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  1. 1. College Preparatory Biology Chapter 3: Biochemistry
  2. 2. Write into the day Why do Carbon molecules form the chemical backbone for all living things? Answer: because of its chemical structure.
  3. 3. Organic vs. Inorganic Organic molecules- made primarily of carbon atoms. Inorganic compounds- usually do not contain carbon.For the following list of items, determine if each is organic or inorganic:Wool, cotton, glass rod, paper, potted plant, carbon dioxide.
  4. 4. Section 1:Carbon Compounds Most matter in living organisms that is not water is organic matter. Carbon has 4 valence electrons, therefore, it can form 4 covalent bonds with atoms. Carbon has the ability to exist in straight chains, branched chains, or rings.
  5. 5. Carbon Compounds
  6. 6. Carbon Bonding Carbon can form single, double, or triple bonds.
  7. 7. Functional Groups
  8. 8. Functional Groups Cont…
  9. 9. Functional Groups Cont… Functional groups influence the properties of a compound. They can make a compound hydrophobic, hydrophilic, polar or non-polar. They can also make boiling point or rate of evaporation higher or lower.
  10. 10. Large Carbon Compounds Monomers= single unit Dimers= two units Trimers= three units Polymers= many units Large polymers are called macromolecules.
  11. 11. Dehydration Synthesis ReactionTake away water to add molecules together
  12. 12. Hydrolysis ReactionAdd water to break apartmolecule
  13. 13. Energy Currency ATP (Adenosine Triphosphate) stores a large amount of energy in one of the phosphate bonds This energy is used for chemical reactions in the body.
  14. 14. Section 2: Molecules of Life 4 main classes of organic compounds are essential to life: Carbohydrates Lipids Proteins Nucleic Acids
  15. 15. Carbohydrates Composed of C, H, and O atoms. C, H, O are in a ratio of 1:2:1. The monomer of carbohydrates is a monosaccharide. Some examples of monosaccharides are Glucose, Fructose, and Galactose.
  16. 16. Monosaccharides
  17. 17. Monosaccharides, Disaccharides and Polysaccharides The prefixes ‘Mono’, ‘Di’, and ‘Poly’ mean ‘one’, ‘two’, and ‘many’, respectively. ‘Saccharide’ means ‘sugar’. A monosaccharide is the monomer for carbohydrates. 2 monosaccharides make up a disaccharide Many monosaccharides make up a polysaccharide.
  18. 18. Examples of Carbohydrates Monosaccharide- Glucose, fructose, and galactose. Disaccharides- Sucrose, Maltose, and Lactose Polysaccharides- Glycogen (Storage form of energy in animals); Starch (storage form of energy in plants).
  19. 19. Polysaccharides
  20. 20. Lipids Composed of the elements C, H, and Oxygen. The monomers of lipids are glycerol and fatty acid. Some examples of lipids are phospholipids, testosterone, estrogen, ear wax. Saturated fatty acid- carbon has as many hydrogen atoms bonded to it as possible and there are no double bonds Unsaturated- carbon does not have as many hydrogens bonded to it as possible and has double binds to compensate.
  21. 21. Lipid Structure
  22. 22. Phospholipid Structure
  23. 23. Steroids
  24. 24. Proteins Contain the elements C, H, N, and O. The monomers of proteins are amino acids. There are 20 different amino acids Amino acids have 4 parts: Amino group, central carbon, R group, and Carboxyl group.
  25. 25. Amino Acid Structure
  26. 26. Enzymes Are proteins that catalyze biological reactions. Enzymes have a binding site (Active site) that allows a molecule (substrate) to bind to it and change. Enzymes can only work at a specific pH, Temperature, and Salinity level.
  27. 27. Enzymatic Reaction
  28. 28. Nucleic Acids Contains elements C, H, O, N, and P. Store and transfer specific information about an organism. Make up DNA (Deoxyribonucleic acid) Consist of a phosphate group, a sugar, and a nitrogenous base.
  29. 29. Nucleic Acid
  30. 30. DNA