BIOLOGY
Unit 1 Notes:
Characteristics of
Life &
Biomolecules
(1) Characteristics of Life
• All systems classified as “living” must be able to do
the following on their own:
– Reproduc...
(2) Homeostasis
• Maintaining internal stability / balance.
• What Does This Mean?
– When something changes inside/around ...
(3) The Cell Theory
• Once we know something is living, we also know it
must follow the Cell Theory:
– All living things a...
(4) The Biological Elements
• The element that make up all living organisms:
– C (carbon)
– H (hydrogen)
– O (oxygen)
– N ...
(5) The Magical Carbon Atom
• Carbon is one of the most important elements
found in living systems.
• What Makes Carbon So...
(6) Wonderful Water
• ~70% of a cell is made up of water!
• Water Allows For:
– Special chemical reactions needed to relea...
(7) The Biomolecules
• The molecules that make up all living organisms:
– Carbohydrates
– Lipids
– Proteins
– Nucleic Acids
(8) Carbohydrates
• Function: Provide immediate and intermediate
energy.
• Monomers: Monosaccharides (Glucose, Fructose)
•...
Monosaccharide
Polysaccharide
Energy Stored In Bonds Energy Available to
Cells When Bonds
Broken!
Why Do You Think People
Say Wheat / Multi-Grain
Carbs Are Better For You
Than Simple Sugars?!?
What Are The Pros + Cons
Of...
(9) Lipids
• Functions:
– Long term energy storage.
– Make up cell membranes.
• Monomers: Fatty Acids + Glycerol
• Polymer...
Glycerol
Fatty Acids
Hydrophilic
Head:
-Water Loving
-Polar
Hydrophobic
Tails:
-Water
Fearing
- Non Polar
(10) Proteins
• Functions:
– Provide the expression of the instructions within DNA.
– Catalyze chemical reactions.
• Monom...
Amino Acid
Polypeptide
Peptide Bonds
The Amino Acids
Bond Together In
A Very Specific
Order + Structure!
(11) Nucleic Acids
• Function: Provide the genetic instructions for all
cell parts and processes.
• Monomers: Nucleotides
...
Nucleotide
Phosphate
Sugar
Nitrogenous
Base
DNA RNA
Biology: Unit 1 Biochemistry--Characteristics of Life and Biomolecules
Biology: Unit 1 Biochemistry--Characteristics of Life and Biomolecules
Biology: Unit 1 Biochemistry--Characteristics of Life and Biomolecules
Biology: Unit 1 Biochemistry--Characteristics of Life and Biomolecules
Biology: Unit 1 Biochemistry--Characteristics of Life and Biomolecules
Biology: Unit 1 Biochemistry--Characteristics of Life and Biomolecules
Biology: Unit 1 Biochemistry--Characteristics of Life and Biomolecules
Biology: Unit 1 Biochemistry--Characteristics of Life and Biomolecules
Biology: Unit 1 Biochemistry--Characteristics of Life and Biomolecules
Biology: Unit 1 Biochemistry--Characteristics of Life and Biomolecules
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Biology: Unit 1 Biochemistry--Characteristics of Life and Biomolecules

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Biology: Unit 1 Biochemistry--Characteristics of Life and Biomolecules

  1. 1. BIOLOGY Unit 1 Notes: Characteristics of Life & Biomolecules
  2. 2. (1) Characteristics of Life • All systems classified as “living” must be able to do the following on their own: – Reproduce + Pass on genes – Evolve + Respond + Adapt to their changing environment – Metabolize nutrients + Excrete Waste – Grow + Develop over time – Maintain Homeostasis
  3. 3. (2) Homeostasis • Maintaining internal stability / balance. • What Does This Mean? – When something changes inside/around an organism, it must be able to get itself back to a “healthy normal”. – Examples: • Shivering when cold • Making more red blood cells when oxygen levels drop • Releasing bicarbonate when you eat something acidic
  4. 4. (3) The Cell Theory • Once we know something is living, we also know it must follow the Cell Theory: – All living things are made of cells. – Cells are the most basic unit of life. – Existing cells come from pre-existing cells.
  5. 5. (4) The Biological Elements • The element that make up all living organisms: – C (carbon) – H (hydrogen) – O (oxygen) – N (nitrogen) – P (phosphorus) – S (sulfur)
  6. 6. (5) The Magical Carbon Atom • Carbon is one of the most important elements found in living systems. • What Makes Carbon So Special?? – Able to form 4 different bonds. – Can position and rearrange itself into a lot of different types of formations and molecules. – Allows for the wide variety of structures in living things.
  7. 7. (6) Wonderful Water • ~70% of a cell is made up of water! • Water Allows For: – Special chemical reactions needed to release and store energy. – The dissolving of solutes (like sugars and salts). • What Makes Water So Special?? – Polar Molecule – Allows for unique interactions with polar and non-polar molecules in cells.
  8. 8. (7) The Biomolecules • The molecules that make up all living organisms: – Carbohydrates – Lipids – Proteins – Nucleic Acids
  9. 9. (8) Carbohydrates • Function: Provide immediate and intermediate energy. • Monomers: Monosaccharides (Glucose, Fructose) • Polymers: Polysaccharides (Starch, Wheat) • Draw A Picture:
  10. 10. Monosaccharide Polysaccharide Energy Stored In Bonds Energy Available to Cells When Bonds Broken!
  11. 11. Why Do You Think People Say Wheat / Multi-Grain Carbs Are Better For You Than Simple Sugars?!? What Are The Pros + Cons Of Each??
  12. 12. (9) Lipids • Functions: – Long term energy storage. – Make up cell membranes. • Monomers: Fatty Acids + Glycerol • Polymers: Fats, Oils, Phospholipids • Draw A Picture:
  13. 13. Glycerol Fatty Acids Hydrophilic Head: -Water Loving -Polar Hydrophobic Tails: -Water Fearing - Non Polar
  14. 14. (10) Proteins • Functions: – Provide the expression of the instructions within DNA. – Catalyze chemical reactions. • Monomers: Amino Acids • Polymers: Proteins / Polypeptides • Draw A Picture:
  15. 15. Amino Acid Polypeptide Peptide Bonds The Amino Acids Bond Together In A Very Specific Order + Structure!
  16. 16. (11) Nucleic Acids • Function: Provide the genetic instructions for all cell parts and processes. • Monomers: Nucleotides • Polymers: DNA and RNA • Draw a Picture:
  17. 17. Nucleotide Phosphate Sugar Nitrogenous Base DNA RNA

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