BIOLOGY NOTES  CHAPTER 2 “ THE CHEMISTRY OF LIFE”
I.  pH Scale <ul><li>A.  Measures how  acidic  or  basic  a solution is. </li></ul><ul><li>B.  Scale ranges from  </li></u...
II. Compounds of Life <ul><li>A.  Inorganic Compounds  – do not contain  carbon . Come from nonliving sources. </li></ul><...
1. Cohesion -water attracting to water 2. Adhesion  – water attracting to other substances causes a  meniscus  in a  gradu...
<ul><li>C.  Organic Compounds  – contain  carbon  and come from living things. </li></ul><ul><li>1.  most organic molecule...
<ul><li>D.  There are 4 major organic compounds  (macromolecules) </li></ul><ul><li>1.  Carbohydrates  – include sugars an...
<ul><li>2.  Lipids  – waxy, fatty, or oily compounds. </li></ul><ul><li>  Store and release  energy  in the cell. </li></u...
<ul><li>3.  Proteins  – functions include growth,  repair, moving substances across cell  membrane, and regulating chemica...
<ul><li>  4.  Nucleic acids  – store genetic information    and involved in making proteins. </li></ul><ul><li>  Made of u...
III. Chemical Reactions and Enzymes <ul><li>A.  Chemical reaction  is a process that changes one set of substances into a ...
<ul><li>B.  Enzymes  – special proteins that act as a  catalyst , which is a substance that speeds up a chemical reaction ...
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Chapter 2 notes

  1. 1. BIOLOGY NOTES CHAPTER 2 “ THE CHEMISTRY OF LIFE”
  2. 2. I. pH Scale <ul><li>A. Measures how acidic or basic a solution is. </li></ul><ul><li>B. Scale ranges from </li></ul><ul><li>0 – 14 </li></ul><ul><li>1. below 7 acid </li></ul><ul><li>2. above 7 base </li></ul><ul><li>3. at 7 neutral </li></ul><ul><li>C. Many chemical processes in living organisms require a certain pH level to function. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex: hydrochloric acid in stomach used in the process of digestion has a pH of about 2. </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. II. Compounds of Life <ul><li>A. Inorganic Compounds – do not contain carbon . Come from nonliving sources. </li></ul><ul><li>ex: water – a polar molecule with a +(positive) charge on one end and a – (negative) charge on the other. </li></ul><ul><li>B. Water is POLAR ! (has a + end and a – end) Which causes it to have unique properties: </li></ul><ul><li>adhesion, cohesion, surface tension, capillary action </li></ul>
  4. 4. 1. Cohesion -water attracting to water 2. Adhesion – water attracting to other substances causes a meniscus in a graduated cylinder 3. Surface Tension – allows the surface of water to resist an external force 4. Capillary Action – water is able to creep up thin tubes due to adhesion
  5. 5. <ul><li>C. Organic Compounds – contain carbon and come from living things. </li></ul><ul><li>1. most organic molecules are polymers , which are large molecules made from small individual molecules called monomers . </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>D. There are 4 major organic compounds (macromolecules) </li></ul><ul><li>1. Carbohydrates – include sugars and starches. </li></ul><ul><li>Elements of carbon , hydrogen , and oxygen . (1:2:1 ratio) Source of energy . </li></ul><ul><li> Made of monomers called monosacharides . (simple sugars) </li></ul><ul><li>C 6 H 12 O 6 chemical formula for the simple </li></ul><ul><li>sugar glucose made by plants. </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>2. Lipids – waxy, fatty, or oily compounds. </li></ul><ul><li> Store and release energy in the cell. </li></ul><ul><li> Many lipids are made by combining the </li></ul><ul><li> monomers fatty acids and glycerol . </li></ul><ul><li> Phospholipids – make up cell membranes. </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>3. Proteins – functions include growth, repair, moving substances across cell membrane, and regulating chemical reactions. EX: hemoglobin, enzymes </li></ul><ul><li> Made of monomers called amino acids </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li> 4. Nucleic acids – store genetic information and involved in making proteins. </li></ul><ul><li> Made of units called nucleotides . </li></ul><ul><li> DNA and RNA are the two nucleic acids. </li></ul>
  10. 10. III. Chemical Reactions and Enzymes <ul><li>A. Chemical reaction is a process that changes one set of substances into a new set of substances. </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>B. Enzymes – special proteins that act as a catalyst , which is a substance that speeds up a chemical reaction without being used up in the reaction. </li></ul><ul><li>Without enzymes, most reactions in organisms would occur too slowly to work. </li></ul><ul><li>1. Substrate –the substance that is being acted upon and that binds to the enzyme. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Active site – region on the enzyme where the substrate fits. Each enzyme only fits a certain substrate. </li></ul>

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