Ch. 23 notes


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Ch. 23 notes

  1. 1. Ch. 23 “Introduction to Plants”<br />
  2. 2. I. Adaptations of Plants<br />A. Today’s plants probably evolved from green algae.<br />B. To survive on land, plants had to be able to do three things:<br />1. Absorb nutrients<br />2. Prevent water loss<br />a. Cuticle-waxy protective covering of a plant<br />b. Stomata-pores in the leaves that allow for the exchange of gases.<br />c. Guard cells-specialized cells that regulate the opening and closing of the stomata.<br />
  3. 3. Cross-section of leaf<br />
  4. 4. 3. Reproduce on land <br />A. Pollen-contains the sperm and allows it to be carried by wind or animals instead of water.<br />
  5. 5. C. Vascular System-internal system of interconnected tubes and vessels for transporting food and water.<br />1. phloem-transports food.<br />2. xylem-transports water.<br />
  6. 6. D. Seeds-structure that contains the embryo of the plant.<br />There are 4 advantages of seeds:<br />1. Protection-surrounded by a seed coat.<br />2. Nourishment-contain food for the plant embryo.<br />3. Plant dispersal-can spread by wind, water, animals.<br />4. Delayed growth-seed will not sprout until conditions are favorable for growth.<br />
  7. 7. E. Flowers-reproductive structure that produces fruits and seeds.<br />1. Attract birds, animals, and insects to carry pollen.<br />2. Reproductive parts called stamen and pistil.<br />
  8. 8. II. Kinds of Plants<br />A. Nonvascular Plants<br />1. Do not have a vascular system.<br />2. Small size.<br />3. Gametophyte generation is dominant.<br />4. Need water for sexual reproduction.<br />5. Examples include mosses, liverworts, and hornworts.<br />
  9. 9. B. Seedless Vascular Plants<br />1. Have a vascular system<br />2. Sporophyte generation is dominant<br />3. Have spores with thick walls to prevent drying out<br />4. Examples include ferns, club mosses, horsetails<br />
  10. 10. C. Gymnosperms<br />1. Seed plants that produce “naked” seeds in cones.<br />2. Have vascular system<br />3. Examples include conifers, cycads, and ginkgos.<br />
  11. 11. D. Angiosperms<br />1. Produce flowers<br />2. Produce seeds enclosed within a structure called a fruit.<br />A. provide food, protect the seed, and help disperse the seed.<br />
  12. 12. 3. Seeds contain a supply of stored food called the endosperm.<br />
  13. 13. 4. Classified into two groups:<br />A. Monocots<br />Produce seeds with only 1 seed leaf (cotyledon)<br />Flower parts in multiples of 3’s<br />Leaves have parallel veins<br />crocus, corn, grass, tulips<br />
  14. 14. B. Dicots<br /> -produce seeds with 2 seed leaves<br /> -flower parts in multiples of 4’s or 5’s<br /> -leaves with branching veins<br /> roses, apples, beans<br />
  15. 15. III. Plants in Our Lives<br />A. All plant parts-roots, stems, leaves, flowers, and fruit provide food.<br />B. Wood for paper, lumber and fuel<br />C. Medicines<br />D. Plant fibers make paper, cloth, and rope<br />
  16. 16. The PLANT Cell<br />A – Vacuole – holds water<br />B – Cell wall – protection and support<br />C – Endoplasmic Reticulum – transport proteins<br />D – Nucleus – Control cell activities, Hold DNA<br />E – Mitochondria – Make energy into usable ATP<br />F – Chloroplasts – Convert CO2 into C6H12O6<br />G – Golgi Bodies – packages and distributes protein<br />