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P p carbohydrates wnotes #4


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P p carbohydrates wnotes #4

  1. 1. General Biology – Biochemistry Carbon Compounds Section 2.3
  2. 2. A Little Review… Elements, M M Organic A atoms Molecules A compounds Protons K & KNuetrons E M E Compoundselectrons A U K U P E P U p The Basic Unit of Life cells
  3. 3. Inorganic vs Organic•Non-living •Produced by living•Do not contain thingscarbon (exceptions) •All contain carbon•Needed for life •Important organic•Plants organize compoundsinorganic compounds –Carbohydratesinto organic –Lipids•H2O, O2, CO2 –Proteins•Minerals, nitrates –Nucleic acids
  4. 4. What is the big deal about carbon??Carbon is very versatileIt can form 4 covalent bonds
  5. 5. Where does all of the carbon for living things come from?Organic Molecule
  7. 7. Carbohydrates Needed for short term energy storage (cell fuel) and structural support Made of C, H, O (1:2:1) Building blocks (monomers) are simple sugars C6H12O6 Big– Carbos – made by dehydration synthesis of two simple sugars
  8. 8. Dehydration Synthesis Inorder for monomers to bond, a water is released in the bonding process In the bonding of monomers – water is added and it is called hydrolysis
  9. 9. 3 Types of Carbohydrates Monosaccharides – simple sugars Disaccharides – double sugars Polysaccharides – many sugars
  10. 10. Monosaccharides – simple sugars C6H12O6 Manufactured by green plants Burned in Cellular glucose Respiration 3 examples fructose galactose
  11. 11. Glucose, Fructose, and Galatose Are ISOMERS - same formula C6H12O6 Different Molecular arrangment.
  12. 12. Disaccharides Two simple sugars together. C6H12O6 + C6H12O6 = ? C12H22O11 Dehydration synthesis
  13. 13. Double Sugars - disaccharides: 2 monosaccharides joined Sucrose = fructose + glucose (table sugar) Maltose = glucose + glucose (malt sugar) Lactose = glucose + galactose (milk sugar)
  14. 14. POLYSACCHARIDES (C6H10O5)n Macromolecules - many simple sugars joined
  15. 15. POLYSACCHARIDESMacromolecules - many simple sugars joined Cellulose - cell walls in plants (fiber, wood paper, fruits, vegetables) *Most abundant organic compound on earth Starch - stored energy in plants (potatoes, grains, legumes, corn) Glycogen - animal starch (liver & muscle tissue)
  16. 16. CHITINA polymer of glucoseFound in exoskeletons of arthropods(ex. Crabs, shrimp, lobsters)
  17. 17. Starch Grain in Storage Cells