lipids – waxy, fatty, or oily compounds.
      • Store and release energy in the cell.
      • Many lipids are made by combining the
      • monomers fatty acids and glycerol .
      • Phospholipids – make up cell membranes.
      • 3. Proteins – functions include growth, repair, moving substances across cell membrane, and regulating chemical reactions. EX: hemoglobin, enzymes
      • Made of monomers called amino acids
      • 4. Nucleic acids – store genetic information and involved in making proteins.
      • Made of units called nucleotides .
      • DNA and RNA are the two nucleic acids.
    • III. Chemical Reactions and Enzymes
      • A. Chemical reaction is a process that changes one set of substances into a new set of substances.
      • B. Enzymes – special proteins that act as a catalyst , which is a substance that speeds up a chemical reaction without being used up in the reaction.
      • Without enzymes, most reactions in organisms would occur too slowly to work.
      • 1. Substrate –the substance that is being acted upon and that binds to the enzyme.
      • 2. Active site – region on the enzyme where the substrate fits. Each enzyme only fits a certain substrate.